Blankenship, Georgiana, Old Olympia Landmarks

Old Olympia Landmarks

By Georgiana Blankenship

From Washington State Library manuscript collection MS0037

Transcribed by Deborah Ross

Transcriber’s Note: Double spaced, typed article, undated but probably around 1927 or 1928. It has been marked up by an unknown annotator with corrections and updates (e.g., when a building existed at the time of the original typing, but no longer exists). Transcriptions show updates/annotations in italics. Where the original wording was crossed out, the word will be crossed out with annotation in italics. On a few occasions I added identifying brackets, to provide additional clarity to the text. Hyperlinks are to locations with Where Are We? and Residents pages in the Olympia Historical Society and Bigelow House Museum website, or to external webpages that provide additional information/images.

Georgiana Blankenship, nee Mitchell, 1839-1936, was an early historian and long-time resident of Olympia. She married George Blankenship, another long-time resident, after divorcing her first husband. In 1914 she published Early History of Thurston County, which contains a history of the county as well as interviews with early pioneers and their descendants (see Bibliography for link to transcript/reproduction of this work).

The date for the original manuscript can be narrowed down to around 1927: the current Legislative Building had been completed or was nearly complete (finished in 1927), and 6th Avenue had not yet been renamed Legion Way (1928).

Link here for an interactive map of Olympia locating the various landmarks described in the manuscript. 

                The Biblical injunction “destroy not the old landmarks” has been set at defiance, and time, the devastator, as well as the spirit of those who followed the pioneers in that period between the first settlement on Puget Sound in 1845 and the beginning of the twentieth century have all but obliterated the early landmarks that characterized the little town of Olympia. These landmarks were not built for permanency and there is a far cry from the era of strict frugality, the home woven attire of the men and the checked gingham apron and sunbonnet of the women to this day of lipsticked, cigarette and painted toe nails of the ladies of today.

                The waterfront improvement started with Browns wharf, where the Buchanan mill is now situated, and later what was known as Giddings wharf, at the foot of old Main street was built to accommodate the few steamers that plied the waters of Puget Sound, notably the old Eliza Anderson that ran from Olympia to Victoria and way ports, making a weekly round trip. In the absence of deep water channels the dock was eventually replaced by a mile long dock to reach deep water. These aids to early shopping are now but a memory and have been replaced by the Port of Olympia, with adequate equipment, and there are channels dredged deep enough to accommodate the largest ocean going vessels.

                The old wooden bridge that formerly connected Olympia proper with Marshville (now the westside) has been replaced by a concrete bridge that will endure the age. The Swantown bridge that connected the town with what was then known as Swantown but what we now call the eastside, has disappeared and the arm of Budd’s Inlet that reached above Union street has been filled and it would now require a vivid imagination to picture duck hunters taking their game on the wing from a bridge extending from Jefferson street to east shore.

                Sometime about the year 1860 Capt. S.W. Percival acquired the property situated at the southeast corner of second and Main streets and erected and operated a large general merchandise store [address may be in error as there was a hotel at southeast corner]. He also erected a large warehouse on the southwest corner of Second and Columbia streets. This warehouse is still standing and in use. He also built a wharf along the south line of Second street from a point about one hundred feet west of Main street to the channel. During period of extreme high tides most of this real estate was under water, but has now all been filled in from Main street to the channel.

                Standing now at the old warehouse on the corner of Second and Columbia streets it does not seem possible that in the sixties deep water ships used to take on and discharge cargo at this point.

                Most of the water for drinking purposes was obtained by those living down town from a spring that gushed from the lot now occupied by the Chambers building at the northeast corner of Capitol Way and Fourth street. A platform about thirty feet square was built over the spring, a small hand pump installed and every morning a long line of the down town citizens lined up with buckets to carry home the family’s daily quota of drinking water. Sometimes in the winter when a cold spell came along the pump would freeze up and it would be necessary for the waiting crowd to adjourn to adjacent thirst emporiums and partake of beverages which never froze, until sufficient hot water had been obtained to thaw out the town pump.

                The united commerce of the town was confined to Main Street below Third, there the Lighnters, the Bettmans, the Rosenthals, the Mcleays and other pioneer businessmen carried on their various businesses. This section is now given over to shops and mills as the tendency to improvement was southward.

                There is no spot in Washington so rich in pioneer history as that tract bounded by Third and Second, and Columbia and Washington streets. Here stood the old Gallagher Galliher hotel where Governor Stevens was a guest on his arrival in the new territory and here the first gubernatorial reception was held. Here on a spot marked by a bronze table, the first territorial legislature met in the second story of a frail frame building, the ground floor of which was occupied by a general store. Here also the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons met and organized for the jurisdiction of Washington. Here the engineers who, under direction of Governor Stevens, had headquarters and prepared their reports for the first transcontinental railroad. On the corner of Third street – now State street – stood the old Pacific hotel where was entertained the first president to visit the territory – Rutherford B. Hayes- also General Sherman, Scuyler Colfax, the speaker of the national House of Representatives, and many other notables.
                Opposite the Pacific Hotel stood the livery stable where the Overland stage route terminated in the days when the stage made tri-weekly trips from Olympia to Cowlitz landing. Here was met the steamer that plied from the landing to Portland.

                With the exception of the old Washington Standard office, where for a half a century John Miller Murphy “Hew hew to the line and let the chips fall where they would may,” not a vestige of the old landmarks remains. This Bldg is gone now. The city hall occupies the space where the old mud covered stage coaches drawn by exhausted horses, ended their tortuous trip across the country on roads, though dignified by that name, were little better than blazed trails through dense forests and over barren prairies.

                When the Northern Pacific railroad was built and left Olympia a good fifteen miles away a connecting link was necessary. Of the narrow gauge road that was then built by the citizens, not a vestige remains. The result of the feeble efforts of the early settlers a given way to motor propelled vehicles which would have been a Jules Verne dream in the days the Port Townsend Southern was built.

                The old Masonic hall at Eighth and Capitol Way, that was the architectural pride of the pioneers, must of necessity give way to a more pretentious building. But the older masons, who were present when it was resolved to raze the old building, emphatically refused to consent to what they considered to be a desecration, until the revolutionists consented to a plan to include within the new structure a replica of the old lodge room with its ancient furnishings, and the floor upon which had trod the patriarchs of Washington Masonry – even the old door still swings and upon its panels are emblazoned the high lights of local Masonic history.

                Not until Washington had attained the governmental grandeur of statehood did the old two-story frame building give way to present architectural splendor. This old structure survived through territorial days, hid from the town by tall timber and undergrowth, reached by the early lawmakers over unsubstantial wooden sidewalks and a trail. Here, too, was old Capitol Lake where in severe winters skaters found amusement. The Territorial Capitol was where the Insurance Building is now. The lake was on the site of the Legislative Building.

                But the old Capitol building which survived to be the scene of the inauguration of the first two governors of the newly organized state as well as the lake are both gone and are now but treasured memories of the few that survive to recall the days of long ago.

                On the north side of the Capitol grounds and facing North stood the first executive mansion. This was built by Governor Stevens and occupied as his residence while in Olympia. On January 1854 Governor and Mrs. Stevens extended invitations for a reception to the citizens of Olympia and vicinity, the members of the Legislature and to the officers of the US.S. Massachusetts then in the harbor. The house was practically isolated from the little town and hidden by woods and thick second growth timber. As an aid and guide to the guests who were to attend lanterns were hung from limbs of trees along the route from the mansion to the waterfront. It was but a few years ago that the building was destroyed despite the efforts of sentimental citizens to preserve it. However, a marker was placed on the site bearing the legend that here stood the residence of the first territorial governor as well as the first state governor, for at one time Governor Ferry lived in the historic house.

                Facing North and opposite the Catholic church still stands stood the old Tilton home. Major James Tilton built it as a residence. He was the first territorial surveyor-general from 1853 to 1860. In a way it has been an official residence for it was the home of Henry G. Struve who was secretary of the territory from 1873 to 1879 and later occupied by William McMicken who was surveyor-general from 1873 to 1886.

                Even the most optimistic of the founders of our state could not have envisaged the grandeur of Capitol Hill today. Nor could they have realized that the day would ever come when Washington would reach a financial position that would tolerate the purchase and maintenance of one official car for one year for the same amount that was paid for the whole territorial government for a like period. This is but by way of comparison. These days of reckless extravagance and lavish expenditure of the public funds are a far cry from the thrift and enforced economy of the Empire builders.

                The first American school-house north of the Columbia River, situated on what is now the northwest corner of Sixth Legion Way and Franklin streets, was but a frail structure and succumbed to the first winter snow and had to be replaced by a more substantial one in 1853 which still exists. This building was finally used as a court-house, The Olympian newspaper office, was finally moved to a location below Third on State and Franklin street where it is now converted into a very cheap an apartment house – possibly worse and still stands as one of the very few remaining relics of early days. However, in this rude structure the pioneer youth received the rudiments of the education which was later to enable them to meet the exigencies and overcome the difficulties of the frontier life and to give them the wisdom and foresight to lay the foundation of this vast empire. These young people did not have the advantage of a four-year course in athletics and social enjoyment as of today.

                The first Protestant Presbyterian church was organized in a cooper shop near 5th and Columbia, on the north side of 5th. This was soon succeeded by a regular church edifice which, although originally built by the Presbyterians, has been used by various denominations, although the building has been removed from the southeast corner of Washington and Seventh Franklin and Legion Way to a less conspicuous location on Fifth and Adams, southwest corner. Today, perhaps these ancient walls echo a slightly different doctrine than that originally taught within their confines. But they are all seeking a common destination and there are no sects in heaven.

                The very attractive city park in the city center, was the gift from the founder of the town, Edmund Sylvester. This park remained for many years as bare as a nudist’s clothesline. It was known as the Public Square to the pioneers and their children, this name being singularly appropriate owing to the unembellished condition of the little park. It was the playground of the young of the little city. The only distinguishing feature was the old block-house on the site of the monument which marks the end of the old Oregon trial. This block-house served as a place of confinement for city and county offenders indiscriminately, and early gave way to the march of development. It was not a safe place of confinement and added nothing by way of ornament to the little park.

                Very few of the residences that domiciled the pioneers remain as mute evidence of the primitive homes of early days. No hot and cold water running in the house to lighten the housekeeper’s work There were no furnaces in basements, the pioneer family in general kept warm by clustering around the home built, fireplaces that in many cases filled one end of the log living room.

                There is one house still standing whose good condition testifies to the honest workmanship and material which was the order in those early days. This was known as the Sylvester house which from its commanding location was in striking contrast to the more modest homes on lower levels. When Edmund Sylvester occupied the house it was surrounded by a full block of land. The proprietor could well be profligate with land for he owned the townsite, and as the town’ founder and benefactor he could be pardoned a personal pride in a residence a bit more pretentious than his neighbors’. Time that gives opportunity to the romancer, when few are left to know the facts, has given rise to a ridiculous story that the tower on the old house was intended to give the occupants a point of vantage and to detect the approach of hostile Indians. No one more than Edmund Sylvester himself, would have found greater amusement in such a fable.

                Standing between the Presbyterian Community House (Sunset Life Building) and the Y.M.C.A. building stands a residence that once occupied the present site of Mottman’s store, where it was the home of Charles E. Williams, a pioneer merchant and whose store adjoined the residence.

                Attracting unusual attention are two wheels in Priest Point Park, that on account of their unusual size, being ten feet in diameter. They are a relic of pioneer logging methods. A log was loaded on these wheels, so nicely balanced, when on the road to the log dump that the rear end barely touched the ground. One day, when on the way through the main and only thoroughfare in Tumwater, drawn by six horses, the leaders took fright and commenced to run, followed in their flight by the two rear team. The great log commenced to gee and haw in a most alarming manner. The result was the complete demolition of everything in Tumwater along the line of flight.

                During that period in the Territory’s history, when the people lived in constant dread of the Indians, a man-of-war was sent to the Sound as a means of protection. The commanding officer unloaded a gun mounted on a carriage and left it for use in an emergency. This gun was mounted on the stockade on Fourth street and later was taken to the waterfront and thenceforth the gun was fired only on special occasions as on the Fourth of July or on political rallies. The people of Olympia, while there were a few southern sympathizers, were loyal. When news of the fall of Richmond reached the town there was wild excitement. James Pray, a saloon keeper, who had figured with the San Francisco vigilantes, and Benjamin Cleal an old sailor, resurrected the ancient gun and placing it at the foot of Main street commenced to fire. The charges were so heavy that the gun commenced to recoil at least twenty feet, but was not returned to its original position. Thus up Main street the old gun made its triumphal progress, shattering window as the neighboring woods resounded with its echoes. When Pray’s saloon was reached the gunners ceased firing for refreshments. This refreshment only served to increase patriotic fervor for when action was resumed little was left of the glassware in Jim Pray’s saloon. But there were no vain regrets for the people saw the end of an agonizing fratricidal war and there was plenty of glassware in San Francisco.

                The most remarkable landmark established in Olympia, and one to meet with early destruction when Indian troubles no longer threatened, was the twelve foot stockade which the pioneers built along the line of Fourth street from one arm of Budd’s Inlet to the other. When there was a threatened outbreak of the hostile foe, men, women and children deserted all other occupations to help in the erection of this means of protection and defense in case of an attack. The reign of terror being over the stockade was soon dispensed with.

                November 20, 1869, the town hall was dedicated with a grand ball. This hall was destroyed by fire in 1914. It was located between Washington and Franklin streets on the north side of Fourth street. There were two stories and a belfry which contained the fire alarm bell. The second story was dedicated to public entertainment and had a stage for theatricals whenever a barn storming company appeared in performances which ranged from Negro minstrels to deepest tragedy. Here Desdemona was smothered with a pillow and Othello was murdered outright. Here Cardinal Richelieu launched all the curses of Rome with all the vehemence of Edwin Booth, and what matter if the artist lacked that actor’s artistry. But the people were glad to pay the price of admission. They expected little and often got less. I, myself, have attended many a social function in this jolly old hall. When I first came to the city many years ago there was a flower show held there, and, I think, the manager must have been Mrs. J.C. Horr, for it was that lady who met me as I entered the hall in company with Mr. Blankenship’s aunt, Fannie Gilbert (Mrs. J.J. Gilbert). Mrs. Horr flattered me by introducing me to many of the notables of the then little city. Among them were the major, Mr. J.C. Horr, Ross G. O’Brien, Judge and Mrs. T.J. Anders, Judge and Mrs. R.O. Dunbar and many others. I remember the display of flowers was very beautiful and there were many set pieces. Mrs. Charles Bolton had made a large harp, the frame of which was green and the strings small pink rose buds. The next day these buds had bloomed and the piece was still beautiful. Ah, those were the days.

                Old Tacoma Hall, since remodeled into a spacious lodge room by the Knights of Pythias and situated on the south west corner of Columbia and Fourth Streets, was donated to the Good Templars Lodge by a wealthy steamboat man (Captain Finch). The only condition being that the lodge would maintain a free reading room and library for the use of the public. (This was Olympia’s first library.) This condition was maintained legally if not sufficiently. In this hall on July 4, 1869, U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward addressed the people when on his way to look over his recent purchase of Alaska. His face still bore the marks of the attack made upon him the night Lincoln was assassinated.

                Long before the people had felt the need or thought of inaugurating the “Noble Experiment” the pioneers felt the urgent necessity of a brewery, and the first one in the Territory was built and put in operation on the northwest corner of Columbia & Fifth Streets. Here, in time, the rude forefathers of the hamlet met in convivial convention unmindful of the fact that they would not live to see the enactment of laws that would curtail their pleasure. But they were broadminded and liberal – these hardy pioneers – for, be it said, the brewery donated the use of the cooper shop where were made the beer kegs, to the church for the purpose of organizing the first church, as I have already mentioned. The First Presbyterian church of Olympia. In 1869 George Barnes built the small brick building on the east side of Main street, between Third and fourth. This building has survived the ravages of time. In it was installed one of the first banks ever organized on Puget Sound.

?              Near the corner of Cherry and Fifth streets there stands stood a modest little cottage now occupied as a residence. This was as far back as 1892 [across from][1] the Thurston County court house and stood on the present site of the old Capitol building, facing Fifth Street Legion Way on the Southeast corner of Legion Way & Franklin. It was the sole occupant of the block which was at that time a dismal swamp, low and marshy.

                On the east side of Columbia street between Third and Fourth stood the home of John Clark. On this site he erected a two story hotel building which Mr. Clark leased to George Carlton who abandoned the newspaper business to become a landlord – hence the name Carlton House. In a way of saying this was the executive mansion for some time, for it was the residence of Watson C. Squire, while he was governor of the Territory 1884 to 1889, and was a resort where foregathered the political potentates – the statesmen and near statesmen of the time. From being a very respectable hotel it went into a moral decline and in time lost its god reputation and year by year was less frequented by desirable patrons. Later the old hostelry was dominated by a class whose best was never better than the worst and finally after repeated violations of the prohibition law by the proprietors, the Federal government was obliged to put a padlock on the door, the portals of which in former years the high and mighty had passed. Now the deplorable structure stands only as a relic of former grandeur.

                On the southwest corner of Fourth and Adams stood the First Methodist church. The walls of this venerable structure once rang with the “Amens” and “Praise Gods” of the Methodists of the old school Rev. De Vore and Rev. Driver held revival meetings in the old church with a frequency and fervency which is not shown in these modern days when the fear of a literal brimstone hell has been modified to a more lenient and more convenient standard upon which to rely for future welfare. The church still stands, at the north east corner of Jefferson and State Streets.

                A building worthy of note, not on account of its antiquity, for it is more modern, but because it figured largely in the social and political affairs of Olympia and the young State, was the Olympia Hotel  which stood on the present site of the post office and was destroyed by fire in the early days of the present century Nov. 16, 1904. The building was erected to furnish accommodation for those who of necessity must visit the capital. Olympia as the seat of government had been severely criticized on account of lack of accommodation for transients, and those agitating for removal of the capitol used this as an effective weapon. Public spirited citizens set about to meet this objection by the erection of a very attractive three-story wooden building. It was a heavy burden to carry by the few who felt the necessity of the hotel. When completed it was the center for all social events of importance, and during the sessions of the Legislature was the scene of several political campaigns for senatorial elections. Here lobbyists foregathered to plot for the advancement of legislation in the interests of the corporations, for the people at large had small representation for the furtherance of measures in their own interests. The walls of the old hotel were insensate witnesses to many plots and intrigues of doubtful merit and much of moral depravity among those who figured largely in the politics of that day. The cause of the conflagration was never definitely known. It burned the night of November 16, 1904.

                The old Episcopal church has disappeared. It stood on the present site of the Governor hotel. Before its complete demolition it was occupied first by a grocery store and then Charlie Storrs used it as a second hand furniture store. Just a thought comes to me here: I was walking past the furniture store one hot day, when I heard my name called. Stopping on the sidewalk till Storrs stepped up to me and said: “Mrs. Blankenship do you want a kitten?” “No, I don’t think I do,” I replied. “I should think you would want one of this litter for they are six-toed cats.” I really couldn’t see any particular advantage in this surplus toe, and still declined the friendly offer. But to proceed. One Halloween night, some unregenerate humorist, Bob Lee, son of Rev. W. Lee, the Presbyterian minister, left his mark on the store and next morning passersby were amused to read, “My house was a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.”

                The Catholics occupied a modest little church on the site of the present picturesque brick building.

                The Olympia Collegiate Institute was located on Second and Pear streets, about 1875, a property now vacant. In its time it was rather an imposing two-story building. In an academic way the title of this school was imposing, though in fact it was little more than a grammar school, but it thrived in a period of the territory’s history when the University of Washington had not reached the educational eminence it now occupies. Within the walls of this Institute several men and women, residents of the State now bordering on old age, received their education, and have lived useful lives and filled positions of trust in the State, without a university education and fraternity pin now deemed necessary to the finished product, a luxury that was denied to the rising generation of pioneer days.
                Of the residences of those other days, but few remain. Mr. George A. Barnes, Olympia’s first banker built his home on the present site of the Union Pacific depot [see also site of George Barnes home/Artesian Well site]. It was a pretentious one when it was built in 1856 and the scene of many festivities. The house, now grown antiquated and out of date, was moved in rather recent years to give place to the depot and is still standing in a good state of preservation on the corner of Jefferson Cherry and Sixth streets Legion Way.

                The old square house on what is now the northwest corner of Pear and Fourth streets, though renovated and remodeled, was built in the fifties and was for many years the residence of Washington’s poet laureate, Francis Henry.

                Surviving until quite recently was the old Horton residence on Pear East Bay Drive and Third. Occupied for half a century by the owner, Mrs. Horton who died in the house that had been her home these many years. Upon her death at the age of 98 years, the old house was torn down to make room for the ever encroaching gas station [link to Washington State Historical Society catalog description of house]. W.H. Horton installed Olympia’s first water system.

                The old Lansdale residence near Central and Fourth streets still stands as does the Bigelow house on Glass street.

                On Capitol Way at Fifth where stands the Funk-Volland building was the old Elwood Evans residence. Mr. Evans was a lawyer, but gave much of his time to collection of historical data of Washington. His collection was very valuable and while Mr. Evans possessed the ability he lacked the energy for concentration and he died without working up is notes into what would have been a valuable Territorial history. Such a history was later published by Clinton A. Snowden, and is recommended for reading.

                Next to the Evans residence stood the Gove residence where now stands the Smokehouse. The Gove family was identified with shipping and steamboats on Puget Sound.

                On the west side of Washington street between at Ninth and Tenth, on the present site of the Mottman residence [link to article about Mottman Mansion, now demolished], there stood a brick residence the only one that was ever built in Olympia as a residence, and the first in the Territory of Washington. It was erected in 1870 and occupied by William Billings, who held the record of having been sheriff of Thurston County for twenty-five consecutive years. The brick used in the structure was home-made. This house was later the first home of Thomas M. Vance and wife when they cane to Olympia to establish residence.

                Located on the northwest corner of Fifteenth street and Capitol Way, erected in 1855, still stands the old Colonel Cock residence [link to unscanned image of Cock residence, now demolished]. It has been built over in some respects, but the old frame still remains, and foundation put together with wooden pins. Its builder was grandfather to C.E. Reinhart. Colonel Cock was the first territorial treasurer and for his first year’s salary received the munificent sum of $5.

                One of the original residences of the pioneer village was that of T.F. McElroy, on Washington and Eighth streets, N.E. corner. It was razed when the better residence was built on the same block on Seventh street on the S.E. corner. Mr. McElroy published the first newspaper printed in the Territory, the Columbian, which made its appearance in 1853.

                Thinking back over the prominent land marks of these pioneer days, visions mentally rise of the men and women who ruled the destinies of Olympia in those days and to refresh our memories a visit was made to the silent and ever growing city of the dead south of town where rest the early empire builders; where cold stones revive memories of those who sowed the seeds that others might reap the harvest. Here in eternal rest are found the name of those hardy pioneers of the forties and fifties who laid wide and deep the foundations of a commonwealth the future of which will eclipse the fondest hopes of those who strived through hardship, privation and danger to create homes and means of existence uninspired by dreams of greater accomplishments. They builded better than they knew. In their humble beginnings they did not envisage a state that in three-quarters of a century would contain a million and a half inhabitants and to stand first in the Union in point of cultural intelligence. Our early law makers framed statutes that have so far survived and stood the test of time. These legislators performed their arduous tasks free from corrupting influences and their enactments were enforced without fear or favor. They quit their earthly activities little richer in worldly goods than when they braved the sufferings and dangers of an overland quest for homes. It is devoutly to be hoped the promised land they now inhabit has granted the reward but few received in the land of their youthful dreams.

                Among those standing out most vividly are Michael T. Simmons, who led the party that made the first settlement on Puget Sound in 1845, who called a meeting of settlers to protest against British aggressions. Mr. Simmons also established the first American store in the Northwest.
                James Biles, who headed the first party to cross the Cascades, overcoming incredible obstacles. He established the first tannery in the northwest. This was located at Tumwater.
                D.R. Bigelow who delivered the first Fourth of July oration in the Northwest. This address gave impetus to the calling of a convention asking for separation from Oregon and the organization of Washington Territory.      

                T.F. McElroy who established the first newspaper in Olympia. Mr. McElroy also advocated, in this paper the organization of the new Territory.

                Edmond Sylvester, who located his claim on the site upon which Olympia now stands and who donated the tracts of land for territorial and town purposes.



[1] Transcriber’s note: the meaning of this paragraph is obscure and muddled by strikeouts. It makes most sense if you add after the phrase “as far back as 1892” the words “across from.” With that addition, the  “modest little cottage” would have originally been on the current location of the Old State Capitol Building (now Superintendent of Public Instruction building) and across from the then-Thurston County Courthouse at the southwest corner of Legion and Franklin. That building was the courthouse until 1892. The italicized question mark at the beginning of this paragraph signals the annotator’s later attempt to make sense of this paragraph.


Stevenson: Thurston County Markers

Marking Time: Thurston County Historical Markers
by Shanna B. Stevenson

Olympia: POSSCA, 1983.

Historical markers erected throughout the years by various groups to commemorate persons or events of local historical importance present a valuable resource and recognize in a special way our unique heritage. Listed here are markers throughout Thurston County which show in a tangible way the passing of time and are short detours along the road of history. The large number of markers in the county point up the rich history of the area and the pivotal events which have occurred here.

We owe a debt to the Washington State Historical Society, the Daughters of the American Revolution and other groups who have built the markers so that those that follow can appreciate their special way of marking time.

Text . Produced through a grant by POSSCA, Patrons of South Sound Cultural Activities. Copyright, 1983.

[Transcribed for Web, July, 2001.  Some markers no longer extant.]


in front of the old courthouse, Capitol Way, Olympia.

In memory of Clara Barton by the National Women’s Relief Corps of the Grand Army of the Republic, 1932.


918 E. Glass, Olympia.

Built in 1854; the house which is among the oldest remaining buildings in the state, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Judge Daniel Bigelow, pioneer lawyer and legislator, constructed the house for his bride, Elizabeth White, The house has remained in the Bigelow family in almost original condition over the past 130 years.


located at the Bordeaux entrance to Capitol Forest southwest of Olympia.

The marker which has photographs of the Bordeaux brothers, the town and mill commemorates the now vacant site of the thriving Bordeaux family Mason County Logging Co. which in its heyday employed over 400 cutting lumber and making shingles at Bordeaux. The mill was begun in the early 1900’s and sold out to the state in 1941 when the lumber was depleted.


8820 Old 99 in Tumwater.

The marker is part of the effort by the Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution to mark the Oregon Trail in 1916. George Washington Bush, a man of color, came in 1845 to this area south of Tumwater named Bush Prairie in his honor with the first group of Americans to found a settlement north of the Columbia River.


southeast corner of present Legislative Building on the Capitol Grounds.

Marking the site of the first Capitol Building of Washington Territory and State erected in 1855-56. Marked by the Sacajawea Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1928.


6909 Rainier Rd. S.E., Olympia.

Site of the old blockhouse on the Andrew Chambers Donation Claim built in 1855. Placed by the Sacajawea Chapter of The Daughters of the American Revolution in 1929.


Masonic Cemetery in Olympia.

Erected in memory of the Union soldiers and sailors of the Civil War 1861-1865.


1100 Carlyon Ave., S.E., Olympia.

Listed on the National Register in 1978, the house was built by Hazard Stevens, the son of First Territorial Governor, Isaac I. Stevens, in 1914. The farmhouse was the centerpiece of a large model dairy farm which Stevens called “Cloverfields” covering many of the adjoining acres.


northwest corner of the Legislative Building on the Capitol Grounds.

Dedicated in 1964, this blue spruce is in memory of Earl S. Coe who served as Washington State Secretary of State, legislator and Director of Conservation.


Deschutes Parkway, Tumwater.

Designated a State Historical Place in 1971 and included in the Tumwater National Historic District in 1978, the Crosby House, built in 1858 by Nathaniel Crosby III, is a splendid example of early frame construction with Gothic embellishments.


along 5th Avenue in downtown Olympia.

Placed during a beautification program, the benches honor many prominent Olympia area residents: Carlton and Mabel Sears; Robert Henry Wohleb; Joseph Wohleb; Gerry Union; Harry Lindley; Preston M. Troy; G. Noyes Talcott; Doris and A. P. Jimmy Drees; Vibert Delmont Jeffers and Wenzella Cusack Jeffers; Earl Bean and Al Homann.


222 N. Capitol Way, Olympia.

Marked by the Washington State Historical Society in 1901, the plaque commemorates the first legislature which convened on February 28,1854 at this site in what was later the Gold Bar Restaurant, the largest hall in Olympia at that time.


near the intersection of Yelm Highway and Meridian Road.

Erected in 1932 by area residents, the monument marks the site of one of the many stockades built in 1855-56 during the Indian Uprising in the district. A Kentucky-type station consisting of 16 log buildings connected by a high stocked [sic] in a square configuration, the fort housed a number of families on the Nathan Eaton property.


183rd and Apricot Roads in Grand Mound.

Constructed in 1855, Fort Henness stood on a rise of ground on Mound Prairie and was occupied for about 16 months by over 200 men, women and children during the Washington blockhouse era of 1855-1856.


Intersection of Grand Mound Road and State Highway 12.

Part of the Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution in the State of Washington efforts to mark the Oregon Trail in 1916.


near Grand Mound Cemetery.

Founded in 1857, the Masonic Lodge was the fourth in the state. Located at Fort Henness during Indian War Days, it was instituted as a military lodge. Sealed inside the marker which is patterned after the Washington Monument are a history of the lodge and Masonic souvenirs.


one quarter mile west of Old Highway 99 on the south side of the highway from the Nisqually River Bridge.

Dedicated to William B. Greely, Forester, 1879-1955.


north side of the Capital Grounds near Capitol Way, Olympia.

Marked by the Sacajawea Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1924. Adjoining the marker are 13 Yoshino cherry trees in the Bicentennial Grove, a gift from Japan in 1976.


11 miles south of Olympia.

A monument honoring the Miller Family, Frederick J. X. Miller, Christine Mary Miller, and Mathilda Sophia Miller who in 1921 gave the 841-acre park to the people of the state to be used as a state park forever. Marked by the Washington State Historical Society in 1940.


through Littlerock off 1-5 to Waddell Creek Road and one mile in on gravel road.

Interpretive center featuring displays concerning this geological phenomenon.


inside the north entry of the Legislative Building, Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

Sculpted by Felix W. de Weldon, the kneeling statue is a replica of Washington’s representative to Statuary Hall in Washington, D.C. An architect, construction worker, and fund raiser, the Catholic nun arrived in Washington Territory in 1856 and during the next 46 years established 29 schools, orphanages, hospitals and shelters for the aged and mentally ill.


Boundary and Legion in Olympia.

This oak was brought saddleback from Steilacoom plains by D. S. B. Henry, surveyor, and planted on this homestead in the year 1872.


600 block Washington St., Olympia.

Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, the Old Capitol Building housed state government from 1905 to 1928. Originally built as the Thurston Co. Courthouse in 1892 it was purchased and enlarged by the state in 1901. The building was restored in 1983.


Sylvester Park, Olympia.

Erected by the Womer’s Christian Temperance Union in memory of Emma Page. A child of God; Protector of the dumb; Friend of all humanity.


Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

Planted in 1980 in honor of the first woman governor, Dixie Lee Ray.


off 47th Avenue and Boston Harbor Road, Olympia.

Placed by the U.S. Department of Commerce Maritime Administration in 1972, it recognizes the Olympia National Defense Reserve fleet which lay in Budd Inlet from March 1946 to June 1972.


Sylvester Park, Olympia.

Donated by the children of Washington, the statue honors Rogers, governor and legislator of Washington who authored the Barefoot School Boy Law which equalized public education statewide.


northwest comer of the Legislative Building on the Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

This sweet scented rhododendron, Washington state flower, called “Ethel Rosellini” in honor of the wife of former governor Albert Rosellini, was originated and presented to the State off Washington by Joe A. Lewis, head gardener, 1964.


eight miles northeast of Olympia.

The park has an interpretive site concerning Dr. William Fraser Tolmie, medical officer with Hudson’s Bay Co. for whom the park is named.


Capitol Campus, Olympia.

Carved by Chief William Shelton of the Snohomish tribe from a cedar tree in 1940, the 71 foot totem pole is designed in the Salish tradition of an interior house post, and features many of the symbols of Northwest Indian legends.


west end of Deschutes River Bridge, Tumwater.

Marked by the Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution in 1916.


Tumwater Falls Park, Tumwater.

Honoring the arrival at Tumwater of the fimt American colony on Puget Sound, October, 1845, led by Michael T. Simmons. The marker first erected in 1916 lists all of the members of that pioneering group.


Capitol Way, Tumwater.

Recognizing the first American party on Puget Sound at New Market, later Tumwater, which was called Spa-kwatl by the Indians for the cascading falls of the Deschutes River.



Placed on the National Register in 1978, the district encompasses 30 acres and includes the Tumwater Historical Park, Henderson House Museum, Schmidt House and Crosby House.


Capitol Way, Tumwater.

Bridge markers for the site of the first American pioneer settlement in Washington; south gateway to the Puget Sound Country and the Olympic Peninsula, entrance to the City of Olympia, capital of the State of Washington, and beginning of the inside passage to British Columbia and Alaska.


Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

Placed in 1982, the granite monument encases 1001 names of those killed in Vietnam from Washington State.


Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

Two elms one the scion of the other which was damaged in the Columbus Day storm of 1962 stand as memorials to the Washington Elm at Cambridge, Massachusetts where George Washington took command of the American Army in 1775. Planted in 1932 by the Sacajawea Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution on the 200th anniversary of Washington’s birth, the original elm and its scion are at the north end of the campus.


E. 11th and Central, Olympia.

Built in 1893 by William H. White, a carpenter and lumberman, the house is an outstanding example of Queen Anne and Eastlake architectural styles with intricate fretwork, a turret and omate bargeboards. Placed on the State Register of Historic Places in 1977, it stands in an area of Olympia once known as Swantown.


in front of the old county courthouse, Capitol Way, Olympia.

In memory of Viola Kenyon by the National Woman’s Relief Corps of the Grand Army of the Republic, 1932.


northeast comer of Legislative Building, Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

Laid by the Masonic Grand Lodge of F and AM of Washington on September 9, 1922 by James McCormack, Grand Master.


at the State Capitol Museum, 211 W. 2 lot St., Olympia.

A seedling from the Grays Harbor “Lone Tree” which served as a maritime beacon since it guided Captain Robert Gray to the harbor in 1792. Placed in 1961 to honor Charles Tallmadge Conover who named Washington “The Evergreen State.”


State Capitol Museum, 211 W. 21st in Olympia.

Memorializing Clarence J. Lord and Mary Elizabeth Reynolds Lord who built the home and later gave it to the State of Washington to create the State Capitol Museum in 1939.


on the south side of Olympia St., between Capitol Way and Washington St.

Marking the first meeting place of Olympia Lodge No. 1 of the F and AM of Washington, the first in Washington.


111 W. 21st in Olympia.

Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, the impressive Henry McCleary House in Olympia was built between 1923 and 1925 at a cost of over $100,000. The house stands as a personal expression of the wealth and prestige which surrounded one of Washington’s great lumber barons.


State Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

A replication of the Washington State Monument in Medal of Honor grove at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, listing Washington’s recipients of this high honor.


at the intersection of 7th Ave. S.E. and Old Pacific Highway near Nisqually.

Commemorating the Medicine Creek Treaty Tree where Governor Isaac Stevens held council with Nisqually, Puyallup, and Squaxin Indians, December 24-26, 1856. Placed by the Washington State Historical Society, 1922.

Also marked by the Washington State Highway Commission one-quarter mile west of Nisqually River Bridge on Old Pacific Highway 99.
Marked by Timberline High School Students in 1976 by a metal ball and time capsule placed near the southbound lanes of Interstate 5 overlooking the treaty tree on the Nisquafly River Delta.


Mullen and Ruddell Road, Lacey.

Marked in 1917 by the Washington State Historical Society to commemorate the cemetery where many of the county’s earliest residents are buried. Marked also by Gwin Hicks in 1917 to honor many of his forebears buried there. The cemetery was rededicated in 1977.


Masonic Cemetery near Cleveland Avenue, Tumwater.

The State of Washington erected this monument in memory of her valiant sons.


Sylvester Park, Olympia.

Bench placed in honor of Edmund Sylvester, 1821-1887, founder of Olympia and donor of Sylvester Park.


Sylvester Park, Olympia.

Marked in 1913 by the Sacajawea Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution as the end of the Oregon Trail. Placed at the site of a blockhouse of the 1855-56 era.



Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, the depot now used as the Tenino Museum was built in 1914 of native sandstone.


north end of Main in Tenino.

Meeker first crossed the plains in 1852 and settled in Puyallup. In 1906 at the age of 75 he retraced the Oregon Trail eastward by ox team in an effort to draw attention to the pioneer past. This was the first of many dedicated by Meeker along the route.


one-half mile north of Tenino.

Marked in 1916 by the Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution.


near pool site east of town across railroad tracks, Tenino.

Memorial to the veterans of Tenino and vicinity by the Tenino Lions Club.


Capitol Campus, Olympia.

John Elliot created seven hand-hammered brass panels which depict historical moments in Washington territorial history.


oval between the Temple and legislative Building, Capitol Campus, Olympia.

Buried for the Territorial Centennial of Washington 1953, the capsule contains over 300 items including news clippings, historical books and pamphlets, stamps, photographs and poetry.


center of the vestibule of the north entry of the Legislative Building, Capitol Campus, Olympia.

Buried by Governor Dan Evans to commemorate the 1976 Bicentennial, the capsule contains seeds, quilts, photographs, Indian arts, maps, preserved salmon, Olympia Beer can and a model of a space craft.


inside the north entry of the Legislative Building, Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

Sculpted by Avard Fairbanks, this replica of Washington’s representative to Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C., shows Marcus Whitman, first graduate of an American medical school to practice west of the Rockies, and leader of the first wagon train over what was to become the Oregon Trail. He and his wife settled at Waiilatpu in eastern Washington in 1836 to minister to Indians. They met their death at the mission in 1847.


1002 S. Washington St., Olympia.

Entered on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, the clubhouse built in 1908 is home of the Olympia Women’s Club founded in 1883 and one of the oldest women-only clubs on the West Coast.


Clearbrook and Yonkers Drive, Lacey

On this site stood one of the premier sulky home racing facilities in the west which attracted hundreds of patrons around the turn of the century. Erected by the Lacey Historical Commission, 1983.


Capitol Grounds, Olympia.

The heroic monument has three larger than life fighting men and a Red Cross nurse under the protective care of a winged victory figure designed by Victor Alonzo Lewis in 1938 to honor Washington veterans.


Salvation Army, 505 Adams St., Olympia.

Dedicated to Wright in 1952.
Seatco Prison Site, off Washington Highway 507 in Bucoda
C. J. Lord Mansion, 211 W. 219st, Olympia.
Olympia [Carnegie] Public Library, South Franklin and East 7th, Olympia.
Charles Patnude House, 1239 8th Ave., Olympia.
Thurston County Courthouse, Capitol Way, Olympia.
U.S. Post Office, 801 Capitol Way, Olympia.
Washington State Capitol Historic District State Capitol Campus, Olympia.
Mottman Building, 101 North Capitol Way, Olympia.
Capitol Boulevard Crossing Bridge, spans Deschutes River, Tumwater.

Bucoda Shead House, 206 Main, Bucoda.
Giles House, 727 West Bay Drive, Olympia.
Lane House, 1205 West Bay Drive, Olympia.
Old Olympia City Hall, West State and North Capitol Way, Olympia.
Steele House, 1010 S. Frankfin, Olympia.
Lower Custer Way Crossing, spans Deschutes River, Tumwater.


Sapp, Bernice: Olympia 100 Years Ago

[This article by local historian Bernice Sapp was included in Gordon Newell’s small book, “So Fair a Dwelling Place,” fully transcribed here by Ed Echtle. Miss Sapp wrote this about 1950, so her title, Olympia 100 Years Ago, is not meant to be taken literally. Ed Echtle has helpfully created a Google Earth map pinpointing the locations spoken of in this article. In addition, where Miss Sapp refers to locations included in Where Are We? we will be inserting hyperlinks to those pages as time permits]


View Olympia 100 Years Ago by Bernice A Sapp in a larger map

In the area bounded by the then waterfront, Second Street and Third Street (now
State), and Fourth Street and Columbia and Washington, was most of Olympia 100 years
ago. Crowded in these few blocks were all of the buildings of the Town of Olympia, laid
out by Sylvester in 1850 and incorporated as a town in 1859.
Here was the home of Levi Lathrop Smith, first owner of the townsite of Olympia;
he lived in a log cabin which was shared by Edmund Sylvester, his partner. A building
which Sylvester built later contained the famous Gold Bar Restaurant.  Upstairs, the first
legislature of the Territory was held in 1854. Facing Second Street was the first Masonic
Temple. On one corner was Bettman’s Store; on the other were the buildings of Governor
Stevens surveying party. Percivals and Munsons lived down there, and on the corner where
the City Hall is, stood the stable of Rice Tilley, owner of the first Overland Stages. Across
the street was the New England Hotel and the Pacific House – two early hotels of Olympia.
Here Stevens stopped after his long overland journey.


On the corner of Second and Washington stood the building which housed the
Washington Standard for over half a century. Next door, the home of John Miller Murphy,
proprietor and editor of the Washington Standard. Murphy was a brother-in-law of George
A. Barnes who had a general merchandise store in the next block. Barnes also started the
first bank in the Territory which still stands just south of the Daily Olympian building. The
site of the Daily Olympian once was a two-story brick building built by Charles
Burmeister, a saloon keeper. Becky Howard, a negro woman, ran the Pacific House, owned
and built by Colonel Cock.
Over on Columbia Street were John Clark and family who ran the Columbia Hotel.
On the corner of Columbia and Third (now State) was a wagon shop. The top floor, or
story, of the wagon shop was Olympia’s first theater. A furniture store across the street
became the scene of an early school conducted by Annie Stevens. Around the block on
Main Street was the Woodruff Building; one of the first music stores was below, and one
of the first post offices.
On the northwest corner of Main and Fourth stood the residence of Sam Williams,
the hardware man. This house is still here, having been moved to a location just south of
the Y.M.C.A. North of Williams’ house stood his hardware store. After the house was
moved away, Toklas and Kauffman had a drygoods store on the corner, where Mottman’s
Store is now. On the southwest corner was the scene of the first circus.
On the northeast corner was the first water system in Olympia – a town pump where
Indians and whites came to draw water and exchange gossip. Maybe this was the reason
the newspapers have remained on the block so long. Afterwards, the Chambers Building
was erected on this corner and still stands there.
On the southeast corner of Main and Fourth was the Turner Block, built by Dr.
George Turner, the first licensed pharmacist in the Territory. Many governors had offices
in this block, upstairs and handy to the “Capitol”, just across the street. In the Chambers
Block, in an early day, Julian Guyot, formerly of Switzerland, became the first jeweler in
the Territory of Washington. Talcotts came later, in 1873, but have continued in business
all the years. George and Grant Talcott were the makers of the State Seal.
Continuing on around the block on Fourth Street and Washington stood the home
of Thos. Prather, early Indian fighter, who lived to be nearly 90 years old. Across the
street, on the northeast corner of Washington and Fourth, was the home of Burmeister, also
his saloon. On the southeast corner of Fourth and Washington, where the Security Building
stands, was Mann’s Drug Store. Across the alley, on Washington, was the old Odd Fellow’s
Hall, where one of the early schools was conducted by Mary O’Neill. Across Washington
street on


the other corner by the alley was the home of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Ott, also from
Switzerland – with them were their sons, Walter and Henry, and daughter, Gertrude, now
Gertrude Ott Martin. Then on the northwest corner of Fifth and Washington stood the
Tilley home; across on the southwest corner of Fifth and Washington, Doane’s Restaurant,
home of the Oyster Pan Roast, and rendezvous, of Captain Woodbury Doane, a retired sea
On the southeast corner of Fifth and Washington, about midway of the block, was
the home of Thomas Milburn Reed, Territorial Auditor. The Olympic Theater stands about
where the Reed home stood. Reed built the block on the northeast corner of Washington
and Sixth (now Legion Way). Where the Olympian Hotel stands, stood the home of
Tarbells; north of them were Hamer’s, the first undertaker, and west of them, Carroll’s,
parents of Mrs. Walter Beals. South of Carroll’s, on the southeast [northeast] corner of
Capitol Way and Legion Way where the new building for Miller Brothers is, was the home
of Governor Stevens.
Where the Harris’ Store was, stood Grainger’s Livery Stable, operated by Wm.
Littlejohn. Grainger’s house was across on the other side of Main Street. On the northeast
corner of Main and Sixth, [Capitol and Legion] where


Penney’s Store is now, was the home of Peterfield Turpin. On the southwest corner of
Main and Sixth stood the Charles Talcott residence.
Next, going south, was the Ike Ellis house where the Elks’ building stands; then the
Episcopal Church where the Hotel Governor stands. Next was the Unitarian Church in the
middle of Seventh, and then the T. I. McKenney House. Then in succession, a block-
house, burned up; U.S. Land Office, burned down; Olympia Hotel Building, which burned
in 1904 – all where the Post Office is now.  On the southeast corner of Main and Sixth, at
the corner of Sylvester Park, was a block-house used in Indian War days. After the war, it
was used as a jail. Speaking of jails – one of the earliest was the large brick jail, two stories
high, which stood about where the flats are in back of the First Presbyterian Church on
Legion Way. The jail was there long after the turn of the century, until it was torn down.
Why a jail in a place like that? Well, the courthouse from an early day was only a block
away on the southeast corner of Legion Way and Washington; afterwards the courthouse
was on the northwest corner of Legion Way and Franklin. Then, in 1890, the large stone
courthouse was built which is now a part of the old downtown Capitol, facing Sylvester
Edmund Sylvester’s house was erected in 1857 on Eighth Street, between
Washington and the present Capitol Way. He donated the land for Sylvester Park, and land
for the Masonic Temple, and 10 acres for the Capitol grounds.
Across the street is the Thornton McElroy house, another old land- mark. Where
the bus station is, was the Harris house, still standing on another location at 7th and
Adams. At Seventh and Adams are the old Harris house, the Alexander Farquhar house
and the T.M. Reed house, all made over into apartment houses. On Eighth and Jefferson
still stands the remains of the old Jefferson Hotel constructed by Farquhar. It was once
known as the Capitol Hotel – now is the Baird.
Farquhar once built and owned a huge barn down on the waterfront on Seventh and
Jefferson, which fell down in a snowstorm, killing his stock. The hardware store he had on
the southeast corner of Seventh and Adams was later used as a legislative building, was the
scene of a Governor’s Ball, was used as the State Printing Office, and last, as the State
Armory, harboring the supplies of the Adjutant General’s office. On the southwest corner
of Eighth and Adams, is the old Territorial manse of the First Presbyterian Church [moved here around 1910 from original site near Franklin and Legion]. Next
door is the old home of Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander, a pioneer physician, who was a member
of the Cowlitz Convention at Monticello which sent the Memorial to Congress to create
the Territory of Washington. This house was built about 1875. He also built around the
block, which he owned, houses for his daughters as they married; the Walter Crosby house,
the Fanny Moore house, the Mike O’Connor house, are all in the block. (The O’Connor
house has been torn down.)


Further south on Adams Street are the McFadden house; the William Billings
house, home of the pioneer sheriff; the old school house [building at current location at Union and Adams]; the Howard flat, built by a son of
Becky Howard; the old Ben John’s house, built by a pioneer schoolteacher who held the
first kindergarten in her living room (Mrs. Houghton). The Fidelia Boyd house on 11th and
Adams has been torn down, but her first home is still standing on Franklin Street. She was
the first Mrs. Baker, then Mrs. George Turner, then Mrs. Boyd. Bush Baker is her son.
There are an endless number of old houses all over Olympia: the Chambers house,
on Water Street; the Anders house, on 19th and Capitol Way; some old houses on Maple
Park; the William Sternberg house and old waterwheel was on East Union Street; Ike Ellis
logging camp in that vicinity.
I am returning now to East Bay Drive in order to get in a school building. I almost
overlooked the Olympia Collegiate Institute at Second and Pear. It was organized in 1875
and operated until the early ’90s as a school for the whole northwest. This school is
deserving of a marker.
The old Bigelow home is on Glass Street. The first water system in Olympia was
on East Bay Drive, built by Wm. Horton, and the second brewery in Olympia was East
Bay Drive; the Robert Frost home was there; the Sally Eaton home; the Pattison home was
on Second Street; the Galliher’s donation claim was down toward the park. The
Whitworth’s was in back of the park, the St. Joseph’s Mission just outside the entrance of
the park. The land was acquired for this mission in 1848. An Indian graveyard just south of
the Mission.


Starting at Fourth Avenue, going south, the Olympic Hotel is on the site of an early
theater in Olympia, at Fourth and Franklin on the southeast corner. On the southeast corner
of the next block was the C. B. Mann house where Mann’s Seed Store is now. Next was the
J. J. Gilbert house (house torn down). He was head man of the U. S. Geodetic Coast
Survey. Next stands the Chas. Williams house. This once stood where Mottman’s Store is
now at Fourth and Main. On the southwest corner of Franklin and Fifth Street stood the
first real telephone building in Olympia. They had a telephone company before that, but
they were always in rented buildings. The home of Williamson, the logger, was next, high
on the hill. Next south of that, on the hillside, was the first American schoolhouse, north of
Columbia River and west of the Rocky Mountains, on the northeast corner of Franklin and
Sixth Street (Legion Way). Later in this building were the Courthouse and the Daily
Olympian Building.


On the opposite corner, on the southeast corner of Legion Way, and Franklin
Street, was the First Presbyterian Church, erected in 1862.  Olympia had the first church of
this denomination organized north of the Columbia River on the shores of Puget Sound.
The church itself was organized in 1854 in a cooper shop on Fifth and Columbia, but held
Sunday School and church for eight or ten years in the old schoolhouse on the opposite
corner of Legion and Franklin. This church building is still standing and is used by Gloria
Dei Lutheran Church (on Adams between Legion Way and 5th).
On the west side of the next block stands the old Thurston County Courthouse,
built in 1892 and added onto about 1905 for a Capitol. Next to the Presbyterian Church and
across the alley was a low piece of ground where stood the home of Jack Baldwin, pioneer
logger. This house was afterwards occupied by Captain Hatch of Steamboat fame. The
house stood there until the present public [Carnegie] library was built on the spot. The lot
was filled in. As evidence that the lot was low, notice the holes in the sidewalk on the
Seventh Avenue side for a fence which was there once. Across the way on the opposite
side is the old Kauffman house, owned by the man who had the Kauffman store. The
Kauffman house is an ancient edifice with a square roof and a small balcony on the upper
story. South of the Kauffman home is the John Scott and Mary Jane Scott house. He was
an early saloon keeper. She had lived here nearly all of her 82 years, having come from
Liverpool, England at the age of two. Next south of that on the northeast corner of Franklin
and Eighth Street was the house of Sam Willey, a pioneer logger. This home was
afterwards occupied by some people who were related to the Willeys and the house was
known as the Leighton house.
On the southwest corner of Eighth and Franklin were the five houses built by
Lafayette Willey, and occupied for most of his life by Sam. Willey II, his son, who lived in
the corner house and rented the others. They are still standing there. The elder Willey
logged with ox teams, then was the owner of the Willey Navigation Company which
operated steamboats on Puget Sound. Sam Willey II was born here and lived here all his
On the northeast corner of Eighth and Franklin is the site of the old First Christian
Church, organized in 1890; this building was torn down. It occupied most of the corner.
South of the Willey houses and on the northwest corner of Ninth and Franklin is the old
Bettman house. He was a pioneer merchant, having one of the first stores in town at the
corner of Second and Main Street. (The old Bettman store near Fourth and Capitol Way is
still there, but was recently sold to a new concern after nearly 100 years in business in
Olympia.) West of the Bettman house is the Oppenheimer house, belonging to a son-in-
law of Bettman.
The block bounded by Eighth and Ninth, and Adams and Franklin, was known as
the Ostrander Block, so called for Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander, pioneer physician, who arrived
in Olympia about 1875 and thereafter built most of the old houses in the block. Besides the
Ostrander house, facing Eighth Street, are the Fanny Moore house


still standing, and the Michael O’Connor house which stood on the northeast corner of
Ninth and Franklin, and which was torn down in 1948.
Next east of that was the Walter Crosby house and next the Pixler house which
formerly was the Ostrander barn. East of that, on the corner, was the large house known as
the Billings house, occupied by Janette Billings, the widow of William Billings, pioneer
sheriff. Just south of that, on the next corner, is the little old house where the Billings lived
in the early ’70s; here Frederick Billings was born. Billings, about 1874, built a brick
house, one of the first in the Territory, on the lot where now stands the Mottman house at
9th and Washington. The next block, bounded by Ninth and Tenth streets, and Adams and
Franklin, was known as the Brown Block. Mrs. Brown was a sister of Edmund Sylvester.
Their house stood on the northwest corner of Tenth and Adams. There were several Mrs.
Browns in those days, and to distinguish them, they were known as: Cold-Water Brown or
Presbyterian Brown.
On the block bounded by Ninth and Tenth, and Franklin and Washington, were two
of the early pioneer churches of Olympia. On the southwest corner of Ninth and Franklin
was the Unitarian Church, built by that denomination, and also the flats facing Tenth
Street; these flats were known as the Unitarian flats. This church was bought years later by
the Baptist denomination. On the opposite side of the block, facing Washington, is the old
Episcopal Church, built about 1890 and still in use. The old Episcopal manse, or Parish
House, which stood for many years on the southeast corner of Ninth and Washington
streets, was torn down years ago to make room for the new Parish House. Down in back of
the Parish House stood the old Holman house, one of the oldest houses in town. (Mrs. Fred
Sylvester is a grand-daughter of Holman; Arno Glidden is a grandson). Where the Baptist
Church stands, once stood a sawmill in the early days, a log pond was in the block, and the
bay was not far away to the east.
On the southeast corner of Tenth and Franklin is the palatial residence, on a hill, of
Sam Williams, the pioneer hardware man. This is the second house he built. (He was a
brother of Mrs. Harry McElroy.) West of that is the Addie Wood house, and next the
Woman’s Clubhouse. On that corner once stood the home of Judge Sparks. This home was
used for years as a Woman’s Clubhouse until the present clubhouse was built in 1908.
Then the Sparks house was moved over to Adams in the middle of the block between
Ninth and Tenth streets. Here the first Christian Science Church was organized and used
the building as a church until they built the present Christian Science Church building on
the southeast corner of Eighth and Washington. Here once stood the home of G. Rosenthal,
pioneer merchant.
Going south from the Woman’s Clubhouse is the home of Helen Cowles and J.
Todd Cowles; her brother and Annie Cowles Claypool, born in Olympia. On the northeast
corner of Washington and Union, where the home of Mrs. J. W. Mowell now stands, once
stood one of the most historic school buildings in Olympia. This was first built for the


Puget Sound Wesleyan Institute, then bought for a courthouse, then leased for a young
ladies seminary, and last was the old Central School. It was moved to the southwest corner
of Union and Adams in two pieces and still stands there – the main part facing Union and
the other part facing Adams. To this school from the earliest days trooped the children of
the pioneers. Among these pupils of Old Central School was Harry Crosby, the father of
Bing Crosby. John Miller Murphy, pioneer newspaperman, attended the old institute.
On the southwest corner of Tenth and Adams is the old Kearney house, on the hill.
On the northwest corner of Union and Franklin stands the G. F. Kearney house recently
sold for a Y.W.C.A. Across the street, on the northeast corner of Union and Franklin, is the
old Woodard house, and north of that the old Dr. J. M. Steele house – over 85 years old.
Next west of the old schoolhouse, on the corner of Union and Adams, is the old home of
Mrs. Raggermeyer, a German woman, who ran a private school in her home. She taught
German, French and music.
On the southeast corner of Washington and Union, on a high point of ground, is the
old Rose [Ross?] O’Brien house, occupied so many years by the daughter, Hazel Aetzel –
now her daughter, Virginia and husband live there (Mr. and Mrs. Robert Schmidt). So this
makes about the fifth generation of that family to live in Olympia; on that same property is
a little old house where once lived John B. Allen, a United States Senator, the first librarian
in the Territory.
On the southwest corner of Twelfth and Adams is the William Campbell house. He
was an old pioneer who became blind crossing the plains. The house is very old and of a
type commonly built in pioneer days – large fireplace, a large pantry, big hall, etc. On the
northeast corner of Adams and Twelfth stand the Howard Flats, part of which are occupied
by a grocery store. These flats were built by the son of Becky Howard, a Negro woman,
who ran the Pacific House. The son was a mixture of Negro, Chinese and Indian [sic].
On the southeast corner of Twelfth and Adams is the old B. F. Johns property, but
he didn’t build it. It was built by a family by the name of Houghton. Mrs. Houghton taught
the first kindergarten in town. Two of her star pupils were Carrie Williams, afterwards
Carrie McElroy, and George Tarbell. She taught them their French and Latin. George
Tarbell lived in this same house when he was 85 years old, when the house was sold. Mrs.
Houghton taught the Masonic Temple School also.
On the southeast corner of Franklin and Eleventh (or maybe 12th) is a high level
piece of ground. On it, at the back of the lot, is the old Paisley house. In this house once
lived Fidelia Baker Turner Boyd. She had just come west from old Kentucky, and had
brought along a negro for a servant. She lived there for years until she moved to Eleventh
and Adams where she died when she was past 90 years of age. (Gladys Horton Johnson is
a grand-daughter.)
A house that is one of the oldest and has one of the most interesting histories is the
old William Winlock Miller house at about Cherry and


Eighth Avenues. The house sets back from Eighth Street, in a grove of trees, which is
known as the orchard. He was Quartermaster General for Governor Isaac Stevens during
the Indian War. It is presumed that he built the house about that time – in the middle ’50s.
The old house has a very large kitchen as was customary in those days. The boards in the
floors of the kitchen and the other rooms were very wide, almost a foot, and of rough
lumber. The panels of the rooms were of boards placed up and down, or stood on end. The
Olympia High School was named after this man, because his widow gave a block of land
in the present Capitol grounds for the high school in 1908. This is one of the historic
houses or spots in Olympia that should be marked. It is down by the railroad tracks and I
think is owned by the railroad. The Martensens lived on this property in an early day. One
of the Martensen girls married George A. Mottman. The other girl became Mrs. Harbst.
Emil Martensen was a brother. Mrs. Chris Nommensen was one of the Martensen girls.
Down in that same vicinity, on Jefferson Street and Tenth, stands an old, weather-
beaten, unpainted, forlorn-looking house – standing back among the trees. That is the first
priest’s house, for the Catholic parish, and was moved there years ago from Tenth and
Columbia streets. Where Temple Beth Hatfiloh stands, near the corner of Eighth and
Jefferson, once stood the home of Selucious Garfielde, who was once a delegate to
Congress but was defeated by Judge O. B. McFadden. He was a famous orator of that early
day and campaigned up and down the Sound in Indian canoes, paddled by Indians. The
house is gone now, the Jewish Temple being on the spot. Garfielde was a charter member
of the Masonic Lodge. He married the widow Varner. Varner had a logging camp over on
Union which was afterwards taken over by Ike Ellis. There were two Garfielde boys:
Charles and Guy.
In that early day, the salt water extended to Union Street. Clem Johnston, said he
used to walk logs across Union to get to the camp buildings which were in the vicinity of
Plum and Pear streets. The logs were brought in from Chambers Lake on a tram road, the
cars being hauled by mules, then at the top of the hill the mules would be unhitched and
the cars would ramble clear to Union where the logs were dumped in the water. On Union
in this same vicinity, between Plum and Pear, across Union Street, was the old William
Sternberg house. He was a pioneer furrier who traded with the Indians in furs. His son,
William, had a cabinet shop there and also a big waterwheel in Moxlie Creek to use in
connection with his shop. These were landmarks in early days but are gone now. Clem
Johnston’s house was built in 1879, and it is still there.
At the end of Cherry Street and Eleventh Avenue stands the old Henry Dittman
house which he built in the early ’70s. He came here in 1873 from Chicago and before that
from Germany. He had learned the weaving trade in Germany, but in Chicago did
carpenter work. His widow lived long after him until she was 93 years ago and never spoke
a word of English. Amelia Dittman, daughter, taught in the schools


for 46 years.
Next to the Dittman house was an orchard known as the Thos. Prather orchard. Dr.
F.A. Longaker bought the land from Mrs. J. D. Knox and moved about nine houses onto
the block off the Capitol grounds. One of these houses was the Thos. Mcleay house;
another was the John Percival house. Another was the Ace Rowe house, and many others;
also the Louise Ayer house.
On the southwest corner of Chestnut and Twelfth Street is the old square-roofed
house which was built by a John Slisby, a native of Maine who came to Olympia in 1878.
He was a pioneer grocer who had a grocery store in the old Episcopal Church which stood
where the Governor Hotel stands now. The classic yarn about this store is that Bob Lee,
son of the Presbyterian minister, on Hallowe’en tacked up the following sign on the church,
“My House was a House of Prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves”. Needless to say,
there was many a chuckle as the early passersby going to work saw the sign, but the irate
grocer tore it down when he arrived later.
In the jungle of fruit trees and other trees across Chestnut Street was the home of
James Swan, the original plattor of Swantown. The whole Eastside was his donation claim,
and could only be reached by crossing the body of water. He built a very large house,
although he was a bachelor. Some said the house was to be some kind of a home for men.
Whatever the idea was, it was never used for that purpose. The old house and the orchard
are still there at Eleventh and Chestnut. Swan originally lived over on the Eastside in the
vicinity of Second Street, about where the Pattison house was built. Pattison platted out an
addition over there.
One old landmark that was built in 1890 at the southeast corner of Thirteenth and
Cherry was the old Lincoln School. It was a very large brick structure that nearly fell down
on account of a severe storm while it was being built, so that in later years it had to be
propped up some. However, several generations of Olympia children attended school down
here, before it was torn down. The old steps at the corner of the block are plainly visible,
worn smooth by childish feet.
At the end of Fourteenth East are two houses worthy of mention. One is the old
Butler house or McBratney home. McBratneys had a livery stable. Mrs. Ben Turner and
her daughter, Mrs. Balch, lived there in their later years. Mrs. Balch died in the house. The
real Ben Turner house was in the block between 18th and 19th and Franklin and
Washington. He was a pioneer logger about whom many colorful takes are told.
At the end of East Fourteenth Street, on the south side of the street, on a high bank,
stands the old Whitney house. He logged with ox teams. Fred Reichel and his wife now
live in the old Whitney house. It is at the end of the trail as it were; in the late ’70s, this was
a logging road and logs were rolled over the hill to be taken to the Bay on Union Street.

Selected Transcriptions and Images from Olympia Tribune Souvenir Issue 1891

In 1891, the Olympia Tribune published a souvenir issue, consisting of 22 bound pages that were printed and bound at the State Printing Office. The issue contained information on the State of Washington, and on Olympia in particular. It included short biographies and photographs of many of Olympia’s prominent citizens, as well as descriptions and images of several of the businesses, churches, and other institutions. As a companion to this website’s “Residents” and “Where Are We?”projects, we are including transcriptions of some of the biographies contained in the Souvenir Issue, and reproductions of the photographs. These will be added to as time permits. The State Library plans to upload a viewable version of this issue in the future, and links will be provided here.

The original biographies were not in alphabetical order: we have placed them in alphabetical order here for easier access. You may also consult the “Residents” section of this website for further information about the families and people included. Thank you intern Christina Schaller for some of the transcriptions. Following the biographies are reproductions of the images included in the issue, with links, where applicable, to Where Are We? webpages.


Archibald H. Adams
, real estate and insurance broker, was born in New York in 1844. In 1855 he removed to Milwaukee, Wis., where he graduated from the high school and entered into the wholesale drug business in 1859. At the breaking out of the rebellion he enlisted as a private in the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin volunteer infantry and served throughout the war, returning in 1866 as captain in the Thirty-fifth Wisconsin volunteer infantry. He then again entered the drug business, and in the same firm, where he stayed until 1884, when he went to Chicago. Mr. Adams is one of the largest real estate handlers in the city, and by prompt attention and honorable dealing his business is steadily and rapidly increasing.

Two of the most enterprising young business men of this city are J.P. and B.C. Armstrong, who opened a dry goods store here March 17, 1889. They came to Olympia from Chicago, where for many years they had followed their profession, acquiring a thorough knowledge of the dry goods business. Early in 1889 they came to Washington seeking a location to open business for themselves and after visiting the principal cities on Puget Sound they settled in Olympia, attracted by its superior advantages for their line of business. Their business career has been marked with more than ordinary enterprise and their fast increasing trade has twice compelled them to enlarge their store which now ranks among the first in the city. They have always shown a liberal disposition and have given largely to all enterprises that have in any way been a benefit to the business of this city. A short time ago the firm name was changed to B.C. Armstrong, under which name the business is now conducted, and all persons who wish to do business with a straightforward and conscientious house will do well to visit the store and examine the new and elegant stock of B.C. Armstrong.


Oliver Baker
, real estate and insurance broker, was born on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where his early boyhood was spent. In 1861 he went to Boston to learn the carpet business with one of the leading carpet houses on Washington street. He was married in 1864, and came to Cleveland, Ohio, where he was engaged with one of the leading carpet and drapery houses of the western reserve. After being there three years he was admitted to a partnership, and three years after went into business for himself at Akron, Ohio. After good success he opened a branch store at Canton, in the same state. In 1874 he opened a large establishment in Cleveland on Euclid avenue. In 1879 the firm of Baker, Sterling & Co was organized at Toledo, Ohio, and in 1884 Mr. Baker organized the Lima Carpet Co. In 1885 he opened business at St. Paul, Minn., the house being known as late as 1889 as the Oliver Baker Carpet Co. Mr. Baker came to Olympia in the spring of 1890 to engage in the real estate brokerage business under the firm name of Oliver Baker. The venture was successful from the start, and in August of the same year Mr. A.H. Adams, of Chicago, became a partner, under the firm name of Baker & Adams. At this writing the firm is about to be dissolved, Mr. Baker resuming his own firm name. Mr. Baker is a progressive, pushing citizen, who has won his own way in the world.



S.H. Barbee was born March 25, 1853, at Oskaloosa, Iowa. His parents came from Indiana with the first white settlers to Iowa. When he was but one year old they migrated to Western Iowa, settling near Council Bluffs, where his early life was spent on his father’s farm. Imbued with the spirit of his parents, and with “Westward ho!” (his mother named him Horace,) he left the farm at the age of twenty years. He came to Puget Sound and engaged in teaching school at old Fort Nisqually, and remained two years. He then returned home, but soon started for the Black Hills to engage in mining. Not making a “strike,” he shortly returned to Iowa and engaged in the live stock business, successfully conducting one of the largest and finest stock farms in the state. In 1885 he engaged in the real estate busines in Council Bluffs. In the early part of 1888 he returned with his family to Puget Sound, settling at Tacoma, and entering the loan busines. There had been a wonderful change in the sixten years of his absence. He remained there until 1889, when he came to Olympia, he realizing that this would be a large city, and that Tacoma and Seattle had already reached their best. In 1890, with six others, he purchased Puget City, and incorporated the Portland and Puget City Company of which he is secretary. This is a thriving little town, and was selected by Benjamin Holiday as the terminus of the Union Pacific Railway. The location is midway between Tacoma and Olympia. This is only one of the many fine opportunities Mr. Barbee has for his patrons. He has some of the finest additions in the city, but he surely struck the key note in the Second Capital addition. Lots here have doubled in the past six months, and the electric car line survey passes directly through it. He again proved his foresight when he purchased the entire townsite of Port Orchard, where the United States government dry dock will be located. He is selling lots here within the reach of all working men and others who want a home in a brisk, bustling city, where the noise of the hammer and sawmill will always be heard, as this is the only town that adjoins the navy yard.



George A. Barnes, ex-mayor of Olympia, and the present president of the Chamber of Commerce, is one of Oregon’s oldest pioneers, and was born in Brockport, Munroe County, New York, in 1821. He received a common school education, and in early life followed the occupation of a clerk in a general store. In 1848 he crossed the plains and settled in Oregon City, Oregon, where he spent the winter of ’48 and ’49. In May, ’49, he went to the mines in California, where he stayed about a year, and then returned to the east by the way of the Isthmus of Panama. In 1850 he crossed the plains a second time, and located in Portland, Oregon, where he engaged in the merchandising business until 1852, when he came to Olympia. Here he has resided ever since, and for thirty years he has lived in the house which he erected in 1860, on Fourth Street. For fifteen years Mr. Barnes was engaged in merchandising here, and he then started a bank which he conducted for 12 years, when he sold out, and has since been engaged in looking after his own property and in the real estate business. Although so well along in years, he does not have the appearance of being nearly his real age. Mr. Barnes was president of the board of trustees during the time of the town government, and was mayor the year that President Hayes visited Olympia as the guest of the town. He has been president of the Chamber of Commerce for  the past two years. He has always had faith in the future of Olympia, and has done much to make the city the flourishing municipality that it is to-day.



Clarence M. Barton, editor of the TRIBUNE, is an old-time newspaperman, having been in editorial harness for many years in Washington City, Philadelphia and in this state. He was born in Mount Holly, N.J., fifty years ago; was raised and educated in the public schools and the central high school of Philadelphia; was in the United States navy eight years; was at the burning of the Norfolk navy yard in April, 1861; was in the expedition that went to the relief of Fort Pickens, and which destroyed the Judah in Pensacola harbor September, 1861; was in the New Orleans expedition with Farragut; and with other expeditions in the Gulf of Mexico in 1862; was clerk of the Washington, D.C. navy yard five years; taught school five years; was member of the city council and clerk of the only legislature of District of Columbia; was managing editor of the National Republican and other daily newspapers of Washington City, and on the staff of the Philadephia News and the Philadelphia Times; came to Washington from Philadelphia in 1886; had charge of the Tacoma Ledger two years; was the territorial correspondent of the Oregonian one year; was reading clerk of constitutional convention, and secretary of the first and second senate; is the author and compiler of Barton’s Hand-Book and Legislative Manual of Washington; and last year compiled the commercial statistics of the State of Washington for the United States treasury department. Major Barton has been editor of the Olympia TRIBUNE since it started in May last, and resides with his family in this city. He has three married daughters, two of whom reside in Tacoma and one in this city. Major Barton has written many interesting articles relative to the growth and development of this State, and has been correspondent for many of the leading papers of the country.



Charles C. Bell, better known in wheeling circles as “Collie” Bell, was born in Southern Minnesota, May 17, 1870. When he was six years of age his parents moved to Minneapolis. Here “Collie” attended the public schools until fifteen years of age, when he commenced a course at the Archibald business college. About this time he purchased a bicycle to ride from his home to schoool. This was the beginning of a successful career as a bicyclist. He soon became quite proficient in handling the wheel, and has taken part in several tournaments and carried off a majority of the prizes. His longest continuous ride was 142 5/8 miles, over a common wagon road, which he made in 11 hours and 49 minutes, including stops for meals. In June, 1889, he went to Ottawa, Kas., where he won the 10-mile national championship. In Kansas he established a new set of records. He was captain of the Minneapolis club for two years, and it was mainly through his efforts that it has grown to its present size. Here he won a 25 mile race for the championship of the northwest. On the track he has made the following records: 1/2 mile, 1 minute, 178 seconds; 1 mile, 2 minutes, 17 seconds; 5 miles, 14 minutes, 49 seconds; 10 miles, 29 minutes 53 seconds. On the road he has made: 1/2 mile, 1 minute, 19 seconds; 10 miles, 33 minutes, 10 seconds; 25 miles, 1 hour, 28 minutes, 45 seconds; 50 miles, 3 hours, 15 minutes; 100 miles, 7 hours, 49 minutes. In all his races he has won over $2,000 worth of prizes.He stands 5 feet, 10 1/2 inches, and weights 178 pounds. Following Horace Greeley’s advice, he came west. Arriving at Olympia he entered the employ of the Western Union Telegraph Co. He remained with this company until the spring of 1890, when he enetered the service of the Northern Pacific Express Co. as express agent between Olympia and Tenino, which is his occupation at present. He is enthusiastic on the subject of bicycling, and is agent for some of the best wheels. Mr. Bell on April 1 entered the services of Tacoma, Olympia & Gray’s Harbor Electric Co., with headquarters at Montesano. He has a general supervision of the company’s system in Gray’s Harbor.



William  W. Bettman, one of Olympia’s young and enterprising business men, was born in this city on February 25, 1866. His early education was secured here, but he was afterwards sent to Portland where he entered the public schools, and at the age of 18 years entered into business at Castle Rock, where he continued for four years. Disposing of his enterprise there, he returned back to Olympia and entered the establishment of his father on Main street, where he has since continued. Mr. Bettman is prominent in the younger social circles of the city. He is the national secretaryof the Ancient Order of Foresters, and takes a deep interest in the work of that order.

Among the recent additions to Olympia’s business houses is the firm of Bilger & Going, who, though established here less than three months ago, has secured a firm hold on the buying public of this city. … Mr. W.L. Bilger is a native of Oregon, and has been for eight years connected with the well known hardware firm of Honeyman, De Hart & Company, at Portland, six years of which he has been one of that firm’s most trusted traveling salesman [sic]



W.W. Binheimer, the leader [of the Capital City Band], was born in Fairfield, Iowa, August 26, 1862. In 1867 his parents removed to Keokuk, Iowa, in 1871 to Farmington, Iowa, and shortly after to Bonapart, in the same state. After getting a common school education Mr. Binheimer, at the age of fifteen years, commenced traveling in a musical organization, where he laid the foundation for the fine musical education which he now enjoys. He followed this profession for ten years, visiting and reaping the musical advantages of all the cities of prominence in the United States. In 1887 he started in the plumbing business in Egan, South Dakota, where he also led and taught the Glenwood Band for two years. He then married and removed to Olympia, where he works diligently at his trade. Under his leadership the Capital City Band has acquired a proficiency that would do credit to an eastern metropolis. During the time Prof. Binheimer was on the road he was leader of the Prairie City Band of Prairie City, Iowa, and several other bands.

Mr. F.G. Blake [of the firm Whitham, Page and Blake] was for eleven years a successful railroad engineer, being in the employ during that time of the O.R. & N Co., the N.P.R.R., the U.P.R.R. and Hunt’s, and recently a member of the well known firm of Wold, Blake & Otness, civil engineers, Tacoma.

W. A. Botkin has lately established, at 609 Fourth street, in the new opera house building, a store which he has well stocked for the wholesale handling of the highest grades of wines, liquors and cigars. Though he has been in business here only since January 19, Mr. Botkin has established himself as one of Olympia’s most reliable tradesmen and gathered around him a class of custom which is in every way desirable. He guarantees all goods to be as represented. Among his brands of whisky are the Chesterfield, the Sterling Silver, the T. W. Samuels and the Salvator Storgo, Old Tom Burke, Hazelwood and many other choice brands for which Mr. Botkin holds the exclusive agency in the Northwest. His stock of wines both American and imported, has been selected with a completeness which would tempt an epicure, and his price on all classes of goods is extremely moderate when quality is taken into consideration.



Colonel Thomas Henderson Boyd although a resident of Tacoma is, by virtue of his appointment as special agent of the United States census department to collect manufacturing statistics of the state, with headquarters at Olympia, entitled to a place in the TRIBUNE’s gallery of prominent citizens. He was born in Pennsylvania thirty-four years ago and has been a resident of Washington two years. His father for many years has been recognized as one of the leading financiers and railroad magnates of the Keystone state, and his family on both sides since the days of Penn have been acknowledged leaders in society and in politics in the Eastern commonwealth. Colonel Boyd is a journalist by profession and has been connected with the leading papers of the state in positions of trust and emolument. He is a Republican in politics, and probably no newspaper man in Washington is so well or so widely known. He was recommnded by United States Senators Squire and Allen and Congressman Wilson for the office of collector of the port of Tacoma, but failed to secure the appointment because of a previous political quarrel with Collector Bradshaw. He was also a prominent candidate for the offices of United States Census Supervisor for the Western district, receiving the endorsement of 98 out of the 105 members of the legislature, and for both the Registership and Receivership of the Olympia land office. Latterly his name has been mentioned for the office of United States Surveyor General. When Hon. Walter J. Thompson was seeking the senatorship, a year and a half ago, he acted as that gentleman’s political manager, and in the late senatorial struggle he was one of Senator Squire’s most ardent supporters. At the present time he is a member of both the Pierce county Republican committee and the Republican city committee of Tacoma. Since coming to Washington Colonel Boyd has amassed considerable property.



James Brewer, senior member of the firm of Brewer & Wright, was born in Lane county, Oregon, March 20, 1859. In 1860 his parents moved to the southern part of Thurston county where his father took up land and engaged in stock raising. James was brought up on a farm and received a common school education. In 1884 he came to Olympia and engaged in the wholesale and retail butcher business. His firm is now doing business at 622 Fourth street, and is the largest wholesale dealer in dressed beef, mutton, pork, veal, poultry, etc., in the county. Mr. Brewer is a republican in politics and is an active member among the young men of that party. He is straight forward in business and has a bright future before him.

John S., a brother of James Brewer, was born on a farm in Thurston county, Washington, August 30, 1860, and like his brother obtained a common school education and a thorough knowledge of stock and stock raising. In 1883 he moved into Olympia and after serving an apprenticeship in the drug business gave his time and attention to the market and grocery business, part of the time looking after the retail departments of his brother’s business, which is now No. 622 Fourth street. It is a well-known fact that the Brewer boys are well versed and competent in every branch of the wholesale and retail butcher business.



Burgess W. Brintnall, superintendent of schools of this city, was born in Medina county, Ohio, on September 10, 1857. He was educated at Lenox College, in Iowa, and first commenced to teach in common schools in that state three years before he graduated from college in 1876. He took charge of graded schools in 1878, and has been employed in that work ever since, with the exception of about one year and a half. He came to this city in 1887, in answer to a telegraphic summons to come and take charge of Olympia’s schools. Under his fostering care the enrollment has increased from about 300 scholars to over 800, and the teacher from five to fourteen. The city has built $60,000 of new school buildings, the construction of which Mr. Brintnall has personally superintended. He was instrumental in organizing the state teachers’ association, and aided in securing the passage of the state school law, through the last legislature serving as chairman of the legislative committee of the above association. Superintendent Brintnall was married in 1880, and has three children. The efficient and thorough schools of this city owe no little to his untiring energy in their behalf.



Frank C. Brown was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., March 4, 1852, and in 1857 removed with his parents to St Joseph, Mich., where he spent his boyhood and youth, and obtained a common school education. At the age of twenty years he removed to Chicago, Ill., where he was employed in the various branches of the hat and cap business for seventeen years, spending a short time in each year traveling in the interest of his business. In January, 1889, he removed to Washington, and after spending some time in looking over the country, settled in Olympia, where, in connection with Mr. T. Z. Slater, he established the house of Slater & Brown, for the sale of clothing, hats, furnishing goods, boots and shores. The business was continued under that name until September of the same year, when Mr. Brown bought Mr. Slater’s interest and soon took in as a partner Mr. Charles A. Ferris, forming the present firm of Brown & Ferris, who are now conducting a prosperous business at 505 Main street.



Freeman W. Brown was born in Warren, Washington county, Vermont, September 2, 1832. Moved to Randolph, Cattaraugus county, New York, in 1850, and went to Iowa surveying government land in 1852-53. In 1854 he came to Oregon and from there to Olympia, being engaged as United States deputy surveyor. He served in Company B, Washington Territory volunteers, in the Indian war of 1855-56, after which he was with the United States topographical survey in the Rocky mountains until 1860. Explored the great basin of Snake river and the lake region of southeast Oregon and Idaho in 1861. Served in the Union army in the quartermasters’ department, from 1862 to the end of the war in 1865. Explored the passes in the Cascade mountains for the territory of Washington, from the Skagit, Salk and Suiatk rivers to the Wenachie river, Lake Chelan, Methow river and the Upper Columbia. In 1867, at Butte Ville, Oregon, he married Miss Ellen E. Mathiot, and then returned to Olympia, locating on a farm south of the city. In 1871 he taught the public school of Olympia. Was surveying United States government lands and county surveyor of Thurston county until 1881.  Ran lines for reconnaissance and location for railroad route from Olympia to Gray’s Harbor, Shoal Water Bay and the mouth of the Columbia, from 1882 to 1885, since which time he has been engaged in mineral and geological surveys in the Cascade and Coast mountains, examining lands, inspecting timber, railroad engineering, and exploring and surveying Washington and Oregon. He located permanently in Olympia in 1887.



R.B. Bryan, the superintendent of public instruction and chairman of the board of education, was born in Hancock county, Ohio, August 1, 1842; son of Dr. E.L. Bryan; moved with his parents when ten years old to Johnson county Iowa; remained there four years; removed to West Mitchell, in Mitchell county, Iowa; remained there until 1852; attended the public schools in Ohio and Iowa until fourteen years of age; completed a course in the West Mitchell academy and entered the Cedar Valley seminary; enlisted in Third Iowa infantry in 1861; participated in the campaigns of Missouri and Tennessee until Sept. 1862; was discharged on account of ill heatlth; enlisted again in 1863 in the Seventh Wisconsin infantry and participated in all the campaigns of the army of the Potomac until Lee surrendered at Appomattox; was wounded at the battle of the Wilderness and again at Spotsylvania; commissioned a second lieutenant in 1865. After the war he was teaching until 1874; elected superintendent of schools of Linn county Kansas, for two terms; engaged in the newspaper business until September, 1884, when he came  to the coast, and in January, 1886, settled in Olympia. In September, 1886, he was elected principal of the public schools of Montesano; in May, 1887, he was appointed superintendent of public schools of Chehalis county and held that position until March 4, 1889. In October 1889, he was elected state superintendent of schools, a position which he still holds.



The present rector of the Episcopal church, the Rev. Horace Hall Buck, was born in Hartford, Conn., June 28, 1855. He was graduated from the Hartford public high school in 1874, from Amherst college in 1878, and from the Berkeley Divinity school, Middletown, Conn., in 1882. He was assistant minister during his deaconate (1882-3) in St. Thomas’ church, New Haven, and was ordained priest in that church by Bishop Williams. Was rector of St. George’s church at Austin, Nevada, for three years, and of St. James’ church Eureka, Nev., for two years, leaving each place only on account of the failure of the mines and consequent inability of the town to support a minister. He was married June, 26, 1884, in Reno, Nev., to Harriet Grosvenor Sumner, formerly like himself of Hartford, Conn., by whom he has three sons. He has been rector of St. John’s church since 1888.


Mr. [L.R.] Byrne, county school superintendent, whose family is of Irish descent, was born July 12, 1867, near Granville, Jackson county, Tennessee. His boyhood was spent on his father’s farm, during which time he acquired a common school education. He afterwards entered the Jennings business college of Nashville, graduating in 1887 at the age of nineteen. He immediately returned to his native county and began his career as a teacher. In October following his graduation he left for Thurston county, Washington, arriving in Olympia the following month. He then began the pursuit of his chosen vocation and continued to be an earnest and energetic teacher in the common schools of the county up to November, 1890, when he, as the democratic nominee, was elected to the office of county school superintendent. In the administration of the affairs of his office he has shown himself to be fully identified with every interest tending to the good of the educational cause and of advantage to Thurston county.



Arthur L. Callow, city clerk of Olympia, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on May 10, 1869. He came to this state with his parents in 1872, settling in Mason county, and has resided here ever since. He followed ranching and logging when old enough to work, but determined to acquire a better education than the schools of his neighborhood afforded; came to Olympia in 1887 for that purpose. He returned home the following year, but came back here after a few months, and was engaged in clerking and book-keeping until he was elected to the position which he now holds, on December 20th last. His fitness and perfect understanding for the position has been amply shown since he has held it and he enjoys the distinction of being the youngest city clerk in the state, if not the country.



Thos. H. Cavanaugh was born in Vincennes, Knox county, Indiana, March 8, 1844; was removed to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1845, and to Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1850. His father was a printer and publisher. Tom assisted him until 1855, when he left home and went to Chicago. Here he worked on the Evening Journal and in several other offices, and later in St. Louis on the Missouri Democrat. He was in Illinois in 1860, and took part in the presidential campaign with a company of boy railsplitters. In 1861 he was clerk in an auditor’s office, and then went into the army for the month and three years’ service. Served in the Sixth Illinois cavalry and in the second military department until April, 1865. He then returned to Illinois and in that year married Miss Helen Holmes, of Springfield. In 1870 he removed to Kansas. In 1871 was clerk of ways and means committee of the Kansas legislature; 1872 assistant chief clerk of house; 1873 74 secretary of senate, and elected secretary of senate, and elected in 1876 and again in 1878; appointed register United States land office at Oberlin, Kansas, in 1881; resigned 1883, and came to Washington. At the time of his departure from Kansas, Mr. Cavanaugh was chairman of the congressional committee and secretary of state committee. From 1883 to January, 1885, he was special agent of the general land office, which he resigned and purchased the Puget Sound Courier and the Olympia Transcript, and began the publication of the Republican Partisan. He was a delegate to the republican national convention of 1888; member of the national committee, of the state committee, and of the executive committee, and president of the state league of republican clubs. He was appointed by President Harrison, in July, 1889, surveyor general of the Territory of Washington, and was reappointed for the state December 30, 1889.



The subject of this sketch [Answorth H. Chambers] is a native son of Washington, having been born on Chambers’ prairie, Thurston county, June 25, 1851, and is the present representative of his native county in Washington legislature. Though still on the better side of the prime of life, Mr. Chambers has lived to see the present State of Washington separated from Oregon and made a territory, and by means of its wonderful increase of population transplanted into the nation’s glory of states. His parents who were born in Missouri, were the pioneers of Thurston county, settling here in 1847, and are still living at their old homestead. Mr. Chambers’ boyhood was spent on the farm, and his early education was gleaned from the common schools. At the age of 19 he embarked in business for himself at Olympia. His shrewdness and business qualifications soon drew the attention of his fellow citizens, and he was called upon to serve his city as councilman, after which he became Olympia’s mayor, an office which he held for several terms. His business interests extend to several public enterprises, and the welfare of this city is always paramount to personal advantage. Naturally a student, Mr. Chambers has placed himself upon an equal footing with many who possessed collegiate advantages, which in his youth were unattainable in Washington, and he can safely be counted upon as one of Olympia’s staunchest citizens.



J. R. Chaplin, president of this company, is a living illustration of the possibilities of becoming a rich man in a short space of time in the wonderful Puget Sound country. Two years ago he came to Olympia with absolutely no capital at all. By judicious investment of his first earnings, carefully watching the real estate market, and placing his money here and there where it soon doubled, it was not long before he came to be looked upon as one of the progressive solid men of Olympia. Mr. Chaplin formerly occupied the pulpit of the Congregational church. He is a go-ahead man in every particular, and is the financial manager of the Congregational college which is to be established below Butler’s cove on the west side, and which he was mainly instrumental in bringing here. His partner, C. Thoreson, also a young man of good judgement and a thorough real estate man, is secretary and treasurer of the land company. Both are members of the board of trade, and active in all interests that affect the welfare of the state capital. Mr. Chaplin established brick yards in the vicinity of the city which gave employment to a large number of men. The land company own Woodruff’s addition on the west side and other tracts in the vicinity. Woodruff’s addition slopes gradually down to the shores of the bay, and is in full view of the whole city. One of the most beautiful mountain views is to be seen from this part of the city. Water has already been put into the streets here, and a great part of the avenues have been graded. A large part of the street improvements have been made, and many of the best known citizens of the city have either started residences there or will build during the coming summer, contracts having already been let for some very handsome private dwellings. The route for the new motor line has been surveyed through this addition, and this line will soon be in operation. Mr. Chaplin was born in Livingston county, Mich., on April 30, 1851. In early life he was a farmer, but at the age of 24 he entered Adrian college in his native state, and graduated in 1883. He then entered the ministry, in which calling he continued until 1890. He came to this state two years ago last January. On the organization of the Thurston County Land Company he was elected president, and in all that looks to the growth of his adopted city he takes an active interest. He is married and has four children.



Joseph Cheim, one of the city’s best known merchants, was born in Posen, Prussia, on August 14, 1857. He received his education in his native land, and until 1871 worked in a clothing store there. He then came to Marysville, California, and was employed for twelve years with his uncle, Joseph Lask, in the same line of business. In 1883, Mr. Cheim came to Puget Sound and settled in Olympia, where he started “The White House,” and stocked it with clothing, gents’ furnishings, trunks, etc., and his trade has been increasing steadily from that time until the present. In 1888, Mr. Cheim married Miss Rosa, daughter of J. W. Davis, of San Francisco, the well-known inventor of the patent riveted overalls, and the manager for Levi, Strauss & Co. He has one child. He was for several years treasurer of the I. O. O. F. Mr. Cheim is a pushing and enterprising merchant, who has won his own way in life by his sterling integrity and business sagacity. Mr. Cheim has built up a large trade in his several lines, though always carrying for his customers the best that the market affords. He has always been one of the city’s pushing and progressive citizens, and has always confidently asserted that the future of the city would be a glowing one.


Chilberg (1)

Joseph Chilberg, city treasurer of Olympia, was born in Ottumwa, Wapello county, Iowa, on February 1, 1850. His early life was spent on a farm, and at the age of 21 he came to the Territory of Washington, settling in this city, where he engaged in the teaming and trucking business which he continued until 1875, when he went to school for a year. In 1876 he started in the grocery business as a clerk, and eighteen months later he engaged in the same line of business for himself, in which he continued until 1882, when he was burned out on Main street on the spot where he now has his office. He retired from business until 1887, when he became manager of a large grocery business opened by his father-in law, in which position he continued for about a year and a half, when the business was discontinued, and Mr. Chilberg engaged in the real estate business. He is now very largely interested in real estate in this vicinity, and owns and controls some of the best in Thurston county. He was elected to the position of city treasurer last December, and brings to this position a mind well trained for the important duties which he is called upon to perform. Mr. Chilberg is married and has one child, a girl of eleven years of age.



A. H. Christopher, of the firm of O. L. Branson & Co., investment bankers and real estate brokers, in the TRIBUNE building, was born at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin, in 1866. He secured his education first in common schools; then was employed, at the age of 14, as clerk in a general store until 17 years of age, when he entered the Curtiss Business College, St. Paul. At this institution he finished his educational career, remaining there two years. When 19 he went into the mercantile business as senior member of the firm of Christopher bros., general merchandise, at St. Croix for two years, and afterwards occupying the same position with the firm at Avery, Wis., for one and one-half years. After a successful term of business Mr. Christopher moved westward with a view of doing better. He went to Idaho, passing a month in that state, the came to Washington, his object being to carefully and not too hurriedly select the best spot for a permanent home. He visited Portland and Astoria after coming to this state, then Gray’s Harbor and other points, and finally arrived at Olympia. The resources, facilities and advantages of this city, in his own language, “surpassed all other places I visited,” and it took no persuasion for him to remain here. Since his arrival Mr. Christopher has placed the “Summit” and “Evergreen Park” additions to Olympia on the market and invested in property in all parts of the city. He also owns property throughout the state. He has associated himself with an excellent firm and is on the high road to success, and is unmarried.



George F. Conger was born in Geneva, New York, July 4, 1860, where he graduated from Cornell college in the class of 1880.  He then removed to Cleveland, Ohio, where he became a large stockholder in the A.S. Herenden Furniture company, and held the position of secretary for ten years. Having read of the resources of Washington, in February, 1890 he came to Olympia and formed a copartnership under the firm name of Scammell & Conger, doing a real estate and loan business. Mr. Conger has largely invested and is much interested in the industries of Olympia, and is one of Olympia’s most prominent young and active citizens.

Lawrence Cormier, the proprietor [of the Gold Bar restaurant], is a native of Bathurst, New Brunswick. He started west some eight years ago, and after staying in Wisconsin about eleven months, came directly to Olympia. He is an enterprising and energetic man and has built up more than one lucrative business. The large number of peole who are fed daily at the Gold Bar restaurant is conclusive proof that this place is popular. Mr. Cormier is a partner in the grocery and provision business at 518 Fourth street, which is carried on under the firm name of Conachy & Cormier. He is also interested in the Palace Market at 414 Fourth street. His business success has been due to his own efforts and he is to-day one of Olympia’s most respected citizens.

Rev. Luther Covington, A.M., principal of the Olympia Collegiate Institute, was born in Centreville, Maryland, May, 1860. His parents removed to Indiana in 1863, and to Arkansas in 1875. He has an all-absorbing thirst for knowledge, studied under difficulties and great personal sacrifices in Judson university in 1878; in Little Rock high school in 1879 and ’80; in Little Rock university from its establishment in 1882 until he graduated in the classical course in the first regular graduating class in 1886. During his college course he acquired experience in teaching during summer vacations, and after graduating took charge of a  school at Ellsworth of 140 pupils, which he conducted successfully. Accepting a call to preach he entered the Boston university, the school of theology, in 1887, and received the degree of Bachelor of Sacred Theology in 1890, and in the same year his Alma Mater conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. Trusting that the call was from Almighty God he accepted the principalship of the Olympia Collegiate Institute in 1890. Though finding the situation critical in the extreme the prophycy of grand future possibilities inspired him and his helpful and efficient instructors until a large prosperity crowned their efforts. Between 125 and 150 students have enrolled and several students will form a most creditable first year’s graduating class. The revival in the Methodist church extended to the institute and more than fifteen students were graciously converted to God. The zealous loyalty of the patrons bespeaks an ever increasing prosperity.



E. E. Crego, of the firm of McDonald & Crego, was born at Gaines, Orleans county, New York, January 20, 1862. In the fall of 1865 his parents removed with him to Albion, N. Y., where his boyhood was spent. In 1881 he was graduated from the Albion Union high school preparatory to entering college. In 1882 he removed to Rochester and entered upon the study of pharmacy, which he followed for one year with intention of ultimately becoming a physician. After years’ work he decided to abandon his idea of a medial as well as a professional life, and in 1883 accepted a position in the construction department of the U. S. light house service, in connection with the eleventh light house district on Lake Superior, from which he was transferred to the tenth district on lakes Erie, Ontario and St. Lawrence river. Returning from this work Mr. Crego taught school at his native home for two years and in April, 1889, removed to the State of Washington where he occupied himself with newspaper work. Later he was wanted as assistant in the state treasurer’s office which position he only filled for a short time as he interests in realty demanded his time and attention, and in 1890, with his present partner, established the firm of McDonald & Crego, which firm by its reliability has rendered itself prominent in a large number of Olympia’s most profitable transactions, and has given it a precedence worthy of confidence of all.



A. G. Cushman was born September 25, 1868, at Otsego, Allegan county, Michigan; was educated at the high school of Otsego, Mich., commercial college, Valparaiso, Ind., and Michigan state normal school, Ypsilanti, graduating from the last named institution in June, 1887. After completing his education he was engaged two years as cashier for the banking house of W. C. Edsell & Son in his native town. In the spring of 1889 he came to this city, and has been engaged in the real estate business, and has succeeded in making some good investments, prominent among which is a valuable piece of water front property on the east side near the city, to the improvement of which he is giving his attention at the present time, intending to make it a first class prune orchard.



Rev. C. L. Diven, A. M., B. D., pastor of the First Congregational church of Olympia, was born in Kentucky in 1854. He graduated with the highest honors at the University of Missouri in 1880, then studied theology two years in Union Theological Seminary in New York city, and later at Cambridge, Mass. In 1883 he received the degree of bachelor of theology from Harvard University and master of arts from the University of Missouri. He spent nearly two years in foreign study and travel, studying at the universities of Leipzig and Berlin and at the Sorbonne at Paris. He has had two pastorates previous to coming to Olympia, both of which were markedly successful, one in Butte City, Montana, and the other in Plantsville, Connecticut – and prominent New England church of nearly 400 members.



One of the most familiar faces about the streets and public places of Olympia during the session of the legislature, was that of Martin Batcheldor Dunbar, a sturdy pioneer. Judge Dunbar, as he is known among his townspeople where he has been elected justice of peace, is proud in being able to boast that he is one of the original forty-niners. He was born in Maine, September 21, 1820, and shortly afterward moved to Bangor with his parents, where he lived until he was 25 years old. He first left his pleasant home here to go to Boston to attend the consecration of the Bunker Hill monument. He remembers distinctly having met the president, and heard the oration of Daniel Webster delivered on that occasion. The Judge’s father was a manufacturer of doors, sashes and blinds, and his son learned the trade, but in 1844 he went west as far as Chicago, where he worked on the great Catholic cathedral for a year. Then he went to live in Lockport, Ill., until 1848. In the same year he returned to Bangor, and engaged passage in the schooner Eudorus, captain Charles Wiggin, around Cape Horn, stopping on his way at Rio and Juan Fernandez. The schooner arrived at San Francisco in September, 1849. For eleven years he resided in California, for two years he lived in Oregon, then for six years in Idaho, seven years in Wyoming and Utah, and for another three years in British Columbia on the Arctic slope. For the last eleven years he has made his home on the Skagit river, in Skagit county, in the town of Mount Vernon, and is probably the only forty-niner living in the county. When 60 years old he married, and his wife is still living at Mount Vernon, where his home is. He spent much of his time while at Olympia, receiving old acquaintances, and entertaining friends with reminiscences from a great fund of fascinating experiences.



T. V. Eddy was born on a farm in McHenry county, Illinois, October 23, 1853. He was educated in the common schools and the Elgin (Illinois) academy, from which last named institution he graduated with high honors at the age of eighteen years. He then commenced the study of law under the tutorship of Hon. A. B. Coon, of Marenge, Illinois, and pursued the same for five years, while still residing and laboring on the father’s farm, and was admitted to the bar in that state in October, 1880. Mr. Eddy stumped Illinois for Garfield in 1880, and in 1880-81 was clerk of the Illinois senate. In the summer of 1881 he removed to Watertown, South Dakota, where he engaged and continued in the practice of his profession until he removed to Washington two years ago. He took a prominent part in the organization of a state government for South Dakota in 1885, and was speaker of the house of representatives under the samo, and was sent as a delegate to Washington, D. C., to urge upon congress and the president the necessity and justice of the admission of South Dakota to the Union, being unanimously chosen to deliver the address to the president, which he did. Col. Eddy took a prominent part in the last presidential campaign for the republican ticket, speaking throughout the State of Minnesota and part of Iowa. In the first state campaign of Washington, a year and a half ago, he did similar work for that party throughout the state. He has been a resident of Olympia about eighteen months, and is engaged in the practice of the law, being the senior member of the firm of Eddy, Gordon & Skillman. Col. Eddy stands in the front rank of his profession as an advocate and trial lawyer. His manner before a jury is very impressive and forceful, while his arguments are logical and replete with illustrations and rhetorical adornment. As a orator he has no superior in the Northwest. His future is a very bright one.



Arthur Ellis, the wholesale and retail dealer in furniture, bedding and carpets, was born in Norfolk, England, March 24, 1850, and moved to Sunderland, in the north of England, in 1852. After getting a common school education, he worked at the ship carpenter’s trade until he was eighteen years of age, when he removed to America. He worked in the mines in Idaho and Utah until 1879. He then settled in Boise City, Idaho, where he worked at house carpentering and cabinet work until 1884, when he removed to the Sound country, where, after trying Tacoma and other towns, he settled down in Olympia, and started a job shop, where he repaired and made all kids of furniture, and by hard work and good management worked up the leading furniture house in Olympia. By buying goods in car load lots,, direct from the factories in the east, he is prepared to compete with any house on the Sound, and at his store, corner of Main and Third street, will be found a complete line of parlor and bedroom furniture; also a good line of carpets, linoleum and baby carriages.



William K. Esling was born in Philadelphia February 19, 1868. After a seven years’ course he graduated from Girard College in 1883, and was apprenticed to Jas. Grant, a book printer, with whom he remained three years. He then became connected with the Philadelphia Record until the fall of 1889, when he came to Washington. On the funding of the Olympia TRIBUNE, Mr. Esling was made city editor, which position he still fills. He is an active member of the Masonic fraternity, and also the secretary of the Olympia board of trade, and will gladly furnish any desired information regarding the capital city of the State of Washington on.

Robert G. Esterly conducts the only planing mill in Tumwater, and besides handling the local trade, has a good order business throughout the county. He manufactures all kinds of dressed lumber, molds door and window frames, doors, blinds, turnings, scroll work, etc., of superior quality. His mill being located on the line of the railroad, he has excellent facilities for supplying building materials at as low figures as can be had in this section. Mr. Esterly has resided in Tumwater twelve years, off and on, and is highly esteemed by his fellow-towns-men, by whom he was elected a member of the board of trustees in 1889.



Charles A. Ferris was born in Erie, Pa., September 8, 1866, and with his parents soon removed to Essex., N.Y., where he spent his early boyhood. At the age of fourteen he was sent to the New York military academy, New York city, and in 1882 entered Columbia college. After finishing his course in college Mr. Ferris made a short tour through the west and returning to New York, associated himself with Orlando Kellogg in the hotel business, being located in the Adirondack mountains in the summer, and Florida in the winter. In October, 1889, he came to Tacoma, which place his parents had adopted as a home. Being deeply impressed with the resources of the great northwest he located at Olympia after spending three months in looking over the Sound country, and in February, 1890, he formed a copartnership with Mr. F.C. Brown in the clothing, furnishing, boot and shoe business. Messrs. Brown & Ferris are doing a rapidly increasing business at 505 Main street. Mr. Ferris, although a young man, has identified himself with the leading business men of Olympia, and is an active and energetic member of society and the fraternal organizations.



Elisha P. Ferry, Governor of Washington, was born at Monroe, Michigan,  August 9, 1825; studied law there and at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and was admitted to the bar in 1845, at the age of 20 years. In 1846 he removed to Waukegan, Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of his profession. He resided at Waukegan until July, 1869, when he removed to the territory of Washington. He was the first mayor of the city of Waukegan. In 1852 and in 1856 he was presidential elector for the district in which he resided. He was a member of the constitutional convention in Illinois in 1861. From 1861 to 1863 he was bank commisioner in that state. During these years he was a member of Governor Yates’ staff, as assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of colonel, and assisted in organizing, equipping, and sending into the field a large number of Illinois regiments. In 1869 he was appointed surveyor-general of  Washington territory. In 1872 he was appointed governor of the territory, and reappointed in 1876. All of these appointments were conferred upon him by President Grant. He served as governor until November, 1880, when he removed to Seattle, and became a member of the law firm of McNaught, Ferry, McNaught & Mitchell. In September 1887, he retired from the practice of law and entered the Puget Sound National Bank as vice president. On the 4th of  September, 1889, he was nominated by the Republican party for governor of the state, and on the 1st of October was elected to that office. Governor Ferry was married February 4th, 1849 to Miss Sarah B. Kellogg, of Waukegan, Illinois, and has five children — three sons and two daughters. James P., the eldest son, is connected with the Seattle Daily Times. Lincoln P. is now traveling in the East. Pierce P., the youngest of the family, is attending the Michigan University, at Ann Arbor. His daughters are Lizzie P. and Julia P., both residing with him. Governor Ferry has been a strong, consistent republican since the organization of the party, and was a member of the first republican convention held in the United States. The governor is an active member of the Episcopal church. His health was such that he has been obliged, during the past few months, to seek recuperation in Southern California, but is now on the fair road to recovery, and his hosts of friends all over the state expect to see him among them again in a very short time.



A. P. Fitch, city attorney of Olympia, was born in Ypsilanti, Michigan, on November 11, 1839. In 1860 he entered the law office of George H. Parker, at Davenport, Iowa, where he remained until October of the following year, when he enlisted in company K. 11th regiment Iowa infantry, and served three years, serving with distinction. After the war he located at Hastings, Minnesota, and resumed the study of law in the office of Clagget & Crosby, being admitted to the bar in 1866. He was elected justice in that place, serving two years, and in 1868 removed to Glencoe. He was elected county attorney of McLeod county that fall, and held that position for two years, after which he gave his whole attention to his rapidly increasing law practice. In 1875 he was elected to the state legislature and in the following year was again elected county attorney, serving this time for three successive terms. In 1886 he was elected judge of probate. He was elected town clerk of Glencoe in 1875, and held that position for five successive years, and was on the school board there for many years. He came to Washington in September, 1889, and was elected city attorney of the capital city the present year. He is married, and has one child. He is a member of the Masons, and of the A. O. U. W.

L. E. Follansbee was born in Danbury, New Hampshire, in 1853, and has been identified with the cause of education all his life. He came to Washington eight years ago, since which time he was for four years principal of the high school and superintendent of public instruction of Olympia; president of Collegiate Institute for three years; edited the Northwest Teacher and Educational Journal for four years; conducted all the summer institutes throughout the state for seven years during three months each summer; was a member of the state board of education for four years. Mr. Follansbee has normal graduates in almost every county in the state who are now engaged in teaching, and business graduates in almost every town in Western Washington. He is now president and principal of Calethea College, a description of which will be found in another column.



Councilman R. A. Ford was born in Marshall county, Tenn., in April, 1852, and removed with his parents, W. T. and Ester L. Ford, to Arkansas in 1854. His boyhood life was spent on the farm. He attended the public schools and finished his education at the State University. He taught school for awhile near the old homestead, and in 1875 went to Barber county, Missouri, where he pursued his profession as teacher, demonstrating his special ability and adaptation for the work, and growing in favor with the people. He filled the offices of township collector and assessor, and in 1878 he was elected to the office of county clerk, which position he held for four years, making a fine record for honesty, faithfulness and efficiency and retired to his farm with confidence of the public whom he had served with impartial fidelity. At the earnest solicitation of his former patrons he again entered the school room. Taught a number of terms, giving the highest satisfaction. In 1888 he conducted the grammar department of the Arkansas summer assembly, and was urged by the managers and patrons to continue in this position, but declined on account of removing to Washington. He came to this city two years ago, bought property, and at once identified himself with the people. He brought letters of commendation from the county officers, representatives, senator and prominent business men of his county. Mr. Ford is a valuable acquisition to our city and state. He has already been chosen by a large vote to represent his ward in the city council, and in serving his constituency with great satisfaction and the city efficiently. Mr. Ford possesses those elements of character and qualification which command the confidence of the people and make him a popular and efficient public officer. He has come to make this his home, is in the full vigor of young manhood, and has a promising future before him. We are glad to welcome him and all such to the capital city, and open the door to the largest opportunity.



The Rev. T. B. Ford, D. D., the present pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal church of this city, is a native of Tennessee. He is the oldest son of Wm. T. Ford and E. L. Ford, who emigrated to Arkansas when he was about six years old. He grew up on a farm and enjoyed the pursuits of rural life. He attended the common schools of the country and improved the best educational advantages within this reach. He made a profession of religion in 1867, and in the spring of the following year entered the mini try of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was assigned to a charge in Arkansas which at that time belonged with Missouri. At the end of his fourth year in the conference he was appointed by Bishop Scott presiding elder. He assisted in the organization of the Arkansas conference in 1873, and remained a member of that body until last year, when he transferred to the Puget Sound conference. He served his old conferences acceptably as presiding elder for nearly four terms, as pastor of some of the principle churches, and as the financial agent of the Little Rock University. He was elected by his conference to three successive general conferences, and was chosen twice by the general conference as a member of the general missionary and church extension committees, in which capacity he served his district and the church with great efficiency, securing a large increase in both the appropriations and collections. In 1884, Mr. Ford was nominated by the republican party of his state, for the office of state superintendent of public instruction. In 1888 the Chattanooga, now the United States Grant University, conferred on him the degree of D. D., which he wears with becoming modesty. At the last session of the Puget Sound conference he was appointed by Bishop Newman to the First Church in Olympia, and entered upon the work with great vigor, bringing to his new charge the benefits of his wide experience. Aside from his work as pastor, Mr. Ford takes great interest in the causes of education and reform, he is an earnest advocate of the public school system, and of denominational higher education, he is enthusiastic for the highest intellectual culture, the highest spiritual experience and attainment, and the rigid maintenance of evangelical standards as the only means of the permanent elevation of humanity. Dr. Ford comes to the coast highly recommended as an able preacher, and his services in this city are being highly appreciated by his congregation and the general public.



Prof. [Albion L.] Francis was born at Brainard, Vermont, in 1842, and at the age of three accompanied his parents to St. Charles, Illinois. In the spring of 1852 his family started across the continent, accompanying a wagon train which followed the Platte trail to Green River, Wyoming, where they branched off to the Oregon trail, and after six months of weary traveling arrived at Oregon City. The remainder of Prof. Francis’ boyhood was spent on a farm near that place, and his early education was limited to the resources of a country school. While yet a mere lad he developed a wonderful love for music, which his puritanical parents strongly objected to, for which reason his early studies in the divine art were prosecuted under many difficulties; but, notwithstanding the objection of his family circle, the undaunted young musician, by means of secret practice in hay lofts and garrets, and the possession of a limited though dearly cherished musical library, so far perfected himself that at the age of twenty-three he left his home and took a position in Salem, Oregon, as an instructor in music. Here his great natural talents rapidly asserted themselves; and among other things he organized the Salem band, during which work he played at sight upon brass instruments which had heretofore been utter strangers to him. With a musical reputation thoroughly founded, in 1874 Prof. Francis removed to Portland, Oregon, where he organized what was then the finest military band in the northwest. In 1880 the professor removed to Victoria, B. C., and spent five years in instructing the queen’s subjects in musical matters, after which he returned to Portland and remained five years. In 1888 he left Portland for Southern California, stopping in Los Angeles, where he perfected himself in orchestral playing under Prof. A. W. Wilharting and Emil Seifert. In 1890 his love for the northwest returned him hither, and he selected Olympia as his abiding place, where he has rapidly established himself in the hearts of the music loving public. Prof. Francis’ career has at every point stamped him as an artist richly endowed, and besides his wonderful instrumental work, he is the author of several well known compositions, among which is “Beautiful Lena,” and the temperance anthem, “The blue-ribbon war song,” Prof. Francis is also well informed on the construction of all musical instruments, and is himself the possessor of several old and highly valued violins.



Robert Frost was born at Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England, October 25, 1835. Was educated at St. John’s Wood National School, London. At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a builder, from whom he ran away early in 1853, and went to sea. As a sailor he visited every country except the East Indies. On New Year’s day, 1856, he crossed the Columbia bar, at the time being a sailor on the old brig Susan Abigail, afterwards sunk by the Shenandoah. Mr. Frost lived a while in Portland, Oregon City and The  Dalles, chiefly engaged at mason work. In 1858 he went to the Frazer river mines, British Columbia, with the McLaughlin party, and helped to fight a way through the Indians; was in the fight in McLaughlin’s canyon, Okanogan river. Having been starved out at mining on Frazer river, he worked his way to Olympia and landed here in 1858, “flat broke,” and could not go any further. He worked at anything he could get to do. For three years he set type in the Standard office. In 1862 he married Miss Louisa Holmes, of Olympia, and the union has been blessed with four children. Mr. Frost started a hardware store in 1871, and still continues in that business. He was county coroner for seven years; at different times member of the city council; is one of the directors of the Capital National Bank; member of the board of trade, and president of the Olympia Gas and Electric Light Company. He began in Olympia without a penny, and is to-day prosperous in business, owns considerable property and is one of our most esteemed citizens. A proper sketch of his life would fill pages of this “Souvenir.”




George Gelbach was born in Pennsylvania about 45 years ago, and in 1865, after a common school education, emigrated to Wisconsin, where he remained five years. In May, 1870, Mr. Gelbach removed to Washington Territory and settled at Tumwater, bought the middle falls, built the Washington  Flour Mill and successfully operated a flour milling business until 1890, when he sold to the Olympia Electric Light and Power  company and engaged in the real estate business, and is now handling choice business and residence property on reasonable terms. Mr. Gelbach is one who always takes an interest in public affairs and is propertly known as the father of Tumwater.



Milton Giles was born in Lowell, Mass., in 1842. He was educated at the Baptist Theological Institute in New Hampshire, and at the age of fourteen years removed with his parents to Dixon, Ill. At the breaking out of the civil war, Mr. Giles enlisted in the Thirteenth Illinois infantry, under the first call for troops. He served with distinction and valor  three years and three months, participating in twenty-two different battles in ten different Southern states. Mr. Giles was under Grant at Vicksburg, and had the honor of being the first “Yankee” to enter that city after the surrender. He fought with Gen. Hooker at Lookout Mountain, in the battle above the clouds, and was one of the 242 to return to Springfield, Ill., of the remainder of the 1,000 brave men who went to the front at their country’s call. After the war Mr. Giles engaged in railroading on the United States military roads, and on the Illinois Central railroad, but resigned and engaged in farming. Here he made a dire failure, and then went to Virginia City, Nevada, in the palmy days of that great mining center. He made considerable money there and left it where he found it, and came to Olympia, where he engaged in the meat, vegetable and fish market business, purchasing the old Farmer’s market at the corner of Fifth and Main Streets. Here he has made quite a success. Mr. Giles married at Monticello, Iowa, Miss Mary A. Lammon, sister of J.M. Lammon, of this city, and has five children, four boys and one daughter. He resides in a very comfortable if not pretentious dwelling at the corner of Ninth and Jefferson streets.

Herbert L. Gill was born at Duffryn Mawr, Chester county, Pa., September 4, 1857. He received his education in West Chester and Philadelphia, and has been a publisher since 1878. Was proprietor of papers in eastern Pennsylvania, several weeklies and a daily in the heart of the Rockies in southwestern Colorado for three years, then five years in southwestern Kansas, publishing and owning five papers. Was elected to the Kansas legislature in 1886 on the Republican ticket. In the early part of 1890 he came to Olympia and will permanently remain. Upon his arrival he assisted in starting the Daily Olympia Tribune and assumed the business management. In March last, with Major C.M. Bartin, his father-in-law, he leased the paper, and his long journalistic experience insures the success of the venture. Mr. Gill will continue as business manager of the paper.

Among the later additions to the business firms of Olympia is that of Rose & Godard, who, late in the year 1890, opened their handsome and magnificantly stocked jewelry and optical salesroom at 222  Fourth street… Both the member of this firm are young and energetic business men, and besides their qualifications as affable salesmen, they are both practical watchmakers, having gained their experience by years of service in the great watch factories of Waltham, Mass., Elgin, Ill., and Lancaster, Pa. … Mr. [W.C.] Godard, the junior member of the firm, has located permanently in Olympia, having moved hither with his family shortly after the opening of their magnificant establishment.



John F. Gowey, ex-mayor of Olympia, was born in  Champaign county, Ohio, on December 7, 1846, and commenced life as a clerk in a general merchandise store. He afterwards entered the Ohio Wesleyan university at Delaware, Ohio, and studied law with Gen. John H. Young, at Urbana, Ohio. In 1872 he was elected to the Ohio legislature, and his course while a member of that body was such that he was re-elected to the same office by his fellow citizens. In 1876 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Champaign, and in 1878 was re-elected to the same office. In 1880 he was a delegate to the republican national convention at Chicago that nominated Garfield for the presidency. In April, 1882, he was appointed by Preisdent Arthur register of the United States land office at Olympia, which position he held until August, 1886, when his term of office expired and he resumed the practice of law. In November of that year he was elected a member of the territorial counsel. In 1887 he was elected president of the First National bank, and resigned that position a few months ago. In 1889 he was elected mayor of Olympia, and in May following was sent as delegated to the constitutional convention. He is a Free and Accepted Mason, also 32nd degree Scottish Rite Mason, member of Royal Arch Masons, also K. of P. Taking into consideration his extensive private interests, his prominent part in the business, social, political and fraternal organizations of the community, it would be difficult to find a busier man in the capital city today than John F. Gowey, her popular ex-mayor. Mr. Gowey has been married twice; first to Clara McDonald of Woodstock, Champaign county, Ohio, April 25, 1867, by whom he had one child, Frank McDonald Gowey, born January 4, 1869. On November 3, 1886, he married his present wife, Miss Georgiana Stevens, a native of Boston, but since 1866 a resident of Olympia. Mr. Gowey was nominated by President Harrison in 1890, and confirmed as minister to Japan, but declined on account of private business.



John W. Hanna, lesse [sic] and  manager of the Olympia theater, was born December 2, 1848, in Freeport, Harrison county, Ohio, where he spent his boyhood and obtained a common school education. In 1866, at the age of eighteen, he went to Mattoon, Ill., and established himself in the book and staionery business, also managing the local theater until 1889. In 1870 Mr. Hanna married Miss Mary E. Henderson, and they now have three daughters and one son. In 1889 Mr. Hanna came to Tacoma and took the management of the New Tacoma opera house.
 The New Olympia Theater
The Olympia theater was built in 1890 by Mr. John Miller Murphy, the editor and sole proprietor of the oldest newspaper in the State of Washington. The theater is under the control of the lessee and sole manager, Mr. John W. Hanna, the well known “Puget Sound” theatrical manager, who is also lessee and sole manager of the Seattle opera house, Seattle, Wash., and is the only one that books companies and plays them in the principal theaters of the far Northwest. Mr. Hanna has had years of experience in the theatrical business, and has as thorough and practical a knowledge of it as any one in the profession. He is an honest, reliable business man, young in years and full of energy. He was the first manager of the new theater at Tacoma, and voluntarily severed his connection with the house upon its changing ownership, so that he now gives his whole time and attention to his two theaters and his other amusement enterprises…



Gus Harris, of the dry goods and clothing concern of I. Harris & Sons, was born in Walla Walla, Wash., April 3, 1864, and soon removed with his parents to New York, and in 1870 moved with his parents to Olympia. He received his schooling in Olympia, and in Portland, Oregon, after which he was employed in business with his father.
In January 1888 he was taken in partnership with a third interest and has since shown business energy and tact in building up the large and prospering house which keeps apace with all eastern markets in dry goods, carpets, clothing, boots, shoe, etc.



Mitchel Harris was born in Salem, Oregon, September 18, 1862, and obtained his schooling in Olympia and Portland, Oregon, after which he was engaged in the mercantile business in Colfax, Washington. In 1882 Mr. Harris was employed by his father in the general dry goods business, and in 1888 was taken in co-partnership with his father and brother. The present concern of I. Harris &  Sons are carrying on one of the largest clothing houses in Washington.



Capt. Z.J. Hatch was born on a farm in  Southerland county, New York, June 15, 1846, where he spent his boyhood and received a common school education. In 1807 he removed to Ellenville, Ulster county, New York, where as principal he took chage of the public school with eight hundred scholars. In the summer of 1870 he resigned that position and was teller in the First National bank until Ausut 4, 1872, when he resigned from the bank and came to Portland, Oregon. Entering first the employ of the Northern Pacific railroad company as civil engineer at Kalama, Washington territory, and then book keeper in Portland for Wasserman & Co., and for one year in charge of the Tacoma Sand  company in Tacoma. He started in September, 1874, for Virginia City, but in Portland he met Capt. N.B. Scott and at once accepted the position of purser on the steamboat Ohio, which he held for one year, and then became interested as a partner in the City of Salem, on which he run as purser for a year. In 1876 the business department of this company, the Willamette River Steamboat company, was given in charge of Mr. Hatch, which he carried on until the company sold to the W.V. & C.R.R. Co., in 1879. Mr. Hatch then leased the Pacific docks and carried on a large wheat and shipping business until the winter floods of 1881 washed away the whole of his business. He then bought and run the steamboat A.A. McCully, on the Willamette River and built the Yaquina. In 1882 he returned to his early home and married Miss Addie A., daughter of Col. I.P. Tremaine, president of the Union National Bank of Ellenville. Upon his return he continued steamboating on the Willamette river until November, 1886, when he bought an interest in the Fleetwood and brought her to Puget Sound, where she plied between Olympia, Tacoma and Seattle until February of the year when the Columbia River and Puget Sound Navigation company was formed, when Capt. Hatch became master of the Bailey Gatzert. This company own and operate the following steamboats: Telephone, between Portland and Astoria; Fleetwood, between Tacoma, Seattle and Port Townsend and the Bailey Gatzert, between Olympia, Tacoma and Seattle.



Louis F. Henderson was born in Boston, Mass., on Sept. 17, 1853. His education was received in the high school at New Orleans, Louisiana; at the Miles Military Academy, Brattleboro,  Vermont; high school, Ithaca, New York, and at Cornell University, New York, graduating from the latter in 1874. During the last years of his college course Mr. Henderson taught school in New York state and after his graduation he accepted a position as instructor in McClure’s Military Academy at Oakland, Cal., where he stayed one year. He then went to Oregon and for a year taught school in Lane county, after which he taught in the Collegiate Institute at Albany in that state. A year afterwards he went to Portland, where he was located until he come [sic] to this city in November, 1889. He was the principal of the high school in Portland, resigning that position to come to Olympia to engage in the real estate business with his brother. Mr. Henderson is well known all over the Pacific coast as a botanist and last year accompanied the government expedition into the Olympian mountains in that capacity. He has one of the finest herbariums in the state at his residence in this city. Mr. Henderson married, in 1883, Miss Kate Robinson, of Lockport, New York, and has two children. He is interested in real estate all over Thurston county and carries on an abstract and fire insurance in connection with his real estate business.



The present pastor of the First Unitarian church, Rev. Napoleon Hoagland, is a native of Illinois. His birthplace was on a farm in the southern part of Shelby county, one of the south-central counties of the state. He attended district school a few months each year as opportunity offered, till he fitted himself for a teacher, which occupation he followed for nearly six years. Then he entered the Unitarian Theological school at Meadville, Pa., and after a four years’ course he graduated in 1885. Within a month from commencement day he had accepted work in a parish in Greeley,Col. Here he remained till 1887 when he left to take charge of a new movement in Wichita, Kan. Here a new church was duly organized and here he remained till called to Olympia. Soon after his arrival in Olympia he married Miss Julia Cornley, a native of Worcester, England. The wedding took place at Portland. Dr. Eliot, the old friend of the society, performing the ceremony.



S.R. Hogin is a native of the Hawkeye state, having been born in Sigourney, Keokuk county, Iowa. His grandfather, Hon. James L. Hogin, a well known pioneer, came to Iowa when that state was yet an unsubdued wilderness. He was a noble representative of the generation that settled and made Iowa one of the best states in the union, and was a member of the Iowa senate in 1854. The father of the subject of this sketch, came to Iowa in the forties, and was for forty years a leading and successful businessman; and the old home, where the family has resided for more than forty-two years, is yet known as one among the best and most hospitable of Iowa homes. J.C. Hogin was regarded as a man of sterling worth, and in the business, social and political circles enjoyed a wide acquaintance and numbered among his intimate personal friends United States Senators Harland, Kirkwood, and Wilson; the galliant Gen. M.M. Crocker; the eminent political leader John H. Bear; the brilliant and loyal ex-Gov. W.M. Stone; the well known Iowa attorneys Woodin, Mackey ans Sampson; and belonged to that class of sturdy pioneers who by their faith and works laid the foundation of Iowa’s greatness. He was a member of the Iowa senate in 1864.
S.R. Hogin received his early education in the schools of his native place. Later he attended Eastman College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. and graduated in the centennial year, 1886. Returning to his native city, he entered as a student the law office of his brother-in-law, Hon. J.A. Donnell, and was admitted to the bar in 1878. Mr. Hogin has always taken an active interest in politics, being a sturdy Republican, and for many years represented his county in the district and state conventions, and attended the national convention at Chicago in 1880. In 1884 he removed to Kansa and located at Wakeeney, Trego county. Was a member of the firm of Danford & Hogin, one of the leading law firms of the Twenty-third judicial district. During this time Mr. Hogin established his reputation as an able and reliable lawyer, and was retained in many important cases, notably the case of the State vs. Fellows, being employed by Trego county in the prosecution of Chas. A. Fellows for the murder of his young wife, a case of unusual interest, as it was the first case in that district in which the murderer received the death penalty. While enjoying a lucrative practice in the courts, Mr. H. was recognized as one of the leading and most successful land attorneys in the Wakeeney land district, at that time one of the busiest in the United States. Mr. Hogin came to Washington in 1889; was admitted to practice in Cowlitz county before Judge Bloomfield; located in this city in the fall of 1890, and has great faith in the future of Olympia. Mr. Hogin has many of the elements necessary for a successful career; an experienced lawyer, possessing a bright intellect, a generous dispotion, withal a genial courteous gentleman. He has already established a good business and gained many friends who predict for him a brilliant and useful career, and an honorable place among the progressive citizens of the capital city of this commonwealth.



C.F. Holton, proprietor of “The Holton,” was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on July, 21, 1848. It was in 1877 that he came to Washington and in 1884 located in this city, and has resided here ever since. He opened “The Holton” on October 12, 1886, and fitted it up in magnificant style to compare favorable with any similar establishment in the state. In all that pertains to the advancement of the city of Olympia, and in all that has for its object the growth of the town, he takes a deep interest.



James C. Horr, mayor of Olympia, was born in Waitsfield, Washington county, Vermont, on January 17, 1832, but  moved with his parents to Loraine county, Ohio, when only two years of age. He was brought up on a farm, and worked hard during his younger days. At the age of 21 he went to Australia to seek his fortune, and remained in that country for twelve years. He was in the mines in and around Ballarat, and during the latter part of his stay there he was the superintendent of Cobb & Company’s coach lines, that run to Ballarat and through the western country, this company operating the largest stage line in the world. In 1865 he returned home, and with his brother operated the largest cheese factory in the state of Ohio. The climate there not agreeing with  him, he moved to  California in 1868, and until 1872 he was engaged in ranching in Santa Cruz county, in that state. In the latter year he was appointed special agent of the treasury department, and was stationed at San Francisco and Port Townsend. He held this position until 1885, when under the Cleveland administrtion in 1885, he was one of the first men removed. During the latter part of his incumbency he had charge of the district including the state of Oregon and the territories of Washington and Alaska. He then went into the grain and feed business in this city, in which he has continued ever since. In 1876, Mr. Horr was elected mayor of Olympia, and in 1877 he represented this district in the legislature. He was re-elected to his present position last December. His fitness for the position that he now holds has been exemplified in many cases, and ever since his residence here he has been indefatigable in his efforts for Olympia’s growth and prosperity. He is married but has no children, his only child having died while he was a resident of California. Mayor Horr has always been a staunch republican in politics, and has done yeoman service for that party, although never allowing politics to  interfere with the discharge of his duties as a public officer.



Frank A. Howard, one of the few persons now residing in this city who were born in the present State of Washington, when it was a part of the territory of Oregon, first saw light of day on the townsite of Olympia, June 25, 1857, and has made this his home ever since. He was educated in the public schools of Olympia, among his first teachers were J.P. Judson and Steve Ruddell. Mr. Howard has traveled over the United States several times, meeting with many interesting experiences and adventures. He was married in Providence, R.I. to Miss Lillie Howard of the same name but no relation. While proprietor of the Pacific House he entertained many distinguished personages who visited this city among whom were Gen. Sherman, Ex-President Hayes and party, Gen. Winfield Scott, Gen. McDowell and others. After retiring from hotel life Mr. Howard lived on the east side, until he sold Sebree’s addition to W.E. Sebree, when he built a residence on Howard Flats and  moved there. He has owned many acres of property now within the corporate limits od the city, comprising Sebree’s, Howard’s, Olympia Heights and other additions. Besides a large amount of property which he possesses in Olympia, Mr. Howard has a valuable additon to Spokane Falls, Mr. Howard is engaged in the brokerage business at 353 Fourth street, is in a prosperous condition and is a respected citizen. For the welfare of Olympia, his native place, he is ever ready to lend a helping hand.

Mason Irwin, judge of the superior court of Chehalis and Mason counties, was born in 1850; a native of Juniata county, Pennsylvania, where he spent his boyhood and youth on a farm, attending the common schools and Airy View academy. In 1870, Mr. Irwin removed to Pittsbugh, Pennsylvania, where he was employed as a store clerk for three years, when in 1873 he became a bank cashier in Juniata county, which position he held for four years. Mr. Irwin began the study of law in 1877, in Mifflintown, the county seat of Juniata county, and was admitted to the bar in 1879. In 1881, Mr. Irwin was elected prosecuting attorney of Juniata county, which office he held until 1884, and in the spring of 1885 he removed to Washington Territory locating first at Yakima and then at Montesano, Chehalis county, where he still resides. In 1889 Mr. Irwin was elected to the office of judge of the superior courts of Chehalis, Thurston Mason and Lewis counties, which duties he discheaged to the satisfaction and pleasure of all. By his upright, fearless and manly bearing, he has won the esteem of all with whom he has come in contact.  By an act of the last legislature, which created of Thurston county a separate judicial district, Judge Irwin was relieved of some of his duties, and his jurisdiction now covers Chehalis and Mason counties. Mr. Irwin was married in 1887, to a daughter of Dr. Newell, of this city.

Edwin F. Janes was born on a farm in Napoli,  Cattaraugus county, New York, October 21, 1839, and has followed agricultural pursuits most of the time since starting in life for himself. He received a common school education, with a few terms in Chamberlain institute – a rare privilege in those days. He then entered a store at Randolph, New York, where he remained three years. In 1869 he married the daughter of Marcus M. Jones of Randolph, and has been blessed with four sons. In May, 1889, Mr. Janes, accompanied by his mother-in-law (Mrs. M.M. Jones, who is now a widow living with Mr. Janes’ family), and his eldest son Carey, came to the great northwest and after looking over the sound towns, thought it best to locate at Olympia; for, as Mr. Janes says, they were charmed by the climate and fruit. As with all others who came about that time, the investments then made proved good ones. After remaining here during the summer, they returned east. Mr. Janes made another visit to Olympia in the spring of 1890, and m oved his family here in the following September. One son is still attending Meadville College in New York State. Mr. Janes’ investments have been on Fourth street in East Olympia, in Maple Park, and on the west side – all good property. Mr. Janes has proved to be one of the enterprising citizens of the place. He is a man with an extended business experience, of rare good judgment, and has contributed his share toward bringing about the new life of which the city has partaken during the last few years.

Mr. G. Kaufman
, the head of the well-known firm of Toklas & Kaufman, was born in Germany on December 24, 1838. After receiving a thorough business education in his native country, he first engaged there in the wool, hide and commission business. In 1860 he went to Sunderland, England, and engaged in the watch, jewelry and diamond trade, continuing there until 1865, when he returned to Germany and married Miss Louisa Toklas, a sister of his present partner. In 1880 Mr. Kaufman came to America and after traveling extensively all over the United States finally located in Olympia, establishing the famous firm of Toklas & Kaufman, of which he is managing partner. His wife remaining in Germany to finish the education of the children in the German colleges, joined him here in 1886. To his untiring efforts and strict attention to business and to himself alone, he owes his great financial success and present high standing in the community. Mr. Kaufman is past vice president of the board of trade, and is also past master workman of A.O.U.W., and is occupying the position of treasurer of Harmony lodge of F. & A. Masons, which office he has held for three consecutive terms. Since his residence in this city he has ever been one of the formost promoters of public welfare and is always ready with hand and purse to further all movements looking towards the advancement of hs adopted city in which he has always taken a deep interest.

Nathan G. Kaufman
was born in Kempen, Germany, September 22, 1866, and received a thorough education at Royal college in that place, from which he graduated in the spring of 1881. In October of the same year he emigrated to America, landing in New York. After a stay of several months in that city he went south to Texas, and there entered the mercantile business of his uncle at Bessoides. In September, 1882, he left for the Pacific coast, and after a short stay in San Francisco he came to Olympia, where his father was already established as a member of the firm of Toklas & Kaufman. Here he remained until 1885, when he was given charge of the firm’s branch house at Puyallup, which he managed until 1888, when he was recalled to Olympia, Mr. W. Toklas, one of the partners having left. In 1889 Mr. Kaufman went to Spokane Falls and took a position as dry goods salesman with the Great Eastern company at that place. Prior to his departure for that city he induced the firm to secure larger and more commodious premises. The Olympia block was consequently erected as the outcome of his suggestions. He personally designed the plans and interior arrangements of the establishment, and after its completion in the fall of 1889 returned to Olympia and took the management. Through push and energetic business methods he has worked the business of the firm to its present standing. The marvelous growth of the firm is better described on another page. Although it is not generally known in Olympia, Mr. Kaufman is an excellent caricature sketch artist, and as a writer has has also gained quite a fame, having written several good stories.

W.F. Keady
, county clerk, ex-officio clerk superior court, was born in Washington, Pa., in 1821; attended common schools until twelve; at fourteen receiving a scholarship in Washington college; attended there one year when his father’s death compelled him to commence work to help support the family. At sixteen was apprenticed to a tobacco manufacturer, working until twenty-two years old, his marriage having occurred in the meantime. He then worked at printing until twenty-four, and in 1846 assisted in establishing the Brownsville Clipper, remaining with it until 1848. Then worked at cigar making in Pittsburg, Pa., Wheeling, Va., and elsewhere until 1851, and again returned to the Brownsville Clipper until the fall of 1852, when he went to Middleport, Ill., and worked on the Iroquois Journal for six months then purchased a half interest and shortly after the entire business, and improved the paper, editing and publishing it until 1856. He was then appointed postmaster, serving four years; then retired, and for a few years amused himself buying farms and improving them, dealing in stock etc. In 1867 he bought half of the Kankakee Gazette; sold it in 1870, and bought the Kankakee Journal, changing it to the Kankakee Times, and giving a half interest to his son George, continued to publish it until 1881, when he came to Olympia. In 1882 was appointed justice of the peac, and in October, 1889, was elected on the Republican ticket, clerk of Thurston county. He has for seven years been president of the school board. Mr. Keady is an active member of the Episcopal church, of which he is junior warden.

Dr. Kincaid
was born in the north of Ireland in 1832 of Scotch parents. After his father’s death he came with his mother to Canada and was educated at Queen’s University graduating as M.D. in 1862 with highest honors. Immediately after taking his degree he started for New York and studied the practical part of his profession at the Bellevue and Island hospitals of that city, and was while there a private student of Austin Flint, secretary, and that able surgeon, Frank H. Hamilton, medical director of the U.S. Army. The latter urged him to enter the service of the U.S. government. The Dr. passed his examination for a surgeon of the U.S. Army before a board in Bleecher street, New York, and the next morning started for the seat of war and on his arrival at Washington D.C., was placed by Surgeon General Barnes on the staff of Armory Square hispital, where he remained on duty attending to the wounded brought in from the bloody battlefields of the Wilderness, Mine Run, Cold Harbor, Spottsylvania Court House and Petersburg, and had the honor to be selected from among the surgeons in Washington to form a post military hospital outside of Fort Lincoln when Early was in the valley. However a speedy retreat of that general from the view of Nash rendered the hospital useless. The Dr. then returned to his post at Armory Square but was soon transferred for duty to the department of the east, with headquarters at Governor’s Island hospital and at the foot of Broadway in New York, where he remained until promoted to be medical inspector for the state of Maine with headquarters at Portland, and was at that post until the close of the war. He then returned to Canada to visit his aged mother, and at her earnest request commenced the practice of his profession in the city of Peterboro, where he succeeded in bulding up one of the largest and most lucrative practices in central Canada, which he held for twenty-five years, and had during the whole of that time the positions of surgeon to the county of Peterboro, surgeon to the city of Peterboro, surgeon major with the rank of colonel in the British Army, surgeon to the Midland Railway Company of Canada, and senior surgeon Nicholls hospital, and in addition to other minor offices was elected senator for the University of Queen’s College; by a unanimous vote of the city and county of Peterboro was elected to represent them in parliament. In the latter part of 1888 the Dr. finding his family growing up, and realizing the limited field for young men to rise to good positions in Canada, resolved to come to the United States. He looked long and earnestly for a location and selected Olympia, where he commenced his practice in Wahsington in 1889, and is well satisfield with his success. He at once saw the advantages of the capital city and made up his mind from the first that Olympia was destined to be a large, healthy, intellectual and progressive city. The Dr. does not hope at his age to make a great stake but he feels satisfield that he will live to see Olympia a city of 30,000 and that his three sons will rise to good positions and become legal and useful citizens of this great, free and progressive country. Dr. Kincaid was married in 1865 in Perth, Canada, to Margaret M., daughter of James Bell, then manager of the commercial bank of Canada.

Allison E. Laberee
, one of Olympia’s best known residents, was born in the province of Quebec, Canada, on April 7, 1859. He received a common school education, and spent his early life on a farm, getting the advantages only of what the district schools of his neighborhood afforded. Eight years ago he came to the then Territory of Washington, fully believing in the future of the northwest. He settled in Olympia, and for two years followed the occupation of book-keeping. He then formed a partnership with Mr. G.H. Foster, under the firm name of Foster & Laberee, in the hack and livery business, about six years ago. As the business prospered and increased, the old firm finally merged into the Gurney Cab and Transfer Company of Olympia, Mr. Laberee being elected secretary and treasurer of the new company. Mr. Laberee married about four years ago, Miss Carrie H. Root, and during all the years of his residence in this city he has been one of its most pushing and progressive citizens.

Rev. T. Johnston Lamont
, pastor of the Presbyterian church of Olympia, is of Scotch descent. He was born in in Cincinnati, Ohio, December 9, 1842. His early days were spent in Kentucky and Illinois. In 1861 he was among the first to enlist in the volunteer service for the suppression of the great rebellion. He participated in several battles, the most prominent of which were those of Fort Donelson and Shiloh. In the latter he received a bullet wound in the left knee, which made him a cripple for life. As soon as able to get around he entered college at Beloit, Wisconsin, and continued there till his course was finished. At this time he engaged in business at Rockford, Ill., continuing for a period of seven years. In 1874 he entered McCormic Theological Seminary at Chicago, Ill. After graduating he began preaching in Chicago, and remained there until 1886. During his stay in the prairie city, while pastor of the Reunion Presbyterian church, he built the edifice now occupied by that society. Six years of Mr. Lamont’s life were spent in the editorial profession. He edited and published the Chicago Witness, a weekly religious periodical. From his printing office several prominent periodicals were issued. In 1886 he accepted an appointment from the home mission board at Anaconda, Mont. For four years he labored in this mining town, erecting a beautiful church edifice and gathering together a large membership. As a result of an attack of la grippe, in connection with the high altitude, he was obliged to seek a more moderate climate. Six months were spent at Spokane as pastor of Centenary Presbyterian church. His health not improving there, he decided to come to this coast. While attending synod at Tacoma in October, 1890, he was invited to preach for the church in Olympia, which resulted in his settlement as stated supply for the church in this city. Thus far Mr. Lamont has met with great encouragement in his work. A large number have already been addded to the membership. Pastor and people are cordially united in prosecuting church work. All the services are well attended and sustained. The church evinces new life and activity in all departments. Among its officers and members there is an evident determination, with God’s blessing, to make the First Presbyterian church of Olympia power for good in the community, a center of spiritual influences, and a rallying point for christian work. Mr. Lamont is delighted with the climate of Puget Sound, and, with the continuation of his present improving health, thinks Olympia is just the place for him to live in, and for all who wish to enjoy beautiful scenery and healthful surroundings.

Charles  Frederick Leavenworth
was born in Rochester, New York, on October 2, 1845. His first occupation was that of a freight clerk in the New York Central railroad office. At the age of fifteen years he ran away to enlist in the army in the New York infantry, but he returned home soon after and completed his education in the high school at Rochester. At the close of the war he crossed the plains, and was at Council  Bluffs when, in August, 1865, he heard of the Plum creek massacre. With a party he joined a relief train from Grand Island, and after driving off the Indians rescued the only white man that was left alive and brought him back to Omaha. He then went through to Cheyenne and was there at the outbreak of the celebrated Bear river desperado fight when Pat McLally, the first man in that memorable fight, was killed. For two years Mr. Leavenworth conducted a ranch at Lone Tree creek, near Cheyenne. He went to Mexico during the mining excitement of 1868, and after being there a short time, with a party of seven fitted out and started for Arizona. The Indians soon afterwards stole their horses and the party walked five hundred miles to Cheyenne.  He then went through Utah, Nevada and California, visiting San Francisco, settling in Santa Rosa, where he remained for two years. He was married in March, 1873, at Sonora, to Miss Kate M. Mead. He then went to the San Joaquin valley and settled at Modesto, where he built and operated the gas and water works, staying there for seven years. He also went into the milling business, and built the first steam flour mill in Modesto. In 1883 he came to Washington, settling at Tacoma. In 1884 he went to Port Hadlock, where he built a large saw mill, but afterwards sold that out, and returning to Tacoma, with Messrs. W.D. Taylor and H.B. Thomas bought out the Watson saw mill. That was sold in 1885, and Mr. Leavenworth then went to Gray’s Harbor, where he built the Cosmopolis mill, the largest saw mill on Gray’s Harbor. That he sold out in 1888, and he then settled in this city. In 1888 he built the Olympia and Gray’s Harbor Electric Company’s telephone line, between this city and Gray’s Harbor, and still owns a controlling interest in that company. In the same year he bought out the McKennry drug store in this city and became president of the newly organized Pacific Drug Company and also bought out the Wisdom drug store in Portland and formed the Wisdom Drug Company in that city, being its president. He has done a great deal in developing this country, and deserves considerable praise for his indefatigable labors in this respect.

[M]illard Lemon was born in Idaho, then a part of Oregon. His youth was spent within the limits of this state. He has resided several years in Oregon and California, and graduated in letters from De Pauw University of Greencastle, Ind., in 1880. He went to South America in January, 1881, and was resident engineer upon government railroad construction in Chile until 1888, when he returned to California, and soon after to this state, where he has since resided. In all that pertains to the advancement of this city both members of [the firm of Lemon & Whitham, Civil Engineers] take a deep interest.

Thomas Linklitar [sic, should read Linklater]
, one of the oldest settlers in that part of Puget Sound where Olympia now is located, was born in Scotland in 1819, and came to Washington Territory in 1834, and setled Tenalcut Prairie, and was one of the original members of the Hudson Bay company. When Olympia became a place of importance he took up land on the Nesqually river, where he farmed up to within a short time of his death, February 20, 1890.

Doing business under the firm name of Marr & Ross, are proprietors of the Acme Drug Store, a prominent institution of this city, and one that ranks A No. 1 among the drug houses on the Sound…. Mr. [Robert] Marr [was] born in Scotland, near Dundee, on January 29, 1844. … Mr. Marr left his native land when 18 years old, arriving in New York in April, 1862. He remained in that city about two years and then moved west to Iowa, then to Nebraska, and afterwards to Kansas, arriving at Leavenworth in September, 1865; drifting about until October of 1867, he then settled in Wilson county, Kansas, where he remained until 1884, the date of his removal to Washington, the “Evergreen,” where, as he and Mr. Ross state, they expect their bones to be laid to rest.

James Mars
, the most well-known colored gentleman in Olympia, was born in Ghent, N.Y., in 1828, and removed with his parents in 1834 to Salem, Mass., from where he entered a seafaring life which he continued until 1849, when he located in San Francisco, Cal. Mr. Mars remained in San Francisco for two years and then mined in the mountains of California until 1858, when he removed to Victoria, B.C., from whence he steamboated for twelve years. In 1865 Mr. Mars married Mary Jane Thomas, and in 1870 removed to Olympia, where in 1878 he started what is now the Our House restaurant, located on the corner of Fourth and Franklin streets. The restaurant is exactly what the name implies — a place where one can feel at home and enjoy home cooking.

Alfred Martin
, private secretary to Hon. Chas. E. Laughton, was born in London, England, in 1860.At an early age he entered the office of the general manager of the London & North Western Railway company of England, being shortly afterwards appointed confidential clerk to the assistant goods manager (superintendent of transportation) of that company. He came to the United States in 1882 as private secretary to the land commissioner of the Northern Pacific Railroad company, and in 1884 went to New York to become confidential clerk to Hon. John Jay Knox (ex-comptroller of the currency), president of the National Bank of the Republic of that city. He removed to Seattle in 1888, finding employment as private secretary to the chief engineer of the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway company, subsequently becoming assistant to the president of that company. He resigned the latter position in December, 1889, to accept that of private secretary to Hon. Elisha P. Ferry, the first governor of the state, and now acts in the same capacity in the office of Hon. Chas. E. Laughton, lieutenant governor and acting governor. Mr. Martin’s father, the late Frederick Martin, F.S.S. of London, England, was at one time assistant to Thomas Carlyle, and was a writer of some note, being the author of the “History of Lloyd’s and Marine Insurance,” “History of Banks and Bankers,” editor of the Statesman’s Year Book, and numerous other works.

Thomas J. McBratney
, councilman from the second ward, was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1846. He came here from Illinois  nine years agho, and soon won the esteem of his fellow townsmen by his many admirable qualities of mind and heart. He has always taken a lively interest in municipal affairs, and represents the second ward in the city council, where his excellent judgment and commonsense method of dealing with business propositions renders the public good and efficient service. He is a horseshoer by trade, having spent his lifetime in this business, and has for the past eight years conducted the largest horseshoeing and blacksmithing shop in the capital city. He also deals in wagons, carriages and implements, and repairs them as well. Mr. McBratney represented the second ward two years ago also, his re-election to the position the present year bearing evidence of the esteem of his fellow citizens, and of his perfect fitness for the position which he holds.

Joseph McCarrogher
was born in the county of Armagh, in 1853. His boyhood was spent in his native country, and it was in 1871 that he came to America. He was raised on a farm and received his education in the public schools in Ireland. On coming to this country he settled at Atchison, Kan., and worked there at railroading, starting as a fireman on a locomotive and working up to an engineer’s position. In 1872 he went to California and was in San Francisco for about a year. The following year he went to the mines at Virginia City at mining and as an engineer in mining up to 1878. In the latter year he came to Olympia and worked at different callings until he went as an engineer on Sound steamers. He continued in this until about a year ago, when he went into the real estate business, in which he has been quite successful, owning and controlling some very valuable property in this city and vicinity. Mr. McCarrogher was one of the census enumerators that took the census of the new State of Washington last year, and for several years, every summer, he has been engaged in the coast survey service. He has also been connected with the fire department for some time, and is president of the Barnes Hook and Ladder Company No. 1. He is a member of the I.O.O.F. , and has won his way to his present position by his own unaded efforts.

Walter T. McDonald, of the firm of McDonald & Crego, real estate, loan and insurance brokers, at the corner of Main and Fifth streets, was born in Upper Sandusky, Ohio, November 7, 1852. After receiving a common school education, at the age of sixteen years, he went into the drug store conducted by his father. After remaining one year he found that he did not like that calling, and he returned to school to take a business course, on the completion of which he became bookkeeper for the engine and machine works of George B.Stevenson & Company, in his native town. He remained there for four years and then formed a partnership under the firm name of McDonald, Skidmore & Co., and took a large belt saw mill to the frontiers of Michigan. Selling out to his partner he returned to his old home and received the appointment of joint freight and ticket agent of the Columbus, Hocking Valley and  Toledo and the Pennsylvania railroad companies, and assistant traveling passenger agent. In October, 1889, on a leave of absence, Mr. McDonald took a pleasure trip through the Northwest and after looking over the new State of Washington, realized that it had a bright future and decided to locate in Olympia. Returning home he resigned his position there, and arrived back in this city on December 4, 1889, and on December 28, of that year was one of the seven incorporators of the Portland and Puget City Company, being elected its president, a position which he still holds. This company located the townsite of Puget City, which is located on the east side of Puget Sound, between this city and Tacoma. Owing to its location being at the head of the seven bays and its deep water frontage, and advantages with its agricultural lands backing it up, it has a bright and prosperous future. It has a population of 150, with a hotel, two stores, a saw mill, etc. During the raising of subsidies for our railroads last spring, he took quite an active part and gave much of his time to the cause, and last fall when it came time to raise money to make the fight for the permanent location of the state capital, he gave three weeks of his time to this matter and was on the printing and finance committees. In October he traveled all over Eastern Washington making arrangements with the different newspapers to support Olympia for the capital, making a very successful trip. He is always interested in anything that insures to the advancement of his adopted city.

Val A. Milroy
, postmaster of Olympia, was born in Rensselear, Jasper county, Indiana, on August 17, 1855. He resided there until eleven years of age, and his early education was received in the schools of that town. In 1866 his parents removed to Delphi, in Carroll county, in the same state, when he came to Washington Territory and settled in Olympia. For the first two years after coming here he worked on a farm and went to school, and in the summer time was employed in surveying. Then for seven years he worked as a compositor on different papers in this city and still employed his time in the summer at surveying in different parts of the state. In 1878 he acted as clerk to his father, who was the Indian agent at the Puyallup and Nesqually reservations, and remained with him three years. In 1881 he entered into the livery business here with Mr. O’Connor and continued in that line until 1884, when he was again emloyed with his father as clerk on the Yakima Indian reservation. Mr. Milroy then went to Portland and took a course in the business college, and was appointed postmaster of Olympia in 1889. His performance of the duties of this office have been such as to win encomiums from all classes of citizens, and fact has been demonstrated that he is the right man in the right place.

John R. Mitchell
, of the law firm of Root & Mitchell, was born at Alchie, Halifax county, Va., January 31, 1861, and was educated at public and private schools until the age of eighteen, at which time he engaged in mercantile business in his native town. At the age of twenty-five he commenced the study of the law, under the care and direction of Henry Edmunds of the Halifax bar. He arrived in Olympia on Saturday, the 28th day of April, 1888, and on the 30th day of the same month entered into partnership with M.A.  Root, who was at that time probate judge, and with whom he has continued ever since. Mr. Mitchell was admitted to the bar by the United States district court at Olympia on the 23d day of November, 1889. During the summer of 1890, he took a course of law at the University of Virginia. He was nominated for the position of county attorney by the democratic convention of Thurston county in 1880, but declined the same, and was elected city attorney for the city of Olympia in December, 1890, and resigned the same in January, 1891.

C.M. Moore, proprietor of the City Market, was born in Adams county, Illinois, on August 24, 1857. When only three years of age he removed with his parents to Iowa, where he resided until he was fifteen years of age. He then removed to Colorado, where he remained for four and a half years, where he was engaged in the meat market and fruiting business. He came to Olympia in 1877 and started in the meat market busines, but after a period of three years he accepted a position in the internal revenue service under Collector Hayden. He was afterwards engaged in the United States land register’s office for about a year, and in 1882 was elected auditor of Thurston county, efficiently filling that office for two terms. He then went to Helena, Mont., where he remained for a year, then returning and purchasing the city meat market in 1886, since which time he has conducted that business. Mr. Moore was married in 1886 to a daughter of Dr. Ostrander, and has hosts of friends in his adopted city.

Hon. Philip D. Moore,
the present state librarian, was born in New Jersey, of Quaker parents, in 1826, and spent his early years upon a farm. During the years 1837, 1838 and 1839, he served an apprenticeship to the drug business at Macon, Georgia, and, subsequently, continued his study of pharmacy in new York city, where he carried on a drug store for many years. He came to Puget sound in 1862, as deputy collector of customs, but in 1863, President Lincoln appointed him collector of internal revenue for Washington and Idaho, upon the recommendation and at the request of Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Rev. Dr. Bellows, Rev. T. Starr King and the New Jersey republican state committee. After serving in that capacity for about five years, he again accepted the office of deputy collector of customs. He filled that office under four different collectors. Subsequently he engaged in mining pursuits in California and Arizona, but retaining his attachment to this commonwealth, he returned and engaged in farming in Mason county, which country seat he still owns. In the winter of 1890 he was appointed by Governor Ferry and confirmed by the senate, as state librarian, which office he is now filling to the satisfaction of the bench and bar, as well as the board of library commissioners, and his administration of the state library was commended by Governor Laughton in highly complimentary terms in his last message. Mr. Moore has been an active politician, in the best sense of the word, during his long and eventful life. He retains a distinct recollection of the campaign of 1832, and in 1836, had the honor of shaking hands and talking with General Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe. In 1844 he was engaged for five months in the canvass for Henry Clay, and in like manner was engaged with Joshua R. Giddings, of Ohio, in the Fremont campaign of 1856.  Being an active and pronounced anti-slavery man, he enjoyed the acquaintance of Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Theodore Parker, Frederick Douglas, Sam’l J. May and other leading abolitionists. Mr. Moore married in New Jersey in 1847 and his wife and all their children and grandchildren are residents of this state. While he may rightfully be classed with the pioneers of Washington, yet he is in hearty sympathy with the more recent and wonderful development, progress and prosperity of this state, and should be ranked among the most enthusiastic of our enterprising citizens.

I.S. Moulthrop was born in Delaware county, Iowa, July 2, 1863. At the age of ten he was sent east to be educated, and passed through the high school at Birmingham, New York. His first venture was in training and driving thoroughbred trotting horses, and his courageous and daring nature made him a successful driver and winner of many races. When the roller skating craze started in the New England states he was one of the first to see the harvest in this line, and devoting his time and energy to the rink business he soon became master of it, and controller of several of the largest rinks in the East, including the celebrated Olympia club of New York city, where 3,000 skaters occupied the floor at each session. When this business began to wane he sold out, and having a desire to see other countries, he traveled for eighteen months, after which he returned to New York and entered into the laundry business with  his brother, remaining until 1889. Hearing so much of the far West and Puget Sound he determined to go and see it, and after visiting all the cities and towns on the Sound decided that Olympia was the place, and immediately arranged to open a steam laundry, which has proven a great success. Mr. Moulthrop is a firm believer in the growth of Olympia and is loading himself with all the real estate he can carry. He is also the manager of the Olympia roller skating rink, which is patronized by the elite of the city and is a decided success.

M.E. Mumford
was born in Illinois, January 2, 1841. In early life he was a school techer and for some time was the principal of the city schools at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, following the close of the rebellion. At the breaking out of the war Mr. Mumford enlisted in the Thirty-first regiment Wisconsin infantry and served for three years, he being a member of the famous Twentieth army corps attached to Sherman’s army in memorable march to the sea. After the war he returned to Wisconsin and after his teaching experience was county superintendent of schools of Crawford county for two years and in 1875 and 1876 was elected sheriff of that county. He then went to Kansas, settling in Cloud county in 1877. There he remained for twelve years, eight years of which he was engaged in the real estate, loan and abstracting business. He came to Washington about a year and a half ago, settling in Tacoma where he accepted a position as manager of the Pierce County Absteact and Title Insurance Company. He came here the present year, assisting in organizing, is one of the proprietors and manager of the Olympia Abstract and Title Insurance Company, a position that his years of experience in this line of business peculiarly fits him for. Mr. Mumford is married and has a family of seven children.

John Miller Murphy, councilman from the first ward, was born in 1839 near Fort Wayne, Ind. He came to Portland, Or., with his sister in 1851, and attended school until 1852; then came to Olympia, still pursuing his studies, also clerking, until 1856, when he returned to Portland and was apprenticed to the Times Publishing company, remaining with them one year. He then became foreman on the Democratic Standard, remaning with it until the close of its career. He then removed to Oregon City, working on the Argus until 1859. In June of that year he went to Vancouver and founded the Vancouver Chronicle, which, after a few months, he sold, and came to Olympia, and established the Washington Standard, which he has since conducted never missing an issue. Mr. Murphy was for six years territorial auditor; was also quarter-master general for four years, and has on four occasions been a member of the city council, and now represents the first ward in that body. He is a member of Olympia Lodge I.O.O.F., and is past chief patriarch of Alpha Encampment. He has also been a volunteer fireman since the organization of that department in this city.

One of Olympia’s most energetic and successful real estate, loan and insurance brokers, is Fred Neuffer, whose office is on Fourth street, next door to the post office. One of Mr. Neuffer’s specialities is the buying and selling of all kinds of improved and unimproved city and farm property in acreage in lots from five to two thousand acres. Mr. Neuffer also makes a speciality of locating settlers on homesteads and lumber claims, and has some of the finest agricultural and lumber lands in the state. In insurance he represents some of the best known companies in the country, in fire, life and accident insurance. Among these companies may be mentioned the Farmers’ Fire Ins.  Co. of Seattle; New York Life Ins. Co. of New York and the Travelers’ Accident Ins. Co. of Hartford, Conn. He loans money in sums from $500 to $10,000 on improved farms and city property. Mr. Neuffer makes a specialty of investing money for non-residents and his conservative management in this, in placing the funds in property which is constantly and rapidly increasing in value, is appreciated by those who have invested; and for those who wish to  invest in Washington real estate but who are far removed from the state, Mr. Neuffer will guarantee a good percentage on all investments and will be found to be a reliable and prompt agent in all business relations. Call upon him or write, and information will be cheerfully given.

Dr. John S. Newcomb
was born April 24, 1862, In Black Rock, N.S. When eight years old he removed with his parents to the State of Maine, where he continued to live until the fall of 1885, when he went to Albany, N.Y., and commenced the study of medicine under the tutorship of Dr. Wm. Hailes, professor of histology and pathological anatomy. Dr. Newcomb graduated from the medical department of Union University of Albany in the spring of 1888, after which he traveled westward and visited several states and territories in search of a suitable location for the practice of his profession, but without finding the desired place until he landed at Olympia, Washington. Dr. Newcomb at once received a favorable impression of Olympia, and engaged as assistant to Dr. Warren Riley, with the intention of making this place his future home, and is meeting with deserved success.

Gottlieb Noschka
, merchant tailor, was born in Werben, Germany, August 22, 1848. At the age of sixteen years he commenced learning his trade, and in 1866 left home and worked in the leading cities of Germany and Switzerland until 1880 when he went to London where he remained until 1882. While in London Mr. Noschka was married to his present wife, who has worked with him in the shiop until the last year. He has two children, a son and a daughter. In 1882 he, with his young wife, landed in New York. In 1884 they went to San Francisco and a year later came to Puget Sound. After a six months sojourn in Seattle he came up to Olympia. From a small beginning he has worked up to the magnificent business which he now enjoys. His motto has been to please his customers and has extended his business to several of the neighboring towns. He counts among his regular patrons the leading men of the city and state. He never fails to appreciate a kindness. Mr. Noschka early acquired possession of real estate which now gives him a handsome competence. He has shown his progressive spirit by erecting, last summer, two double tenement houses and intends, the coming summer, to build a flat with six tenement apartments. It is his purpose to then retire to his farm on Wadel’s Creek, this county. Mr. Noschka is one of the enterprising men of the city. He was instrumental in organizing the board of trade, and has otherwise assisted in advancing the interests of the city. He is a member of Olympia Lodge No. 1 of Odd Fellows and is president of the Germania Verein.

Rossell G. O’Brien, adjutant general of the State of Washington, was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1846, and came with his parents to the State of Illinois when only five years of age. The public schools of that state furnished him his early education, and he afterwards attended Springfield college, at Springfield, Ill. As a boy he worked on a farm, but when still young he went to Chicago and entered an insurance office as clerk, where he remained but a short time, going thence into the dry goods house of J.B. Shea, in that city. He had become a member of the Ellsworth zouaves of Chicago when only 16 years of age, and had been identified some time with the military, when early in 1864 he enlisted in the army and was given the second lieutenancy of company D. 134th Illinois infantry and he was discharged on October 24th of that year. He then returned to civil life, and was a clerk in the freight department of the Chicago & Alton railroad until he went into the establishment of George & C.W. Sherwood, dealers in school books and manufacturers of school furniture, Mr. O’Brien having charge of the school furniture and philosophical apparatus departments. He remained with this house until 1870, when he came to Olympia and was appointed assistant assessor in the United States revenue department. On the consolidation of this department he was made deputy collector, and held this office for five years. He was then appointed in charge of the Tacoma Land company’s office at Tacoma, where he remained for several  months, leaving that position to accept the appointment as clerk of the supreme court of the territory, and clerk of the district court of the second judicial district, holding the two positions at the same time. He was appointed United States commissioners in 1876, and held that position continuously for thirteen years. As far back as 1878 he was elected quartermaster general of the Territory of Washington, and it was in 1881 that he was elected adjutant general, a position which he has ever since held. He organized the first company of the national guard of Washington, here in Olympia in 1883, and from this nucleus has sprung the splendid organization that the state now has. He commanded this first company until a captain was found, and then went on with the organization of the national guard throughout the state. He was elected a member of the city council in 1881, and has served continuously until the present year, with the exception of a period of about six months. He is married and has two children. In all things that concern the welfare of the State of Washington Gen. O’Brien takes a deep interest.

A.S. Oliver
, D.D.S., was born in Canada on July 12, 1865. When quite young he went to St. Louis, Mo., where he resided until 1882, when he went to Livingston, Montana, where he first began the practice of dentistry. After a few years, Dr. Oliver decided to take a full course in his chosen profession, and with that end in view entered the Missouri dental college, from which he graduated in 1889. About a year ago he came to this state and settled in Olympia. His offices are in the Stuart block, and he has already built up a large and lucrative practice. He makes a specialty of crown, bridge and gold plate work, in which he has had a great deal of experience, both as a student and practitioner.

Mr. L.P. Ouellette, the present county surveyor of Thurston county, was born in Essex county, Ontario, in the year 1855.After taking a complete course in civil engineering at L’Assumption College, at the age of 22 Mr. Ouellette turned his attention toward the great west, making his residence at Denver, Colorado. During his stay in that mountainous state he for two terms occupied the position of deputy county surveyor of Arapaho county, in which Denver is situated. In 1883 Mr. Ouellette came to Olympia, and in 1887 accepted the presidency of the Puget Sound and Chehalis Railway, which line he was largely instrumental in founding and contructing. In addition to his public duties Mr. Ouellette carries on at his office in the Woodruff block, on Main street, Olympia, a general business, including all classes of surveying, platting, etc., and is prepared at all times to furnish plats and blue prints of all descriptions, and state, county, and township maps, which are revised to date according to the records of the land office.

Miss Mary L. Page, … member of the firm [Whitham, Page & Blake], is a graduate from the school of architecture in the University of Illinois, but since coming to Olympia has been engaged in mapping and platting; she has executed some very elaborate and important work, and has gained a reputation as an accurate draughtsman.

D.S. Paisley
was born in Ohio, in 1832. He was educated in the common schools of his home district and at the age of fifteen years he was sent to Bethany, Virginia, to finish his education. Upon its completion he removed to New Orleans, and for seven years he was engaged in steamboating. He subsequently located at St. Louis and for seven years was in the service of the government. Was foreman of a large iron foundry at Pittsburg, Penn., and afterwards established a foundry at Wheeling, West Virginia, which he conducted one year. He then built a foundry at New Cumberland, Virginia, when he went upon the road. In 1860 he went to Cleveland, Ohio, and later had charge of a foundry at Marquette, Michigan. He had charge of four foundries in Cleveland until 1887, whe he came to Olympia and has since been identified with this city, being last year a member of the firm of Williams & Paisley, engaged in plumbing and dealing in hardware. Mr. Paisley is a man of a fine business education and habits and makes a success of whatever he undertakes.

One of the most popular and best known young men of this city is Samuel M. Percival, eldest son of Capt. S.W. Percival, and born in Olympia thirty-three years ago. He received his education at the Bishop Scott grammar school of Oregon, and at the California military academy, after which he engaged in business with his father in this city. Early in life he developed a taste for steamboating and soon entered the service of one of the steamboat companies of Puget Sound, working himself up to the position of master and pilot, which pursuit he followed for a number of year. In 1884 he returned to Olympia to engage in business, and has ever since been closely identified with the business of this city. His career has been marked by unceasing zeal and integrity, and anything he undertakes is sure to be done well. Mr. Percival is now the manager and sole agent of Percival’s addition to Olympia, which is acknowledged to be the finest residence property in the city. The lots are all 60 by 120 feet in size, the alleys are all 20 feet wide. Almost every prominent building in this city can be seen from any lot in this addition. Mr. Percival is selling this property to builders only. He has many calls from speculators but will not sell except to those who desire to build homes.

One of the most respected pioneers of Olympia is Samuel W. Percival. He was born in Hanover, Mass., September 3, 1823. After receiving a common school education he went to sea and soon became a master mariner. He arrived in San Francisco early in 1850, and stuck to the sea on this coast, and took one of the first loads of lumber out of the Columbia River. On January 1, 1853, Capt. Percival visited Puget Sound, and attracted  by the wonderful advantages for inland commcerce sought a place to make a home, and selected a donation claim of 320 acres at Olympia, where he built and operated a saw mill, furnishing the early settlers, as well as many vessels, with lumber. It was his mill that furnished most of the lumber used in the barricade across the city, behind which the settlers took refuge, during a raid of the Indians at the time of the Indian war. Capt. Percival, soon after his arrival, entered the merchandise business, in connection with which he built the principal wharf and warehouse of this city. By his close attention to business and square and upright dealing, he soon succeeded in building up one of the largest mercantile houses on the sound.
He always had great faith in the future of Olympia, and has given largely of his means towards any and  all enterprises that would in any way benefit the city; in fact, he is one of the men who have been the backbone of Olympia. About ten years ago Mr. Percival retired from active business, at which time he transferred his wharf property to his son, J.C. Percival, who has since transformed it into a fine and well equipped dock. Some years ago Capt. Percival built a fine residence on his property on the west side where he now lives. His residence is one of the most imposing in the city, situated as it is on a prominent point overlooking the entire city, with a clear view for eight miles down the sound.

J.C. Phelps
, assistant superintendent of the Port Townsend & Southern railroad, was born in Tioga county, New York, in 1857, and immigrated with his parents to Kirksville, Mo., in 1869, when he entered the employment of the Western Union Telegraph company in 1870. Although a mere boy he served an apprenticeship, and mastered in two years all obstacles and became a thorough operator, capable of filling any position in that line. Mr. Phelps then accepted positions on various roads, and at last was promoted by the Gould system on the Wabash & St. Louis as conductor, and distinguished himself on the September 15, 1887, by saving the lives of a train load of passengers at the risk of his own, between Moberly and St. Louis. Two months after his heroic act he was granted a two months’ leave of absence under full pay and a complimentary pass over all connecting lines, and while visiting Galveston was offered and accepted charge of construction on the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe railroad, between Brenham and Taylor, Texas. Resigning this the following year, he came to Washington Territory in 1889, where he was employed with the Union Pacific Railroad company as chief clerk in the superintendent’s office of the Washington divison. In 1890 he accepted his present position.

T.H. Phipps
was born in Gloucestershire, England, in 1846, where at a young age he learned the carpenter trade, at which he worked for some years in London. Mr. Phipps was also employed in London for some time as a baker.  In 1871 he came to the United States and located in Kansas, where for five years he worked as carpenter for the A.T.&S.F.R.R.Co. In 1876 Mr. Phipps embarked in the general merchandise business in Ellenwood, Barton county, Kansas, and in 1882 removed to Washington Territory and located on Oyster Bay, Mason county, where he carried on the cranberry culture for six years. In November, 1888, Mr. Phipps removed to Olympia, where he started a soda and bottling business, which is at the present time the only one of its kind in Thurston county. His business includes the manufacture of all kinds of carbonated beverages.

Thomas Prather was born in Boone county, Missouri on July 2, 1832, and until the age of sixteen years he worked on a farm. At that time he crossed the plains to California, where he remained one year, when he returned to Missouri. In the spring of 1852 he again crossed the plains to The Dalles, Oregon, and wintered in Portland. In the spring of 1853 he came to Olympia. He then spent eight years on government survey, and helped to divide the first six townships in the new territory. He then engaged in mining in Boise City and British Columbia for about eight years. Mr. Prather helped to make the first preliminary survey of the Northern Pacific railroad between the Sound and Priest’s rapids on the Columbia river, assisting Girard S. Hurd and Major Tilton, being engaged from 1866 to 1868 in this work. He was engaged for several years in this city in the nursery business. Mr. Prather was in the Indian war, and was one of the eighty-six of the first company raised for that war, in 1855, under Judge Gilmore Hayes, serving six months, being mustered in as second sergeant in the United States service at Fort Steilacoom. In 1858 he was elected sergeant-at-arms of the territorial house of representatives, and two years afterwards was re-elected to the same position. Five years ago he was elected county commissioner of Thurston county, and served in that position until last December. Mr. Prather married thirteen years ago to Miss Agnes W. Winsor, and has two children. From 1877 to 1880 he was employed at the insane asylum  at Steilacoom, and about eighteen years ago was a teacher at Cape Flattery under Gen. T.I. McKenny.

G.S. Prince, sheriff of Thurston county, was born in Barnbridge, New York State, on December 18, 1851. After a common school education, he learned the trade of a machinist, and worked at that calling in Michigan, California and this state. He came to the Pacific coast in 1874, setttling at San Francisco and in 1878 came to Washington Territory, settling at Tumwater. There he resided until 1884, when he removed to Bucoda. In 1880 he was elected justice of the peace, and his course while in that position was such that he was elected to a second term by his fellow townsmen. He was elected last November to the position of sheriff, and his fitness for this position which requires a man peculiarly fitted for it has been amply shown since he has occupied it. Sheriff Prince is married and has one child. He is one of the progressive men of the state and is interested in all that pertains to its welfare.

John C. Rathbun
was born in New Haven, Connecticut, December 19, 1854. In the summer of 1856 his parents moved to western Missouri, where amid the varied experiences of pioneer life he grew to manhood. He attended the district school until sixteen years of age, when he entered upon a successful career as teacher. In June, 1877, he graduated as a bachelor of science from the state university of Wisconsin, and the following November was elected county school superintendent in his home country, at a time when the county gave a political majority of six hundred against him. He was re-elected two years later. His administration of school affairs was highly satisfactory to the educational interests and he was strongly urged to be a candidate for a third term, but after a prolonged contest the republican convention nominated him for representative in the legislature. He made a thorough canvas but failed of an election. While school superintendent he was appointed by the state superintendent a member of the board of visitors to one of the normal schools of the state. In 1884 he was one of two delegates from his senatorial district to the state convention that elected delegates to the republican national convention in Chicago. From 1882 to 1885 he published the Buffalo County Herald. In the latter year he removed to Texas, and assisted in organizing the new county of Midland in that state. His paper there, the Staked Plain, took a front rank among the paperes of western Texas as urging the development of that portion of the state. In some respects a democratic state convention in Texas practically shapes legislation, and in the spring campaign of 1886 Mr. Rathbun was unanimously selected by the people of his county a delegate to the state convention at Galveston, to urge a plank in the democratic platform favoring needed land legislation for the west. In 1888 there was no republican state ticket put in nomination, and Mr. Rathbun was  nonminated for commissioner of the general land office on the prohibition ticket, which was generally supported by the republicans. In 1888 he turned his attention to the then coming state of Washington, and the following spring, after giving the Sound country a thorough inspection, located at Olympia and published the Olympia Review until  last July. Mr. Rathbun has had a thorough education in the law, but owing to his newspaper connections has been but little in active practice. He was regularly a candidate for county attorney in Texas in 1888, but having determined to remove to Washington, withdrew from the campaign. He served as justice of the peace two terms in Wisconsin, one term in Texas, and at the last general election in Thurston county was elected justice of the peace for Olympia precinct. At the inauguration of the new city administration last December he was chosen police justice. He is also a member of the city board of education. Since locating in Olympia he has given encouragement to every enterprise that would benefit the city. Probably no one, in proportion to the amount of money invested, subscribed last summer as liberally to the railroad subsidies and the capital campaign fund. He is not of the razzle dazzle sort; an acquaintance with him, however, seldom fails to impress one with his sterling qualities as a practical man of affairs. He is a man of good judgment and of large intelligence. He has been a member of several secret orders and at present is Past Chancellor in the Knights of Pythias and is also far advanced in the Masonic order.

Among those who have always taken an active interest in the growth of Olympia, John D. Reagh may be singled out. Mr. Reagh was born in Ontario, Canada, in 1849. After taking the educational course afforded by the public schools he turned  his attention to ranching. Attracted toward the west, he went to California in 1876, and devoted his time to mining until 1882, when he came to Olympia. For the past eleven years he has been engaged in the wood business, and supplies nearly all the large steamers touching at Olympia. His daily pastronage requires from fifty to sixty cords of wood. Unlike other lines of business, Mr. Reagh is enabled to bring in outside capital and keep it here. He employes from 75 to 100 men with a pay roll of $2,000. He has been tendered a number of public offices, but on every occasion has declined. Mr. Reagh is an active member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen.

Hon. Thomas M. Reed
, auditor of the State of Washington, was born in Sharpsburg, Kentucky, December 8, 1825. His grandfather, Thomas Reed, was one of the pioneers of the then “Wild and Far West.” Mr. Reed at the age of twelve years was thrown on his own resources, and during the spring and summer he labored at farm work at $8 per month, with which he paid for his schooling during the winter months, and clothed himself. At the age of eighteen Mr. Reed began teaching school, and in 1849 he went by the way of Panama to San Francisco, where, in partnership with John Conness, who was afterwards senator for Claifornia, he mined for two years. He then entered the mercantile business at Georgetown, El Dorado county, and removed from California to Olympia in December 1857. He was prosecuting attorney at Lewiston, Idaho district of Washington territory, for two years, and in 1862 was a member of the territorial legislature, representing Idaho county, then part of this territory. He was speaker of the house for that session. He then practiced law in Lewiston for two years, and in 1865 was elected a member of the Idaho legislature for Nez Perce county. In 1877 he was elected to the legislative council of Washington territory, and was its president for one session. He was also a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1889. As a citizen of Olympia he is identified with many important interests; was a member of the city council; is one of the principal stockholders in the new hotel, Olympia; is interested in the Gas and Electric Light company, and a director of the First National bank. He is also a stockholder of the Oregon and C.V. Railroad company, of which for two years he was president. Mr. Reed has been in public life during the greater part of his existence, and his extensive experience in state affairs will be of incalculable benefit to his constituents. We cannot close our remarks without referring to his eminent standing in the Masonic fraternity, as he is a 33d degree Mason in A.S.&A. riters. He is and has been for twenty-nine years grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Masons in this state, and for three years was grand master — the highest state office. He is grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; also grand recorder of the Grand Jurisdiction for Washington of the Knights Templar. He was prominent in organizing the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of the territory. Thus is will be seen Mr. Reed is a busy man. Although he has accomplished more than falls to the lot of the average man to do, he is in vigorous health and excellent trim to fight the remainder of life’s battle.

Warren Riley
was born in Marietta, Ohio, in October, 1843, and spent his early days on the farm of his father. He enlisted in company L, 1st Ohio cavalry, upon the organization of that regiment in 1861. He was disabled at the battle of Corinth, after which he returned home and assisted in the organization of the 148th Ohio infantry, and was commissioned lieutenant in the same by  Governor Todd. After rendering important service in the capture of John  Morgan, he was commissioned captain of the 46th battalion of Ohio state troops. In May, 1864, he was transferred and placed in charge of camp of reconstruction of cavalry in the army of the Cumberland under General Baldy Smth, at Nashville, Tenn. During the fall of 1864 he commanded a portion of company L, 1st Ohio volunteer cavalry, doing excellent execution with the same. He was subsequently assigned duty at headquarters of General  Geo. H. Thomas, where he served until six months after the close of the war. He Took part in all the principal engagements of the army of the Cumberland, from Mill Springs to the destruction of Hood’s army at Nashville. After the close of the war he engaged in mechanical work, and at the same time pursued the study of surgery, in which he had a considerable experience during the war. He afterward entered the college at Columbus, Ohio, and graduated from the same in 1880. After practicing a short time in Ohio he removed to the Pacific coast, settling in Olympia in 1881, where he has built up a large practice, and is now one of the most distinguished physicians and surgeons for which the coast is noted.

W.H. Roberts
is a native of Toronto, Can. He left Canada for the United States in 1862, and with a party of miners started west, and was one of the first settlers in Virginia City, Montana, soon after the first gold excitement in that place. Through ill health he was compelled to go to California, and military enthusiasm having just reached its height, he enlisted as a private in the Second California infantry. Through good conduct he was soon promoted to the rank of sergeant, which he held until his honorable discharge in 1865. Having been taught music as an accomplishment in his early years, he found it at this time very useful as a means of living, and had quite a large class in San Francisco. About the year 1871 he took up his abode in Olympia, where he continued teaching music until 1879, when, at the request of a large number of citizens of Port Townsend, he organized a class in that city; and in the same year, under the administration of the late collector of customs, Hon. H.A. Webster, he was appointed inspector in the customs department, a position which he also held under Hon. A.W. Bash, until his duties as legislative correspondent for the Oregonian took him back to Olympia, when soon afterwareds he received the appointment of deputy collector of internal revenue under Major J.R. Hayden. In 1884 he was appointed to do the clerical and accountant’s work in the office of the county auditor, and in November, 1889, he was elected county clerk and clerk of the superior court of Thurston county, on the Republican ticket, running ahead of his ticket over 200 votes, which position he fills at the present time. Besides the above, Mr. Roberts is the commander of George H. Thomas Post No. 5, Grand Army of the Republic.

J.W. Robinson
was born October 5, 1855, on a farm near Wilmington, Clinton county, Ohio. He received a common school education and began teaching early in life, and by his earnings in this way completed a collegiate course and then studied law. He was admitted and has ever since practiced his chosen profession. He came to Washington territory in the fall of 1883 and located at Olympia. He soon acquired a large business and has always been recognized as an able lawyer and a fearless advocate. In 1886 he was elected prosecuting attorney for the district extending from the head of Puget Sound to the Columbia river, and held that office for one term. Full of life and energy, with an indomitable will, he has always suceeded in everything he undertook. He has been engaged in many enterprises for the development of this state, and has acquired large property interests here and elsewhere. On May 1, 1889, he founded the daily and weekly TRIBUNE, of which he is still the owner. On March 16, 1891, Governor Laughton appointed him superior judge for Thurston county, and he entered at once upon the discharge of his duties and is acquiting himself with much credit. After his appointment to the bench he leased the TRIBUNE to Barton & Gill, its present publishers. Judge Robinson has for years been prominent in the politics of his adopted state, and being a man of marked individuality, the great independence of character, and with positive convictions boldly asserted, is known everywhere for his devotion to friends and his hatred of enemies. He is a bachelor.

W.A. Rogers, one of our prominent contractors, was born at Plymouth, Sheboygan county, Wisconsin, December 6, 1849. At the age of twelve, with his parents, he moved to the city of Sheboygan, where he attended school until he was seventeen years old, when he removed to Menomonee, the same state, and there learned the carpenter’s trade. In 1875 he went to Roberts, St. Croix county, where he owned and conducted a wagon shop and also carpentered, until 1882, when Minnesota attracted him, and he moved to Fisher, in that state. In 1884 he went to Grand Forks, Dakota, and contracted until 1885, when he came to Tacoma. In August of the same year he arrived in Olympia and has remained here ever since, following the avocation for which he is most ably fitted. He was married at Wilson, Wis., January 8, 1874, to Miss Mary J. Lamson, and has five children. Mr. Rogers is a contractor of wide experience, and can well feel proud of the name of faithfully fulfilling his agreements. He has contracted many buildings in this city, and in every instance has displayed exceptional qualifications as a builder. Like most of the knowing ones he is holding fast to his real estate possessions in this city. He is an esteemed citizen, and on all buildings of a public character he is invarably consulted.

Milo A. Root
, ex-probate judge of Thurston County, and one of the best known of Washington lawyers, was born in Illinois, on January 22, 1863. His education was received in the State of New York, his parents moving to that state when he was thirteen years of age. He graduated from the Albany Law School in 1883, and later in the same year came to this state and settled in this city, beginning here the practice of law. He served two terms as probate judge of this county, being elected first in 1886, and was returned in 1888, his last term having just expired. He was the secretary of the Olympia Board of Trade for several months, and has done yeoman service for the city in that position. He was elected alderman last December, on the re-incorporation of the city, and resigned a short time since. Mr. Root is interested in, and is a dirctor in the Gray’s Harbor Electric Company, a company which furnishes telephone connection between this city and the Gray’s Harbor cities, besides to a portion of Mason County. In all that pertains to the growth, advancement, or prosperity of Olympia, Judge Root takes an active interest. He  is married, but has no children.

One of Olympia’s oldest merchants, in point of years in business, is Mr. G. Rosenthal, who was born in  Bavaria, Germany, on July 4, 1840. It was in 1855 that he came to America to seek his fortune in a new country, and he settled in Boston, where he was clerking for four years. He then went to New York, and at the breaking out of the rebellion offered himself to his adopted country as a soldier, but being short in stature he was refused by the mustering officer. He then went to California, where he remained from 1861 to 1863. In June of the latter year he came to Olympia, and has resided here ever since. After clerking for a few years he started into business for himself in 1869, and for twenty-two years he has been one of the leading merchants of this city. He first conducted a general merchandise store, and continued in that line until about two years ago when he gave up his hardware, grocery and crockery departments to devote himself exclusively to clothing, dry goods and gents’ furnishing goods, boots, shoes, hats and caps, a line in which he carries one of the most complete and varied stocks to be found in the northwest, his store at the corner of Main and Fourth streets being one of the best known in Southwestern Washington. Mr. Rosenthal has never aspired to public office, but has rather devoted his time and energies to his private business, although in 1869 his friends and neighbors prevailed upon him to accept the office of county trasurer, which position he filled with credit to himself and his constituents. He is married and has four children. In all that relates to the welfare or prosperity of the city of Olympia Mr. Rosenthal always takes an active and deep interest, and is one of the first to assist in all public-spirited enterprises.

Doing business under the firn name of Marr & Ross, are proprietors of the Acme Drug Store, a prominent institution of this city, and one that ranks A No. 1 among the drug houses on the Sound. .. Mr. Ross was only 16 years of age when he concluded to leave the family nest and assume for himself the responsibilityof life; even at this age he felt the need of more elbow room than Canada afforded, and so pushed out for the United States, making Cleveland, Ohio, his objective point. Here he received his first lessons in pill-making and kindred arts. After a three years’ residence in Cleveland, family ties and early friendships wooed him back to the native heath, only to find after some years’ trial that nothing short of a home in the “land of the free” would satisfy him; whereupon he recrossed the line, this time going to Minneapolis, Minn., where he remained, filling several responsible positions in some of the first drug stores of that city, until his removal to Olympia to enter the above mentioned partnership, which was formed February 21, 1890.

George Savidge, chief of police of Olympia, was born in Allentown, N.J., on February 6, 1842. He was educated in the public schools of his native town, and early learned the trade of harness making, working in Allentown. At the breaking out of the civil war he enlisted in company G, Eleventh New Jersey infantry, and served with distinction and bravery for a term of three years. For meritorious conduct he was several times promoted, and at the time of his discharge was captain of his company. In 1855 he engaged in the railroading and express business in his native state, and the conducted a stage line between  Allentown and Philadelphia until 1871. From that time until 1880 he was engaged in different pursuits in different parts of the country, but in the latter year he went to St. Peter, Minn.., where he was engaged in farming for seven years, removing then to Mankato in the same state. Here he stayed only about six months, and removed to this city in 1888. He was appointed chief of police in February, 1889, a position which he has ever since held. In the discharge of the responsible duties of this office he has ever been found a conscientious and pains taking officer, and has made hosts of friends in the city of his adoption.

George B. Scammell
, one of Olympia’s enterprising real estate dealers, was born in St. Johns, N.B., on July 23, 1860. After a common school education, he enterd the office of a ship broker in his native city, where he stayed until he went to New York city, in 1874, and entered into the business of marine underwriting and average adjustment. He stayed in the metropolis until three years ago, when he came to Olympia and entered into the real estate, loan and insurance business. He has now some of the finest property in the city, including Scammell’s addition, Main Street property, some at Gray’s Harbor, Tumwater, and other points. For some time Mr. Scammell was in partnership with Mr. Conger, under the firm name of Scammell & Conger, but has now taken the real estate and loan departments, making loans on real estate and improved property. Mr. Scammell is a member of the Olympia Board of Trade, and in all the movements that have for their objects the good of the city, Mr. Scammell takes an active part, being one of the foremost workers on all such enterprises.

George L. Sickles, councilman from the second ward, was born in Oswego county, New York, on September 28, 1847. He was brought up on a farm and received a common school education. He then went into the business of brick making in Waterloo, Wisconsin, and afterwards followed the same line of business in Buena Vista county, Iowa, and in the states of Nebraska, Minnesota and Dakota. Believing in the future of the Northwest he came to Washington territory about two years ago, settling in Tacoma. He came to Olympia about a year and a half ago, and was elected alderman last December. He is on many of the important committees of the city council; and takes a deep interest in all that relates to the welfare of the city. He is interested in real estate in and about the city although in no regular business at present. Mr. Sickles is married and has two children.

John A. Silsby
was born at Bucksport, Maine, March 25, 1835. He was a sailmaker and miller, and in the mercantile business for seventeen years. At Bucksport he lived until the fall of 1878, when with his wife and daughter, the latter now Mrs. P.S. Weston, he came to Olympia, where for two years he clerked in the grocery store of S. Stork, and for one year was the employe of F.R. Brown. In 1881 Mr. Silsby entered into the mercantile business on his own account, at the corner of Seventh and Main streets, which property he purchased of the Episcopal church, and which is one of the most valuable business sites in Olympia. November 29, 1887, his wife, sister of J.H. Munson of this city, died. On November 9, 1890, Mr. Wilsby married Miss Jane Barnett, a Tacoma lady of geat intellectual ability. Mr. Silsby is trustee and steward in the M.E. Church of Olympia. As a business man he has been succesful and prospered to such an extent that he is among our heaviest property holders, and is an influential citizen. It is the intention of Mr. Silsby to practically show his faith in Olympia becoming a great city by adding one to the many brick blocks already erected and in process of erection.

Oley R. Simenson is a native of Norway, and is now forty-three years of age. In 1850 he was brought to America where he lived on a farm in La Crosse, Wis., until fourteen years of age. He then served four years at the printers’ trade, when he took a two years’ academic course and then learned the jewelers’ trade at Clear Lake, Iowa, which trade he has ever since pursued. In October, 1883, Mr. Simenson came to Olympia and established his present jewelry business at 315 Main street, where he carries a complete line of watches, jewelry and silverware. For two terms Mr. Simenson was councilman for the Second ward. He has a handsome residence corner of Maple Park and Franklin streets, and his family consists of his wife and two children, a boy and a girl.

J.W. Smyth
, one of our substantial citizens was born at Mr. Holly, N.J., in 1834, and educated at the Mt. Holly institute. He learned the harness trade with Lace & Phillips, at Philadelphia, and was with his father afterwareds, who was then a wholesale boot and shoe dealer in the same city. When yet a young man he went to Ohio, where he followed harness making for fifteen years. From there he drifted to southern Illinois, where he had to carry arms all the time on account of the Indians, and his family narrowly escaped being mobbed by war refugees at  Shawneetown. Going back to Ohio he worked until he earned sufficient money to return to New Jersey. In the forepart of 1862 he enlisted in Camden, N.J., upon the call of President Lincoln, and served till the close of the war, reenlisting as a vereran in the field. He was a member of the Tenth New Jersey veteran volunteers under Col. Pierson. He was in all the battles of the wilderness until the capture of Lee, in which he officiated as first lieutenant, commanding a company. He entered the war as a private; was detailed as quartermaster several times; was on General Penrose’s staff, and in the First division of the famous Sixth corps, under Wright. His promotion was due to bravery in the field. After the war he went to Indiana, purchased a farm and remained there four years. Then on account of ill health he went to Kanses. In that state he invested $4,000 in real estate, which he sitll owns, and while there, for twelve years, was in the stock and grain business. In April, 1888, he came to Gray’s Harbor, Washington, prior to the boom there, with very little money. He remained there six months, and then came to Olympia, with only twenty five cents in his pocket, and has been here ever since. Mr. Smyth was married in Philadelphia to Miss Mary Brooks, of Morlton, N.J. He is engaged in this city in the real estate business, and is feeling much younger than when he arrived. He has met with success, and has property thorughout the city. Mr. Smyth has two children, a daughter (at Gray’s Harbor), and a son who is expected to arrive here soon to go into business with his father. Both children are married.

Benjamin F. Snyder
, one of the enterprising and pushing real estate dealers of Olympia, was born in Brown county, Ohio, August 17, 1851. He removed to Illinois with his parents when only three years of age. Until the age of twenty-five he followed farming. He moved to Nebraska in 1865, and went to stock raising about ten years after. He continued in this business until 1881 when he came to this state and settled in Tumwater. He was in the sash and door manufacturing business there for three years, when he went to Bucoda and engaged with the Settle Manufacturing company. There he stayed for two years, when he returned to Tumwater and became interested in a fruit ranch, which he still runs. He shortly afterwards entered the employ of Messrs. Spring & White, of this city, in the sash and door business, but about a year ago went into the real estate business, his office being at No. 224 Fourth street. He is interested in property in and about Olympia and has some choice lots for investors. Mr. Snyder is a member of the K. of P. and of the I.O.O.F.

John G. Sparks
is of Scotch descent, and was born in 1811 near new Albany, Indiana. He went to Illinois in 1832, and was there married. He studied law under Judges Allen and Underwood, and was admitted to the bar in 1844. He practiced in the courts of Illinois until 1844, when he went to Columbia, California, and continued the practice of his profession until 1858. He was located at The Dales, Oregon, for two years, from where he went to Walla Walla. While in that city he was appointed internal revenue assessor by President Lincoln, which office he filled until after President Lincoln’s death in 1854. He came to this city in 1862, and is to-day one of Olympia’s most respected citizens. He has served one term as territorial auditor and four terms as justice of the peace. He has gained for himself an enviable reputation here, and has a large circle of friends and acquaintances.

springer and white mill

(drawing by Edward Lange)

The Olympia Planing Mills were established March 1, 1887, by C.H. Springer, Allen White, and Allen & Harkness, under the firm name of Springer, White & Co. It was the [first] business of the kind to be established in Olympia. The plant has been enlarged several times until at present it is one of the most complete establishments of its kind on Puget Sound. The plant includes logging camps, a complete sawmill located in Chehalis County, in the center of one of the finest bodies of cedar and fir timber in the state, where giant trees are worked into timber and shipped direct to Olympia by the Northern Pacific Railroad, and is then worked again into doors, windows, casings, etc. of finest quality. The firm at present consists of C.H. Springer and Allen White, Messrs. Allen & Harkness having retired. Springer and White, by fair and honest dealing and close attention to business, have built up a large trade in this and adjoining counties, especially Chehalis and Mason counties. At present they have fifty men in their employ, the most of whom are first class mechanics, to whom the very highest wages are paid. They will the coming season turn at least two million feet of lumber into doors, windows, finished lumber, etc. Both the present members of the firm are practical mechanics, having been engaged in the sash and door business almost exclusively all their lives and to this fact they attribute largely their success in business. Their patrons from adjoining cities, when visiting the capital city, are called to visit their large establishment at the corner of Second and Jefferson Streets.

Alden Hatch Steele, M.D
., was born at Oswego, N.Y.,  Feb. 10, 1823. His father, Orlo Steele, and his mother,  Fanny  Abbey, were born in Connecticut. Alden was the youngest of three brothers, William, a graduate of West Point, who served acceptably in the Mexican War, and Elijah, a lawyer, who was for many years Superior Judge in Siskiyou Co.,  Cal. Both have passed away. Dr. Steele studied medicine with Dr. P.H. Hard, at Oswego, and  Dr. James R. Wood, the distinguished professor of surgery, New York; and graduated at the medical department of the University of New York in 1846. He first began practice at Oswego, afterward, at Southport (now Kenosha), Wisconsin, for a year. In March, 1849, he started for Oregon with a stage company, and overtook the Rifle Regiment, U.S.A., and was invited to join the officers; so he came in their company to Vancouver. After spending a few weeks there, he went to Oregon City, and settled, in October, 1879, practising his profession there for 14 years. In 1852, Dr. Steele administered chloroform in amputating a limb at the thigh — the first used in surgery north of San Francisco. He was a member of the city council eleven years, part of the time as recorder, and three years as mayor. In August, 1854, he was married to Miss Hannah H. Blackler, from Marblehead, Mass. Her grandfather Blackler was a captain in the war of the revolution, and commanded the flotilla with which Washington crossed the Delaware the night before the battle of Trenton. Of their two children born in Oregon, the daughter Fanny is now living and is the wife of Gen’l Russell G. O’Brien. For a short season in 1857, Dr. Steele was with Gen’l Palmer on the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, and there, as at Oregon City, had a wonderful control of the red men. He was called to their wigwams often, in case of sickness, and so strong was their confidence in him, that in personal quarrels or whiskey rows, he could invariably quiet the combatants, and take away their liquor. In 1863, when troops and officers were called east for the war of the rebellion, Dr. Steele was appointed surgeon at Fort Dalles, where the post hospital was virtually a general hospital., and a very large number of cases passed under his care. Among them was a company of the 14th Infantry, reenlisted after the war, under command of Lieut.  Col. Coppinger, and who became seriously affected with scurvy during their trip to this coast. After three years service in the dry climate of the Dalles, Dr. Steele’s health began to fail, and he was transferred to Fort Stevens, at the mouth of the Columbia, where his health was restored, and in June, ’67, to Fort Steilacoom, W.T. That post was “broken up” in April, ‘689, and the troops sent to Alaska. Decling further service in the army, Dr. Steele then came to Olympia, where he has since resided. In 1869 and ’70, when Col. Samuel Ross, of the U.S. Army, was superintendent of Indian affairs in Washington Territory, Dr. Steele was physician to the Indians of Nesqually and Chehalis Reservations, including Squaxon Island. Here he won the full confidence of the Indians, as he had done in other places. For 15 years he was examining surgeon for pensions, U.S.A., for both army and navy, commencing in 1873. He was appointed by Gov. Ferry, regent of the territorial university for two terms, from 1876 to 1880, and as medical inspector of territorial penitentiary, six years. He was medical examiner for the N.Y. Mutual Life Ins.  Co. for 25 years, and for several other insurance companies, meanwhile. After removing from Oregon, he was elected honorary member of the Oregon medical society, and on giving up professional labors in Olympia was elected honorary member of the medical society of the state.

Edmund Sylvester
, the pioneer settler of Olympia, was born at Deer Isle, Maine, in 1821. When yet a young man he came around Cape Horn and sailed up the Columbia river in 1844, taking up as a claim the territory now covered by the city of Albina, Oregon. He assisted in building the first house in Portland, Oregon. In 1846 he came to Puget Sound and took up as a homestead the land on which Olympia has since been built. He erected the first hotel in this city, and this hostlery was known as the “New England.” He made a free gift of a public square; also, the old district school grounds, and the land known as the capitol grounds. He died in Seattle a few years ago, leaving a wife and daughter.

The firm of Talcott Bros., dealers in watches, diamonds, jewelry, silver and silver plated ware, optical goods, sewing machiens, etc., was established in 1872 by C.R. Talcott, now senior member of the firm. The growth of the business of this firm is but another example of what can be done by push, integrity, and good business principles. Although started in a small way their growth has been rapid, until now they are one of the representative firms of Olympia, having the largest store and carrying by far the largest stock of any house in their line of business. The business was started in a window of a commission house, and by fair dealing and enterprise it rapidly increased until it has reached its present magnificent proportions. G.N. Talcott was admitted to the firm in 1882, and G.L. Talcott in 1890, and the business was much the gainer by this infusion of new blood. These gentlemen are natives of Pittsfield, Ill., and since their advent to this city have gained a deservedly high reputation among the representative business men of Olympia. In 1880 they bought the present location of their magnificent store and erected thereon the first two story brick store in the Capital City. In 1884 they bought the adjoining property and built another store whch they are now renting. Last summer they put in a large fire proof vault which would do honor to any banking institution in the country. In this vault they will have 100 safe deposit boxes which they will rent to their patrons for the safe deposit of all valuables. The wonderful success of this firm has been due to its own endeavors, and it has become a credit to the city. They not only carry the largest stock on their line of business and see to it that their customers get the full value for money, but they are enterprising and energetic citizens as well as business men, and take an active interest in all that tends toward the advancement of their adopted city. It is such men as these that have done much toward giving this city the impetus which has advanced it so rapidly. It s a pleasure to say that they are representative citizens of Olympia.

C. Thoreson
 … Secretary and treasurer of the [Thurston County Land Company], was born in Christiana, Norway, on May 17, 1852.  After graduating from the high school he served as a clerk in a general merchandise store until 1872, when he came to Rochelle, Ill., where he engaged as clerk in a dry goods store for two years, when he went to Hamilton county, Iowa, where he entered into the mercantile business, in which line he continued until he sold out in 1880. He was then elected county recorder and held that office for two terms. He then went into the real estate and loan business, continuing until he came to this state last May. Mr. Thoreson is married, but has no children.

Harry C. Tillotson
, city engineer of Olympia, was born in Marshall, Calhoun country, Michigan, on October 17, 1862. He was educated as a civil engineer, and graduated at Cauandaugua, New Yor, in 1880. He first was engaged in railroad building in Ohio, and has been engaged in that class of work and city engineering ever since. In 1884 he was assistant engineer on the famous Ohio river bridge at Point Pleasant, Virginia, and in 1887 he was assistant city engineer of Duluth, Minn. Mr. Tillotson first came to the state of Washington in 1888, and settled in this city last June. For the past season he has been engaged as resident engineer in charge of construction of Northern Pacific railroad line through Olympia. He was elected city engineer last December, and his thorough training for the position and his capabilities for such an important place, although still quite a young man, has been amply shown in the sterling work and the many radical and efficient improvements that he has made in the city engineer’s department, even in the short time that he has been at the head.

Le Roy M. Tozier
was born in Portland, Oregon, April 8, 1867. When five years of age he removed to Hillsboro, Washington county, Oregon, where his father was elected sheriff, afterward representative, and then judge of Washington county. He received his education at Pacific university and Tualatin academy, taking a four years’ course, but leaving when having gone but three. Since that time he has traversed the Pacific coast, occasionally going east. Five years of this time he spent in the clothing business at different places. Mr. Tozier came to Olympia November 6, 1889, and established business at the corner of Fourth and Washington streets, at which place he has enjoyed large business. Mr. Tozier has recently interested himself with business men in Portland, Oregon, in the real estate business, and wil operate there and in Olympia.

One of Olympia’s oldest and best known citizens is Peterfield Turpin who came here in 1858. Mr. Turpin was born in Warsaw, Gallatin county, Kentucky, on May 3, 1840. He received an appointment as surveyor under Gen. James Tilton, by President Buchanan, in the general land office here in 1858, and continued for some years. He is now a capitalist, well provided as far as the needs of this life are concerned. In 1883 Mr. Turpin was a member of the territorial legislature and has had many cases of trust and importance within the gift of his fellow citizens. He was married in 1860 and has two children, a son, F.B. Turpin, who is now residing in Seattle, and a daughter, Mrs. George B. Scammell, residing in this city. He resides at the corner of Main and Sixth streets, surrounded by his family, preferring a residence in the place where he has spent the best years of his life for the good of his city and state, rather than in the East, where a great part of his large property is situated.

James G. Tusten is one of the men who by strict attention to conservative business methods has built for himself a good business in Olympia. He was born at Tusten, Waushara county, Wisconsin, July 14, 1864, his native town being named in honor of his father, Thomas R. Tusten, who was one of the pioneers of the Badger state. In 1872 his parents left Wisconsin for the southern states, and after traveling through several states and territories during the succeeding two years, settled in Texas and engaged in cotton raising. They followed this for three years until the fall of 1877 they removed to Kansas, and the next spring started across the plains to try their fortunes in the northwest. After four months’ travel they reached Oregon City, and in the following spring came to Tacoma, where his father had a contract to build the Northern Pacific railway from Tacoma to Wilkeson. Mr. Tusten has remained in Washington ever since, except for three years he was farming at Hood River, Oregon. In September 1885, he opened a small candy store in Olympia, where he has met with a good degree of success. His business having grown beyond his expectations, in November, 1890, he was obliged to seek larger accommodations. At this time he formed a partnership with Mr. Swenta Johnson, and has since, under the firm name of Tusten & Johnson, been doing a wholesale and retail business in French, American and home made candies, fruits of all kinds, cigars, tobaccos, snuff, cutlery and smokers’ supplies. Connected with their store Tusten & Johnson have commodious club rooms and ice cream parlors. Mr. Tusten is a most affable gentleman, strictly attentive to his business, and courteous to his customers.

John P. Tweed
, county auditor of Thurston county, was born in Cincinati, Ohio, in 1846. He attended the school there until nineteen years of age, then entered upon his business career as clerk in a commission house, continuing therein until twenty-two years of age, when he removed to Evansville, Indiana, and purchased an interest in a planing mill. He remained in that business for three years, thence went to White county, Indiana, and engaged in farming until the spring of 1872. From there he came to Washington, remaining only a few months, when he went to San Jose, California. During his residence of five years there Mr. Tweed clerked in various public offices. In August, 1878, he returned to Washington, coming to Olympia, and in 1879 entered the surveyor general’s office as clerk, continuing therein for eight years, until a change in administration. In the fall of 1888 Mr. Tweed was elected to his present position of auditor of Thurston county.  The wisdom of selecting a man of Mr. Tweed’s extensive clerical experience for this responsible position is freely acknowledged by all, irrespective of party, and the affairs of his office have been administered with a business-life promptness and accuracy which, with his agreeable social qualities, has made him one of the most popular officials in the county.

Among Olympia’s progressive business men there is no one better known or more renowned for his energy and business foresight than the subject of this sketch. Born in Nebraska, Mr. Van Epps at an early age became one of Washington’s young pioneers. About two years since he succeeded his father Hon. T.C. Van Epps in conducting his present wholesale and retail bookselling house and general fancy goods bazaar. By close attention to business this young merchant has placed his establishment among the first in his line of trade in the entire northwest, and has given Olympia’s citizens opportunities of purchasing at home many classes of goods which they were formerly compelled to purchase in foreign markets. His trade in holiday goods runs far up into the thousands and during the last holiday season his sales exceeded those of any other establishment in Thurston county. Mr. Van Epps’ experience is a thorough example of what youth, energy and close attention to business details can accomplish, and a bright future surely lies before this young merchant.

Alderman Samuel G. Ward was born in Toulon, Stark county,Illinois, on January 17, 1843. He came across the isthmus in 1853, and came to Washington in 1862, and from that year until 1866 he was engaged in trading and mining in the Powder river mines in eastern Oregon. In the latter year he returned to Washington, settling at Tumwter, and engaged in the milling business for four years. From 1870 to 1878 he was in the mercantile business in the same place. It was in the latter year that he was elected to the legislature as a representative from Thurston county, and he then took up his residence in this city and went into business. In 1882 Mr. Ward became the local agent for the Northern Pacific express company, a position that he has ever since held, being the agent also for the Northern pacific railroad company, and the ticket agent for that road. It was in December last year that he was elected to the city council to represent ward one. He is married, and has a family of three children. In all enterprises of this city Alderman Ward always takes an active and deep interest.

Mr. Robert N. Whitham [of the civil engineering firm Whitham, Page & Blake] is a graduate from the school of engineering in the University of Illinois, and has had large experience in relocating government surveys.

Mr. Frank C. Williams was born in London, Eng., August 31, 1866. In September, 1874, with his widowed mother, he went to Toronto, Canada, where he received a common school education, and at the same time, when only thirteen years of age, he learned the undertaking business with V.P. Humphrey of Toronto. Mr. Williams then attended the Toronto medical school and Toronto university, where he attained a thorough and practical knowledge of arterial embalming, continuing in the undertaking business in the meantime. In 1887 he removed to Buffalo, N.Y., and a year later he came to Olympia, Wash., and entered the employ of Rabbeson and Harned, undertakers; also doing bill posting and playing first class attractions in Columbia hall until the Olympia theater was opened, when he became stage manager for that theater and city bill poster.

The firm of A.W. Wisner & Co. is composed of A.W. Wisner and J.E. Poe, and they are at present conducting a general real estate and insurance business and have recently purchased the “Home Plat,” a beautiful suburb of Olympia, which they have just placed on the market. They propose in the near future, however, to make fire insurance a specialty, Mr. Wisner having had many years experience as an underwriter … Mr. Wisner was detailed by the Capital Campaign Committee of Olympia to work in Whitman county during the recent campaign, and the result of the election there shows that he did his work well …

J.R. Wood
, one of Olympia’s oldest and best known citizens, was born in the town of Henston, Duchess county, N.Y., on January 3, 1825.  Catching the western fever at the early age of sixteen years, he went to Michigan, and for a time lived near Detroit. In 1847 he went to Wisconsin and settled near the present city of Racine, voting for the adoption of the first constitution of that state. When the California gold excitement broke out in 1849, he started for that reputed El Dorado, met his father and a small party of friends, crossing the plains to near the present city of Los Angeles, where they arrived on Christmas eve, and then proceeding to San Francisco, which was reached on March 12, 1850. In November, 1850, Mr. Wood arrived in Oregon, and in the following month he reached Puget Sound, settling in this city, where he has ever since resided. He established the first brewery in Olympia, and successfully conducted the same for twenty years. In the various Indian wars that the early settlers of Puget Sound were obliged to undergo, Mr. Wood took a prominent part, and was a regular volunteer under the call  for troops issued by Governor Stevens, in 1856. Mr. Wood has occupied his present residence on Fifth street ever since 1851. He married the daughter of Judge Yeustis in 1859, and has two  children, one son and one daughter. He has many very pleaant and interesting as well as startling reminiscences of the early pioneer days of Puget Sound to relate, when he was one among the very few white settlers in what is now the present State of Washington.

S.C. Woodruff,
one of Olympia’s best known citizens, was born in Hong Kong,  China, on September 20, 1858. His father was in the government employ there at the time, being the surveyor of the Port of Shanghai. When six years of age young Woodruff came to the territory of Washington, and settled in Olympia, where his education was received. He first went into the job printing business, and afterwards entered into mercantile life as a book seller, in which line he continued, in this city, for seven years. He then removed to Seattle, where he was in the same trade for two years, until he was appointed accountant in the State Insane Asylum, being afterwards secretary of the trustees of that institution, a position which  he held for six years. Two years ago he came back to Olympia and entered into the real estate business. He plotted, laid out and put on the market that beautiful suburb known as Woodruff’s Addition, and sold all of it within a year. He also laid out the town site of Gate City, twenty miles from here, and has sold a large portion of that delightful place. In 1887 he erected the handsome building on Main Street, known as Woodruff’s Block, which is an ornament and credit to the city. He was assistant postmaster of Olympia for five years and is an active member of the A.O.U.W. and of the Elks, president of the School Board and secretary of Olympia Hotel Co. He has done a great deal to upbuild and develop the city of Olympia, and is recognized as one of the pushing and enterprising residents of this thriving and rapidly growing community.


Weir: Olympia, The Capital

Olympia, the Capital of the State of Washington
By Allen Weir

The Washington Historian, 2:3 (April, 1901), 107-111.

Some one has said that “God made the country and man made the city.”  This is, at least, an exaggerated statement, and needs to be qualified.  No city could be built, or could flourish, unless it have the foundation of natural advantages.  A philosopher, when asked when the training of a child should begin, promptly responded: “A hundred years before its birth.”  He doubtless referred to prenatal influence as a foundation for human character.  Given proper natural advantages, supplemental to man’s design, energy and intelligent effort, and a city springs into being and continues its growth and prestige through ages.  In the distribution of the world’s population and commercial activities among civilized nations, natural conditions favorable to the formation of centers of population and wealth attract and control.  The continent of North America, settled late in the world’s march upward from savagery, contains more and better natural elements as a basis for a highly developed civilization than does any other part of the world.  Of this continent, Puget Sound, the latest in settlement and development, is the garden spot from an agricultural and horticultural standpoint, and is so situated with reference to the meeting and exchange of inland and ocean commerce, that upon its shore must ultimately be the foremost commercial city of the Pacific coast.

Puget Sound, with its 1,200 miles of inland shore line, indented with bays, harbors, and surrounded and backed by such a vast wealth of soil, timber, coal., fish and mineral, with a mild and equable climate, necessarily furnishes room and suitable location for towns and cities.

Olympia, situated at the headwaters of this splendid. inland sea, flanked by her outlying resources, offers advantages for inspection and consideration of the world at large without an apology or reservation.  Ever since August, 1845, when Col. M. T. Simmons and his small party first arrived at the head of Budd’s inlet, it has been recognized as a natural point for a future city.  Ever since 1846, when Col. Simmons erected at Tumwater Falls the first gristmill north of the Columbia River, this great water power has been looked upon as furnishing the natural conditions for a manufacturing center.  In 1847, Edmund Sylvester built the first dwelling house in Olympia, and in the same year the Simmons party erected the first saw mill on Puget Sound, at the falls of the Deschutes River.  In June, 1848, Rev Father Ricard established the Roman Catholic Mission of St. Joseph on Budd’s Inlet, one and one-half miles below Olympia.  These beginnings, each in its line, demonstrated that the argonaut who saw with prophetic eye in Puget Sound and its future possibilities the golden fleece of commerce, and who selected the head of the Sound as the natural and choicest for a city, knew what they were about.

When, in 1852, a convention was called to meet in Monticello, made up of delegates from all portions of Oregon north of the Columbia River, for the purpose of petitioning Congress for a separate Territorial government, Olympia was naturally selected as the Proper location for the capital of the new territory.  The capital it remained through territorial existence and when, in l889, the constitution for the State of Washington was submitted to the voters of the commonwealth for their ratification, and the selection of a permanent seat of government was likewise left to popular vote, it was demonstrated that no mistake had been made by the founders of the territory in selecting Olympia.  At the succeeding election the location of the capital at Olympia was confirmed for all time to come by an overwhelming vote in its favor against all competitors.

    Olympia is a modern, up to date town, having a population of about 6,000, with miles of graded, planked or macadamized streets, with an excellent sewer system and first-class sanitary arrangements; wide sidewalks, a well-equipped and efficient electric light and street car system; water works supplied from a pure mountain stream; the best of telegraph and telephone systems and service; attractive homes; a fine, graded public school system; good society, and many other advantages such as intelligent and desirable newcomers inquire about and appreciate.

Olympia has two banks, and an aggregate of cash deposits amounting to upwards of a million dollars, divided among a large number of depositors, indicating a healthy financial condition.  The conservative and safe character of her business community is shown by the fact that business failures are here unknown.

Last winter the state Legislature passed an act under which the state became the purchaser of the Thurston County court house and a block of land in the heart of the city for capitol purposes.  Sylvester Park, a full block of land adjoining, has since been donated by the city, to become a part of the capitol grounds.  The building is a handsome, substantial structure, with stone exterior and ornamental trimmings, and cost, together with the additions now in process of construction, $360,000.  Sylvester Park, named for the original townsite proprietor, adds much to the beauty of the surroundings.

Olympia is a historic spot.  Within its borders, almost half a century ago, in a building still standing, was enacted the first law ever enacted on American soil north of the Columbia River.  Funds have recently been raised to preserve the old building  from destruction.  Here was issued the first proclamation by Governor Isaac I Stevens, first territorial governor.  Here the wheels of organized government in the territory were first set in motion.  Here was held the first Fourth of July celebration on American soil north of Oregon, Hon. D. E. Bigelow, who was the orator, of the day at that celebration, July 4, 1852, still lives in his elegant Olympia home, ripe in years and surround by a large family.  Judge Bigelow was also a member of that first Legislature, and is almost its sole survivor.  On Capitol Hill, on a ten-acre site donated by Edmund Sylvester, stands a historic building, being the old capitol erected at the expense of the general government in 1855.  Within its walls the various legislative sessions, territorial and state, since the first two, have assembled.  In 1889 an extension was added to this building to accommodate the constitutional convention.  The next legislative session will be held in the new state house.  The first session was held in a building then owned by Parker & Colter, merchants.  The second session was held in the Masonic Hall building, still standing in its modest dignity near the center of the city.  Of the firm of Parker & Colter, who, by the way, had here the first express office north of Portland, Ore., within the United States, Capt. John G. Parker still survives.  His home is in Olympia, fronting the shore of the bay on the east side, just south of the location of the old Catholic Mission.

Olympia is also the home of the oldest weekly newspaper in the state, the “Washington Standard,” still owned and published by its founder, Hon. John Miller Murphy.

Tumwater, just South of Olympia, and in fact, a suburb, is the spot where Col. M. T. Simmons, in 1845, made settlement.  The old saw mill building which he erected there during the “forties” is standing.  Here the waters of the Deschutes River, tumbling through a rocky gorge, furnish the power for Olympia’s electric light and street car systems, as well as for pumping her water supply, besides enough surplus for a large grist mill.

Of the constitutional convention that assembled in Olympia July,4, 1889, the following were members: John P. Hoyt, President; J. J. Brown, N. G. Blalock, John F. Gowey (since deceased), Frank M. Dallam, James Z. Moore, E. H. Sullivan, George Turner, Austin Mires, M. M. Godman, Gwin Hicks, William F. Prosser, Louis Sohns (now deceased), A. A. Lindsley, J. J. Weisenburger (deceased), P. C. Sullivan, R. S, More, Thos. T. Minor (deceased), J. J. Travis, A. J, West, C. T. Fay, C. P. Coly, R. T. Sturdevant, J. A. Shoudy (deceased), Allen Weir, W. B. Gray, J. P. Dyer, George H. Jones, B. L. Sharpstein, H. M. Lillis, J. F. Van Name, A. Schooley, H. C. Willison, T. M Reed, S. H. Manley, R. Jeffs, Francis Henry (deceased), George Comegys, O. H. Joy (deceased), D. E. Durie, D. Buchanan, J. R. Kinnear, G. W. Tibbetts, H. W. Fairweather, T. C. Griffiths, C. H. Warner, J. P. T. McCrosky, S. G. Cosgrove, Thos. Hayton, S. H. Berry, D. J. Crowley, J. T. McDonald, John M. Reed, Edward Eldridge (deceased), Geo. H. Stevenson, S. A. Dickey, Henry Winsor, Theo. L. Stiles, James A. Burk (deceased), John McReavy, R. O. Dunbar, M. Morgans, James Power, B.  B. Glascock, O. A. Bowen, H. Clothier, M. J. McElroy, J. T. Eshelman, R. Jamison, H. E. Allen (deceased), H. F. Suksdorf, Jas. Hungate, L. Neace, J. C. Kellogg, W. L. Newton.  These persons framed and adopted the fundamental law of the state.

Olympia is a city of beautiful homes and good society.  As the residence of state officers, the judges of the supreme court, and of the federal and county officers, the city is a gathering point for a most desirable class of people.  Among it’s future claims to distinction will be its advantages and attractions as a summer resort.


Rainey: Short History of Manufacturing

A Short History of Industry and Manufacturing in
Thurston County, Washington
by Thomas Rainey

Mirror of page

The following history is largely excerpted from “A Short History of Industry and Manufacturing in Thurston County, Washington,” by Thomas Rainey, Ph.D. Additional commentary has been included by LMEA staff.

The native inhabitants of what is now Thurston County were engaged in commerce long before the first Europeans and Americans sailed into Puget Sound. The Nisqually and Squaxin were cedar and salmon people. Their split cedar longhouses were places of dwelling and ceremony during the long rainy winter as well as factories and storehouses. Wooden canoes fashioned from cedar carried the natives and their cargo to war, trade, and visit. Sustanence was provided by salmon, roots and bulbs gathered during the spring and summer.

In the late eighteenth century, Europeans and white Americans entered the Sound. In 1792, a surveying team under Lieutenant Peter Puget of the Vancouver expedition put its longboats ashore in south Puget Sound. White explorers did not return, however, until the 1820s when scouts of the Hudson’s Bay Company searched the area for beaver and a possible location for a fort to serve as their Puget Sound base of operation.

In the spring of 1833, Dr. John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, sent agents to establish a trading post at Nisqually in what is now Thurston County. Fort Nisqually was the hub of fur-trading activity on Puget Sound. The company also established a large cattle and sheep operation on the Nisqually plains. The British fur-trading and agricultural companies were thus well-established on southern Puget Sound when American settlers began arriving. The United States, though, gained full sovereignty over the region by the mid-1840s.

Colonel Michael T. Simmons led the first party of Americans to settle on Puget Sound. In 1846, he staked a claim around the waterfalls of the Deschutes River near where it empties into Budd Inlet, the southernmost part of the Sound, and harnessed the Deschutes Falls to power a sawmill and grist mill. He named the settlement New Market, later Tumwater.

Levi Lathrop Smith and Edmond Sylvester laid claim to a small peninsula jutting into Budd Inlet two miles north of Tumwater. Their claim became Smithfield, later renamed Olympia. Olympia became the seat of the new county of Thurston. It was there that Isaac Ingalls Stevens, the first governor of Washington Territory, established the capital in 1853. Shortly after the foundings of Tumwater and Olympia, Isaac Wood founded a small village east of Olympia named Woodland (renamed Lacey in 1891 so as not to confuse it with the more prominent town of Woodland located on the Columbia River).

The first American settlers in Thurston County had high hopes for its rapid economic development. Except for pockets of prairie land which lured the first farmers, the county was blanketed by marketable timber. Coal was also discovered in the south county. The founders of Olympia and Tumwater envisioned their towns as centers of commerce that would eventually rival San Francisco.

The mid-1850s found the new settlements on south Puget Sound prosperous. Olympia had a small newpaper, the first on Puget Sound, which championed immigration and rapid development in its first issue. The vast forests surrounding the Sound beckoned the woodman’s axe. An infant shellfish industry was blooming and new lumber mills were springing up around the inlet. Olympia had an established merchantile trade. Though growth was impeded by the Indian War of 1855-56 and the tendency of the men to rush off to California’s gold fields, the founding generation had established Olympia as a significant port and trading center on south Puget Sound by the 1860s.

Still, a prosperous and stable economy proved elusive for the remainder of the century. For example, in the late nineteenth century, Thurston County experienced all of the usual problems of a frontier area – and a few special ones of its own. Puget Sound was essentially an enormous virgin wilderness of fir trees. The topography therefore dictated that timber would be a major industry. But nature wasn’t so kind. Olympia, the county’s only feasible port, provided a link for local exports, but at low tide was separated from open water by a massive  mudflat. Since dense forests made overland travel extremely difficult, water transport was vital to economic growth (at least until the railroads arrived).

Tacoma and Seattle, until the 1870s much smaller than Olympia, possessed deeper and more accessible ports which accounted in large part for their phenomenal growth in the late nineteenth century. By the time Olympia dredged its way to deep water at the turn of the century, the cities to its north had eclipsed it in population and industry. Another setback came in 1873 when the Northern Pacific Railroad chose Tacoma instead of Olympia as its major western terminus because of the former’s spacious and deeper waters of Commencement Bay. Transportation problems decreed in part by nature proved a major impediment to early industrial growth in Thurston County.

By 1893, Thurston County was dependent on outside markets in the sense that its economy tied directly to its most important resource – timber. As new technology made it possible for lumber companies to cut, process and ship timber out of the county, wood products became the major export and primary driver of the local economy.

The timber industry generated most jobs, with camps and mills springing up all over the county. Several small towns in the south county – like Bordeaux – were no more than lumber camps. Olympia merchants supplied camps and mills in several western counties, while mills in Tumwater and along Budd Inlet turned logs into  finished wood products. Logging and milling operations around Yelm, Tenino, and Bucoda boosted those small towns during good years when national demand for lumber was high.

The forest products market during these years was notoriously unstable. With many competitors, lumber prices were low even in the best of times. Small logging and milling firms struggled along with razor-thin profit margins.  Owners frequently cut wages, operated outdated machinery, or went out of business when market gluts cut demand. The lumber practice of the day was to cut as fast, as much, and as cheaply as you could and then abandon the property.

The county’s agriculture sector experienced similar market fluctuations. Here again, nature wielded a stern hand. Glacial activity left a path of rocky rubble in its wake. Sandy loam in some prairie areas was all that remained to attract farmers. Even the prairies had highly acidic soil. At the end of the nineteenth century, farmers were barely meeting the needs of the local market and eventually lost it altogether. They turned to dairy farming to survive market shocks.

Other industries began to brighten the county’s economic horizon in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.  Most notable were coal mining and stone quarrying in the southeast county and the Olympia Brewery in Tumwater. Coal was discovered early in the county’s history and mined sporadically well into the twentieth century. An even greater boom to the economy of the south county were the sandstone quarries near Tenino. Craftsmen came from all over Europe and America to get Tenino Sandstone. The quarries lifted the local economy and, from the late 1880s until the first World War, boosted Tenino’s population several times over. But growth in this industry was cyclical, reflecting the availability of disposable income and municipal expenditures, both of which tended to decline in times of economic downturn. The market for sandstone faded after World War I as architectural tastes changed and less expensive cement replaced it as a major building material.

The Olympia Brewing Company proved to be a more enduring aspect of the county’s economy. It was founded in 1894 as the Capital Brewing Company by Leopold F. Schmidt. After establishing itself in the Far West, the company expanded to the booming gold rush towns of Alaska. In 1901, it effected facility expansions in Washington and Oregon – and was renamed the Olympia Brewing Company. The company was nearly wrecked by state prohibition in 1916, pushing the economies of Tumwater and Olympia into a minor depression. However, it sprang from Prohibition in 1933 with a new, thoroughly modern brewing plant.

The Olympia Brewing Company may have led Thurston County out of the hard times of the 1890s but other sectors prospered as well. As before, the basic economic health of the county depended upon timber. In 1900, a corporate giant emerged when the railroad tycoon James Hill sold 900,000 acres of timberland owned by his Northern Pacific Railroad to Frederick Weyerhaeuser. Over the next 20 years, Weyerhaeuser moved his operations to western Washington and bought additional land, including the last old growth stands on the southeastern slopes of Thurston County. Meanwhile, a regional outfit, Simpson Timber Company, expanded into Thurston County from neighboring Mason County. Simpson purchased part interest in two local companies, Mud Bay Logging and Mason Logging, and was soon logging timber high on the slopes of the Black Hills.

By 1906, the sawmills along Budd Inlet and in other parts of the county were humming with activity. Olympia was expanding north into the Inlet, as new land was formed with dredge material from the mud flats. Olympia as creating a deepwater port, though still relatively small compared to Seattle and Tacoma. The Union Pacific Railroad was surveying a new line to Budd Inlet. The population of the county and real estate values were rising.  The San Francisco earthquake ushered in local economic recovery as mills in Thurston County could not keep up with the demand for lumber created as the city began to rebuild. The Banker’s Panic of 1907 caused a slight downturn, but one that hardly affected the county.

While the timber industry sustained Thurston County through nearly three decades of prosperity, state government – which would eventually replace it as the dominant local industry – began to emerge. It would not fully replace timber as the major industry until the post-World War II period, but it made a good start in the 1920s. In the process, Thurston County began to reap the economic benefits that accrued directly and indirectly from state government. For example, when the legislature was in session local businesses saw a healthy pickup, this despite the fact that state government did not grow substantially until after World War I. A  rising state government meant growth in the county economy (though the economic boom in the 1890s was itself responsible for state government growth).

One sign of government-fueled prosperity was the building spree in and around Olympia during the 1920s.  Finished in 1927, the State Capitol Campus, anchored by the domed Capitol Building, was the very symbol of what would become the county’s preeminent industry. State employment, bolstered by federal funds, buffered Olympia and the surrounding area from the worst effects of the Great Depression after the Stock Market Crash of 1929.

The mobilization of resources at the onset of World War II marked a new heyday for the county’s timber industry, pulling it out of the downturn experienced in the years immediately following the Depression. Wartime demand did, however, reveal a growing problem – overcutting.

The main problem for the county’s timber industry was exhaustion of the resource base. Weyerhaeuser felled the last major stands of old-growth Douglas fir in southeast Thurston County, while the Mudd Bay and Mason Logging Companies cleared the Black Hills in the west county. However, Weyerhaeuser, with the help of federal conservation agencies, initiated replanting and other means of stewarding forest resources. Companies in the Black Hills, though, were of the old “cut and run” school. By 1941, the area was logged out, and with the timber went the town of Bordeaux. The Department of Natural Resources took over the land and established a tree farm now known as Capital Forest.

Olympia emerged in the post-war era as a major service center for lumber communities west of Thurston County while the Port of Olympia remained a major transportation center for shipping logs and finished lumber.  But the glory days of the local timber industry were over. With the decline of the timber industry went many of the associated milling and secondary operations. Local mills boomed briefly in the post-World War II period, but began to close after the building orgy of the 1940s and 1950s.

War – both hot and cold – has been good for counties along Puget Sound. During the war, operations at nearby Fort Lewis increased several fold, forcing soldiers and their families into Lacey and Olympia for housing and other services. Later, a good many discharged and retired military personnel and their families settled on Thurston and Pierce counties as permanent homes. Lacey, a sleepy town before the war, expanded almost geometrically and by the late 1950s surpassed Tumwater as the county’s second largest city. It was also in the 1950s that Olympia assumed its present form as a capital city with a small mill or two on the shores of Budd Inlet and a flourishing, profitable seaport.

By the 1970s, Olympia, Tumwater, and Lacey had blended into an extended capital community. The cities epresented an urban fixture on the new interstate corridor between Seattle and Portland, while continuing to expand as a center of offices and homes for state employees, military personnel, and their respective families.  This further diminished the county’s already modest farm sector as housing development pushed into the remaining fertile prairies. Dairy and truck (mostly berry) farming continued in the south county, interspersed with small hobby farms.

The Washington Public Power Supply System plant at Satsop in neighboring Grays Harbor County had a marked impact on Thurston County since half of the 4,000 construction laborers not only lived in Thurston, but usually spent their paychecks there as well. The Satsop nuclear plant benefits came to an abrupt end in the early 1980s as the project was terminated. Unfortunately, that coincided with a severe national economic recession that further hobbled the county’s manufacturing sector. Even seemingly invinsible state government was hit by layoffs.

Thurston County emerged from the recession and by the late 1980s was in the midst of a commercial, office, nd residential building boom. The Olympia waterfront and downtown were revitalized, Black Hills Hospital (now Capital Medical Center) was built, and Lacey and Tumwater began a residential and office boom. As population  followed this development, public schools were built to accommodate the influx.

In recent years, Thurston County has become an educational and retail center, serving counties to the west and south. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the state legislature approved and financed construction of The Evergreen State College on a peninsula between Budd and Eld Inlets. The four-year public institution became an economic and cultural fixture in Thurston County with faculty, staff, and students contributing to the local housing and retail sectors. The same can be said for South Puget Sound Community College and Saint Martin’s College, though on a somewhat smaller scale. The county also benefitted from the trained and skilled labor graduated by these institutions.

As with other cities across the nation, the retail business has migrated from historic downtown Olympia to shopping centers and other significant retail outlets on its periphery (the trend has abated somewhat, however, as downtown Olympia has mounted something of a retail rebound with niche stores). The county’s first mall was South Sound Center in Lacey, built in the mid-1960s. It was followed in the late 1970s by Capitol Mall and its surrounding retail corridor. More recently, Martin Village in Lacey and other smaller-scale retail centers have  further boosted the county’s retail core. In addition to capping the retail “leakage” to Pierce and King counties, Thurston County’s retail core has “exported” its goods to much of southwest Washington by attracting customers from rural parts of Thurston and nearby Lewis, Mason, and Grays Harbor counties. Thurston County’s metropolitan area has of late experienced the arrival of large retailers that market in a specific product category (e.g., electronics, home furnishings, hardware and garden, office supplies, books, etc).

After all is said and done, there remains state government. Though it is not the growth sector it was only a few years ago, it remains a vital stabilizing factor for the local economy. Notable employment growth in the county, though, has recently been driven by population migration as residential development moves south from the central Puget Sound region.

Tannis: Journal of Levi Lathrop Smith


The Journal of Levi Lathrop Smith, 1847 – 1848
Edited by James Robert Tannis

[full text of the diary follows Tannis’ preface] [Transcribed 2003 by Roger Easton.  Note: Excerpted text from Smith’s Journal
entries contains all mispellings, errors, etc. as in the original]


May 17. the Eldest Sow was deliverd of Five Sow pigs.

Oct. 26, rainy this morning. Sylvester just started for the falls to commence
the mill. dug sum  potatoes to day.

Dec. 31. this is the last day of the year  O time how art thou flying. rainy
this morning  nothing a doing   rain continues all day   I have seen no person

Since 1868 when the existence of the diary of Levi Lathrop Smith was first
generally known, such brief excerpts as the above alone formed the picture of
Olympia’s first settler.  The native poetry of Smith’s writing and the hidden
historical allusions in his diary were never available to excite the caual
reader or the local historian. Ever since H. H. Bancroft noted the existence of
this diary in his History of Washington, every history of early Washington has
mentioned it, but, despite the positiveness with which these histories describe
it, a comparison of the diary with Bancroft, Snowden, and all the others reveals
that none of these historian saw or used the original manuscript.

Smith, with his partner Edmund Sylvester, arrived on Puget Sound in the fall of
1846, and, before the following summer, the former realized the great
potentialities of this newly viewed and yet unsettled wilderness. “…the
facility this part of the country possesses as a commertial nead not be
commented on”, he wrote. “every person who has any idear of the locality of the
country must be aware of its advantiges as a commertial country.  the exporting
of lumber from this part of the country at no subsequent period must form a very
extensive and profitable buisiness and were the country settled at the preasant
I have no [doubt] but what it would soon attract shipping to a larg extent.” 
These and other  chance jottings have now become significant clues in piecing
together the story of  the first days of the Americans in what is now the state
of Washington. Smith’s diary, much more adequately than latter-day descriptions,
gives the real flavor of solitary pioneer life.

American settlement north of the Columbia had scarcely begun when Smith arrived
there in 1846.  The first americans attempting reconnaissance of the Sount for
settlement started north in December of 1844, but they were successful only in
reaching the Cowlitz. The exporation was led by Michael T. Simmons, who with his
band of settlers had come across the great expanse of the West from Missouri to
Oregon.  In July of the following year Simmons, whit a party of seven others,
started again toward the Sound country, this time reaching it in the month of
August.  Soon after the arrival of this first group, the community was joined by
a small immigration including four families.  By the time of their arrival,
Simmons had already staked out his claim where the town of Tumwater now stands;
his claim he named New Market after a town he had left in Missouri.  All the
newcomers settled in the same general vicinity.  Small groups sometimes of only
two or three each, continued to migrate to the Sound during the months that
followed.  But during the first few years the region was never composed of more
than a few scattered claims.

In the meantime the Oregon government claimed the area north of the Columbia
River, and, on December 19, 1845, it established, as Lewis County, all the land
above the Columbia and west of the Cowlitz River.  The region soon became
important politically, for all Oregon awaited the decisive vote of Lewis County
in the extremely close gubernatorial election of the 1846 session of the
Provisional Government.

As to occupations, most of the settlers in the county busied themselves with
clearing their land claims and farming the prairie lands adjoining. In August,
1847, however, eight of these pioneers joined together to form the Puget Sound
Milling Company — the first corporate commercial venture in this new American
settlement.  The land selected for the mill was part of Simmons’ New Market
claim, and the following agreement was drawn up with him:

     Oregan Teritory      Lewis County      New Market.
 August 20th 1847. I, Michael T Simmons of said County do lease to the
 following persons Namely [M. T. Simmons, J. Ferguson, G. Jones, A. D.
 Carnefix, J. K. Kindred, B. F. Shaw, E. Sylvester, and A. B. Rabbeson] for
 the period of 5 years and ten if said Company shall think advisible the
 North-West part of my lower falls as a bilding spot for a sawmill for the
 said Company    reserving to myself during the period of 5 years liquise [
 i.e. likewise] extendingto 10 should said company desire  no right or
 authority whatever any more than each induvidual of said Company is
 possessed of in testamony whereof I have signed my Name this 20th day of
 August 1847 before the following Witness L. L. Smith

  -Michael T. Simmons

The company purchased the equipment for the mill from the Hudson’s Bay Company
for three hundred dollars in lumber which they delivered to the landing of Fort
Nisqually at the enviable rate of sixteen dollars per thousand.  As Smith notes
in his diary, on October  25 Simmons was “elected supertendant of affares”  of
the company; and, on the next day, the co-partners commenced building the mill
which they completed during that fall and winter.

A threefold combination of events in 1848–the Mexican war, the Whitman
massacre, and most important, the California gold discoveries–almost halted the
growth of settlement around the Sound. As Smith notes, however, on June 14 of
that year a small party of Oblate missionaries under Father Pascal Ricard
arrived on the Sound, established at New Market under the patronage of St.
Joseph, Ricard, assisted by Father Georges Blanchet and eight other Oblate
missionaries, founded the mission on the east side of Budd Inlet next Smith’s
claim–the old site is now Olympia’s Priest Point Park.

Smith won public office in 1848 when Lewis County elected him representative to
the Oregon Provisional Legislature.  Unfortunately he died before he could begin
his term of service; nor did he live to hear that on August 14 the United States
Congress established Oregon with full territorial status.

Of our diarist, almost nothing is known of his early life. He was born in New
York State; and, it was said, he had there studied for the Presbyterian
ministry–though, as will be seen, this is quite unlikely.  He emigrated early
to Wisconsin, where, so the story goes, he became attached to a half-breed girl
of Catholic faith.  Under opposition to this affair he moved to Oregon where, in
1845, he met Edmund Sylvester.  Sylvester, born in Maine in 1820, journeyed to
Oregon in 1843, and, after meeting Smith, came with him in October, 1846, to
Puget Sound.  They soon placed their land claims, establishing them in
partnership.  Under the law this meant that each owned half share in the other’s
claim, and, upon the death of either one, both claims were to pass to the
survivor.  Sylvester staked his claim on the edge of Chambers’ Prairie, while
Smith located his where Olympia now stands.  The latter moved on his claim on
October 20, 1846, and soon erected there his cabin about sixteen feet square,
two miles from the extreme head of Budd Inlet, near present Capitol way between
today’s State and Olympia Avenues.  The land along the shore, north of what is
now State Avenue, was then occupied during the winter months by between 250 and
300 Duwamish Indians–though they were usually not there at the same time.  The
Smith claim was in the midst of a heavily timbered coastal region with his
nearest American Neighbors at Tumwater, at that time still New Market.  Access
to these nearby settlers required tramping through the woods, for a trail was
not blazed to this New Market settlement until August 24,  1848–a few days
before Smith’s death.  In the summer of 1847 he wrote of his claim:

In it you will find one house built of split cedar, with a stone fire-place and
a stick chimney.  It is covered with four-foot shingles put on with weightpoles.
It has three lights and one door, with a rough puncheon floor, made of split
cedar, with a closet and a bed-room made of the same materials.  The furniture
consists of two tables, one bedstead, which is made by boring holes in the side
of the house and driving in sticks, three benches and two half-pint tin kettles,
one basin and a trencher.

The enclosure, two acres of land, with one and a half under cultivation, with
corn, beans, pumpkins, squashes, potatoes, peas, turnips, cabbages, melons,
cucumbers, beets, parsnips, carrots, onions, tomatoes, radishes, lettuce,
parsley, sweet fennel, peppergrass, summer savory and sunflowers.

The out-houses, one hog house and one hen-house, with five hogs, three pigs,
seven hens, a cock, cat and a dog, one yoke of oxen and two horses. [This
reading of the descripstion is taken from the Washington Standard (Olympia) of
February 1868.  It is there ascribed to Sylvester, but from its form and content
it is apparently one of the notes that Smith wrote to occupy his lonesome

The claim he called Smith Field, and, as seen above, he had soon cleared it
sufficiently to farm.

This soil [he wrote] is admirable adapted for potatoes partickualy the prairie
soil garden vegitables thrive most luxuriously   this county taken generly
possesses one great advantage the power of retaining and exhaling during the dry
season a certin quantity of humidity which is emited in gread abdundance
[during] the warm season thereby enabling the vegatation to withstan the effects
of caloric which is so strongly intermixed with the atmosphere.    but the most
important part of the country for agriculture unquestionably is the timberland. 
this is composed of an a an adheasive and strong clay    the surface for sum
considerable distance is coverd with decayed vegatation and when mixed with the
clay is rich and productive.

The account of Smith in the Washington Centennial Booklet states that he was
cultured and solitary.  In conversation, in all likelihood, he appeared
cultured, for even his brief diary entries reveal a large vocabulary for a
Northwest frontiersman.  His spelling and grammar, however, as will be seen, are
quite another matter and betray the fact that his formal education was probably
quite brief.  In spite of his poor spelling, he managed, nevertheless, to
portray in writing the extreme state of his loneliness and the odd searchings of
his mind.  On one of the miscellaneous notes that accompany his diary he writes,
“Now as I sat alone viewing that Most Misterious form of Man, an intercourse
commensed between those light and airy formes which once had formed the thinking
part of Man    it seamed a thing so strange for that for sum time I could not
decide the reality” Though the precise meaning escapes the reader, the
fascination of the wording alone can scarcely help but charm.  If the diary is
perused slowly–and it can be meaningful only when read that way–many such
finely turned phrases will great and please the reader.

As has been noted, this lonely settler died before Smith Field grew to a
population larger than “two”. Bancroft says that Smith’s canoe overturned and he
drowned; Snowden writes that he was found dead in his boat.  In either case the
epilepsy which had so long harassed his life undoubtedly caused his death at the
end of August, 1848.  Though he entered in his diary that March 6 was his
birthday, no information previously noted agreement, passed to his partner
Sylvester.  Smith falling out on March 11.  In addition, on one of his doodle
sheets, Smith whets the reader’s appetite by commenting to [?] Sylvester,
“Edmund you are a fine fellow and that is not all. you are given to committing
that heinous act so expressly forbidden by sacred write of that lothsum practice
which I much fear will cut assunder the bond of friendship betwene you and all
virtous persons.” Beyond this brief fragment the reader is left to speculation.

On Smith’s death Sylvester abandoned his own prairie claim, took over Smith
Field, and two years later (1850) he platted the town of Olympia.  The name,
suggested by Hugh Allan Goldsborough who did the definitive survey of Olympia in
1850, was taken from the Olympic range of mountains, so beautifully visible from
the budding settlement.

The manuscript itself is written mostly on large sheets of paper, 16″ by 13″,
folded to half their size.  In spite of the difficulties afforded by an almost
total lack of punctuation and “unique” spelling, the diary is, with effort,
legible throughout.  In addition to his sparing use of punctuation, Smith uses
commas for apostrophes, and his 1/2 he very originally inverts. These
peculiarities have been retained as he wrote them, though, in this printing,
unpunctuated sentences have been set off from each other by generous spacing.  A
possibility of variant readings in some spots has made this difficult, but it is
hoped that what has been done will be an aid for the reader.  When Smith uses
superior letters in his date headings, they are usually illegible, and so where
he indicates he wants one, the correct form has been supposed.  The original
capitalizations and spelling have been carefully retained, and all emendations
in the text have been noted. With the exception of some completely insignificant
jottings–a few of wich interestingly enough are in Chinook–Smith’s writing are
here reproduced in toto.  There are no omissions whatever from the text of the
diary.  Snowden says of the diary that it includes details of the agreement with
Sylvester; if this is true, those sheets are now missing, and there is no way to
determine whether he actually wrote any entries covering this missing period. 
The whereabouts of the manuscript for the twenty years following Smith’s death
is not known.  That the previously quoted comment on Sylvester was not destroyed
would lead to the supposition that the papers had not come into Sylvester’s
possession.  The earliest knowlege of them are now extant is that Elwood Evans
obtained them during the latter part of February, 1868.  From whom he received
them, he leaves no information.  Evans compiled comments on the diary and
excerpts from it which appeared in the Washington Standard (Olympia) in 1868 All
references to it since that time appear to be based on the Evans article rather
than on an examination of the manuscript itself. (Such a description is found in
the Centennial Commemorative Booklet previously alluded to.)  Where Snowden got
his information, noted above, is not known, though perhaps it is from conjecture
rather than fact.  The manuscript remained in Evans’ keeping until his death, at
which time it was stored, with the rest of his invaluable historical collection,
on his daughter’s property. There the collection remained lost for all practical
purposes until brought to light by the late Winlock William Miller, Jr.,
grandson of William Winlock Miller of early territorial fame.  In accordence
with the wishes of Winlock, Jr., this outstanding collection was presented to
his alma mater, Yale University; and now, through the courtesy of the Yale
Library, this diary is printed for the historian’s information and the chance
reader’s enjoyment.


Journal of Levi L. Smith


May 17,  the Eldest Sow was deliverd of Five Sow pigs.

Wenesday 19   sumwhat recoverd from my illness    sum prospect of regaining
helth.    this indisposition has prostrated Me more than any heartofore.

Sunday 23    quite indisposed as yet


Monday 27th  a betiful day.   seen one canoe going down.   nothing a sturing in
the least.   another canoe just gon down the bay.   just the old-woman cam with
Salmon   bought eleven.   just Mr Foards Son [1] came to see about Mr Handcocks
[2] canoe    returned again to the praire.

Tuesday 28th   a beautiful day.   quite unwell this morning   Mr Wanch [3]  
Jack and Mr Fords son came this Morning a going to the Fort. [Fort Nisqually,
the Hudson’s Bay Company post near Steilacoom is usually referred to in this
diary simply as “Nisqually” or “the Fort.]

Wednesday 29th  a fine day    very much indisposed in helth this morning    
very ill day.

Thirsday 30th   A beautiful day   Mr. Crocket [4]   was hear to day   staid till
after dinner.


Friday 1st  a fine day   Mr Wanch and Mr Foard Just started from here.   helth
sum what  better today    found one pig dead and kild one

Saturday 2nd   a rainy morning   helth gaining.   nothing sturing   one cano
with a sail going down  the bay and one a going up this afternoon    this is

Sunday 3rd   a rainy day    have seen one cano going down the Bay   helth
improving.   commensed  letting the Calf suck again last night to see the effect
on the Cow.   Much better in helth
 this is a steady rain.    the flowing of the tide is commensing.

Monday 4th   a rany day    one Cano going down early this Morning.   last night
the Cow  commenced giving thick and curdled Milk    gave only a few spunfuls   
the Calf is sucking    she dous not appear to have much Affection for it   
dous not lick it nor pay any attention  to it    neither dous she eat much   
I think she is unwell.    one Cano just a going up the  bay.    the rain
desends steady.

Tuesday 5th   the Rain desends regular    nothing a sturing.   left off Milking
the Cow last night
 the Milk is thick and curdled.   and she dous not give more than a pint
including what  the Calf sucks    gethering the Squashes this afternoon.   I
have seen one Cano going up  this afternoon.   found two dead Pigs to day.  
helth is improving   I am much better than I  was two days ago.    the rain
descends refreshing.   Another lodded Cano going down the  Bay    the Indians
are all buisy caching Salmon

Wednesday 6th   quit a fine day    three or four Canoes has been up and down the
bay this  forenoon.   this is pleasant.   last night the Cow remained out.  
the Wind is at the  Northend.   another Pig is just died   only two

Thirsday 7th   Just been to dinner   quit a good day.   nothing as yet a sturing  
have not seen the  least thing passing   it is now 4 Oclock and their is a
Cano just a going up with three  Indians in it.   this is the first to day.
Friday 8th   A beautiful day.   Sylvester has just arived.  In good helth.   it
will not be  twenty-eight days until Monday next [that he has been away]. 
I had not the least  expation of seeing him before a week or fortnight at
least.   their has been two Canoes  down and three up this afternoon.   this is
a beautiful day. 

Saturday 9th  a beautiful day   Sylvester just started after the Cattle   
Canoes traveling up and  down the bay.

Sunday 10th   rather lowry all day.   rather indisposed all day.   this evening
Sylvester and an  Indian arrived with the Cows

Monday 11th   a fine day   nothing a sturing.   except bying cramberys of the
Squaws.  and cleaning  the things arived.

Tuesday 12th   a fine day   diging the sellar.  bought cramberys of the Indians. 
Iam banking up the  house

Wednesday 13th   Sylvester has just started for [Fort] Nesqualy.   nothing a
sturing.   finished  banking the house 3 Oclock 

Thirsday 14th   Rainy early in the Morning but cleard up and a find day.   have
seen one Cano    very still all day.

Friday 15th   Rather lowery in the Morning   sum indications of rain.  but a
fine day.    very dull all  day    nothing a moving.   it is now half past
four and not the least thing opperating.   the
 Cattle are in fine grasing    went over their on Wednesday

Saturday 16th   Nothing a doing    no travling of any consequence    Kimsey [5]
came after  Sylvester for to repay for work

Sunday 17th   Iill helth    partickilary in the Morning    dull and still all

Monday 18th   compleated the Cellar.   all ready for potatoes.

Tuesday 19    to day Sylvester is gon to repay work for Kimsey.  to day
commensed diging the  potatoes    all of them as yet small

Wednesday 20th   A fine day   Mr Packwood  [6] an another yong Man just started
for Nisqualy     stopt here all night.    this is a beautiful day    nothing in
the least a doing.

Thirsday 21st   a fine day   diging potatoes   nothing a doing

Friday 22nd    a fine day   diging potatoes   Mr Handcock just arived.   
nothing a sturing

Saturday 23rd   commensed putting up the barn
Sunday 24th    Rather a lowry day    Mr Sheperd [7] has ben here to day   
yesterday several
  ware at the raising.  Mr Packwood, Simmons [8], Robertson [9], Ferguson
[10]  Crocket, Kendred [11], Sheperd.  Silvester has ben up on the prairie to Mr
Joneses       [12]     got a quantity of beef

Monday 25th    a fine day   Sylvester has gon up to the falls to organise and
choose a supertendant  or overseer for the company    Just returned    Mr
Simmons elected supertendant of the  affares.   Mr Packwood remained all

Tuesday 26th   rainy this morning.   Sylvester just started for the falls to
commence the mill.    dug  sum potatoes to day.

Wednesday 27th   a beautiful Morning   commensed diging potatoes very erly   dug
until twelve  then commensed raining.   all alone.

Thirsday 28th   Rainy all day    diging potatoes.   very disagreeable   enough
as I have suffered the  consequences.

Friday 29   Rainy all day    cold and disagreeable

Saturday 30th   exceeding rainy    sylvester just arrived

Sunday 31st    Rainy and lowry all day    diging potatoes all day.   Sylvester
chinking up the Barn.  
 started for the falls in the evening with Cabbage.

Monday 1 of November.   diging potatoes    clear in the afternoon    the Boat
just started for the  fort    Mr Kendred is gone

Tuesday 2nd   rainy in the afterpart of the day    diging potatoes

Wednesday 3rd   a beautiful day   diging potatoes    strong breeze from the
North    a heavy frost in  the Morning

Thirsday 4    a fine day to day    at Noon finished the potatoes.

Friday 5.   Rainy nearly all the day    warking and mending.

Saturday 6    Rainy in the forepart of the day    Nothing a sturing.   
Sylvester arived in the  evening.    cold and winterish.

Sunday 7th    a cold day    Sylvester just started for the falls after killing
two ducks.    thought it  would be to cold in the morning    Mr Handcock
started for the prairie to borrow a saw. 

Monday 8    quite a pleasant day    gethering the Carrots and Beets    still an
gloomy    nothing a sturing    seen no living Mortal as yet.

Tuesday 9th    A beautiful day.    this Morning two Indians came here after Mr.

Wednesday 10th    A beautiful day    quit indisposed. in helth to day and last
night.    the dog has  followed sum Indians to day.

Thursday 11th   A Clowdy day.   quite unwell to day    nothing a sturing    no
persons but Indians in  sight

Friday 12    a lowry Morning And a Rainy day    quite unwell

Saturday 13th   A Rainy day    sumwhat better    Sylvester arrived    Ratterson
and George [13] came likewise

Sunday 14th    A Rainy day    Making Sourcrout    quite indisposed in helth to
day    not able to set  up all day

Monday 15    A good deal improved in helth.    I Must have had A Very severe
time to have  prostrated Me so several [days] in succession    Mr Handcock
was here untill 6 in the  evening    Sylvester did not cum.    I do not feel
right to day although I am about.

Tuesday 16    helth sumwhat mended althoughg I am not exackly aright yet    My
head is still  confused and I sum of the time hardly know what I am doing   
it is just a week to night  since I was taken.    Mr Handcock has been here
and Milked and cut some wood    Sylvester  arived likewise.  and I think I
shall improve.

Wednesday 17th    Indications of a clear day    helth improving

Thirsday 18    A Rainy day    helth improving gradualy    No person has been
here this day     Sylvester has been here all day

Friday 19th   this Morning Sylvester has gon to the falls.  I feel Much better
and I think it will  gradualy leave me.  Mr Handcock was not up yesterday. 
Nor as yet [today].   I feel much  better  this afternoon.   this is A
beautiful day.

Saturday 20th   A Rainy Morning and indications of Rain.  commensed about three
in the  morning.  I feel much better both in Body and Mind.  and can I ever
render the   gratitude which is due to Nature,s Author for this.   No  
Involved I am but this  consolation     the Benefactor is Mercy and in the
harangue of the Poet to thee belongs all adoration for thy Vast form
embrases all that lives.   it is now Eleven and it still  continues [rainy]. 
Mr. Handcock has just started for the Cowlitz.   I am all alone and am  subject
to a curious sensation    at times lonsum    Tides very high.    nothing a
sturing I think my helth is improving all the time     things look more

Sunday 21.    A Rainy day    helth improving.   Nothing of interest a sturing   
contentment  prevailing.   Mr Handcock arived    not A going to the Cowlitz
 remained all Night.     still continues to rain. 

Monday 22nd   Raining.   Sylvester started this morning at half-past three.  
helth improving.     Handcock staid last Night

Tuesday 23    helth improving    A fine day    I have been butting up the loft
in the Barn     employment if not too hard has A tendancy I think to bennefit
the mind and to 
 proppegate strength to the Animal functions.   but great caution must be
avoided in too much excitement.

Wednesday 24    A Beautiful day.   helth still improving in Mind and body.    I
have been  gethering the Cabages this Morning.   nothing a sturing

Thirsday 25    Indication of rain.   Mr Foards two sons just started for
Nisqualy.   been very buisy to  day

Friday 26    A beautiful day    arose at three    A Most Heavnly Morning.   Mr.
McAlester [14] has been here and left me 1/4th of a Pig    gave him sum turnips and two
Squashes     Jack Steavens also    feel on the gain. 

Nov. Saturday 27th   Rain commensed this morning at 6 2/1    Indications of a
rainy day.    Mr  Foards Sons arived last Night a Seven from Nesqualy   
remained all night    started at  Six this morning.    feel remarkabley
brilliant in spirits [and] body liquise [i.e.,  likewise]. the influence which
the human bodys has on each other is demonstrative of  wisdom to  an
ulimitable extent. 
Sunday 28th  A lowrey day    indications of rain all day.    Sylvester came holm
last night.   helth  rather improving.   nothing of interest.

Monday 29th    A Rainy day.   Sylvester started this morning for the falls.   
Mr Handcock moved  down to his place

Tuesday 30th    this is the last fall day    rather lowrey    sum rain last
night.    this is A dull way of  spending wht few moments appertains to this
life    every day is one the less although little  is thought that wee are
one day nearer the fatal Gulf.    I have not seen but one person to  day and
that was an Indian    Mr Handcock came last night and remained untill twelve

Wednesday December 1st 1847
 This is the first day of Winter.    dense and lowrey    sum indications of
rain.   helth  improving.    the Boat just gone again to Nisqually.   still
continues clowdy    Mr came up  and returned again

Thirsday 2nd   A beautiful Morning.   nothing a sturing    helth improving.   
dull and  melancholy     nothing a sturing    solitude of death reigning.  
the effect on the Mind has an  unfavorable result and increasing    Just
seen two Canoes with three Indians.    this is A  Most delightful afternoon   
it is now 3 1/2

Friday 3rd    Rather thick over head.    not in very good health this Morning   
had A Slight Turn of  falling sickness between 9 and 9    not however very
severe    soon revived.   Another turn  which lasted a few minuits.   this
afternoon feel rather dull

Saturday 4th   feel Much better this Morning    Rather a dens day    nothing A
moving at all.

Sunday 5th   A Rainy day.   Sylvester came last night   helth on the gain

Monday 6th   had a fine starlight night and A beautiful day.   Sylvester started
this morning at six       my helth is on the gain considering.

Tuesday 7th   rather clowdy.   nothing A moving    helth about the same    no
material difference in  Mind. .

Wednesday 8    had a storrmy day    just came from the falls with Mr Handcock   
rather stormy   no difference in helth nor mind as I know.

Thirsday 9th   A Misty day.   Mr. Handcock just gone holm.   helth about the
same.   nothing a  sturing   about twelve th rain commenced

Friday 10th   Rainy in the morning.   helth rather improving   nothing a
sturing.   quit buisy.

Saturday 11th   A beautiful Morning.    had a cold Snowy Night untill about
twelve then cleard up  most Hevenly.    I arose at half-past two to contumplate
the Heavens    never did it appear  to me those shining orbs looked so
beautiful.   the reflections brought on an enthusiastick   feeling and sleep
departed from me and had it not been for one thing I should have  enjoyed the
Sight.  Mr Handcock came up in the evening to see me and remaind untill
 half past seven.   the wind blowing quit hard when he came up and after
being up a short  ime it increased.  he however thinking he could proceed safly
started holm.    the wind  blowing all the time but in the Morning not seeing
any smoke I began to think it might  have proved fatal to him and it was
not for sum time before I could purswade myself but  what I was subject to
Mental Hallucination.    this is A beautiful day    I feel much better to
 day than I have for a long time.    the Author of Nature is deserving of
all Admiration.

Sunday 12th   last night Sylvester came holm.    a fine day for winter    feel
quite well.   nothing  sturing

Monday 13th   A windy morning.    Sylvester just started for the falls.   feel
very well.   nothing  sturning

Tuesday 14th   A beautiful Morning    feel better all the time.   have seen one
Indian Cano this  Morning    Several this afternoon.   just finshed work.  
rather dull and disquieted    nothing  moving

Wednesday 15th   indications of rain    feel quite spirited.   one Canoe just
past.   Just found the  Calf dead    got cast in the creek and the tide arose
over it    several Indians sailing about  the bay

Thirsday 16th   hasthe appearance of a fine day.   feel uncommonly well both
in body and  spirits 

Friday 17th   Rainy this morning and the appearance of continuing   been buisy
in  strengthing the  jois in the Barn and in pulling the turnups.  Indians
have been here with ducks to day.

Saturday 18th    Indications of a fine day.   arose at three to bake.   been
very buisy this Morning in  looking after the cattle   non of them came holm
last night.    this morning went out and  [found] Muly and Piabald [two of
Smith’s cows]    neither did the Boar come last night.

Sunday 19th    Sylvester came last Night.   helth about the same.   very misty
all day    nothing a  moving

Monday 20th   this Morning the boat started for Nisqualy.    Sylvester with it.   
helth about the  same.    rather low in spirits.    Mr Handcock assisted me in
fixing the barn.    putting under  studs     this is a dull day

Tuesday 21st    A fine day    feel quite Well.    buisy in pulling Turnups all
day    nothing a  sturing. 

Wednesday 22nd    a beautiful day    Winter Solstice.    to day left of milking
Polly Deram.

Thursday 23    a thick day    I have got the Indians assisting me in pulling the
turnups.    Muly and Polly Deram did not cum holm last night    neither have
they came yet.   An  they have just came.

Fraday 24th   Misty this morning.   rather uwell this Morning.    quite
indesposed in the Night  though on the whol rather better.    nothing A
doing.    this is a glorious evening   the Sun  defuses his radiance in splender

Saturday 25th   this [is] Chrstmass.   rather thick over head    nothing as yet
a moving.    there has  been two Squwas here    Esther [15] has been here today.  
the Indians have been here all  day a trading. 

Sunday 26th   rather still.   Mr Rabberson came holm last night with Sylvester
who got holm from  the Fort last thursday morning quit early in the morning

Monday 27th   this morning Sylvester started for the falls    had a slight turn
of falling sickness in  bead    knew nothing of it untill Sylvester apprised me
of it this morning.   the Indians  came to pull the turnups this Morning.   it
is now twelve Oclock and they have just  finished.

Tuesday 28th   Rainy this morning.   the Cows have not came yet.f   been several
Indians here to  day diging potatoes    not much A moving except I had a little
dispute with an old Indian  this afternoon

Wednesday 29th    Snowy all day.    found the cows this morning    Nothing a
doing    no Indians  about to day    all silent

Thirsday 30th   Snowing the Morning.    all silent untill Mr Kinsey came and got
four bushels of  turneps this afternoon    Mr. Handcok came    quite lively

Friday 31st    this is the last day of the year    O time how art though flying.   
rainy this Morning     nothing a doing    rain continues all day    I have seen
no person to day

Saturday 1st of Jan    this begins the year.    rainy all night    rather
indisposed last Night

Sunday 2nd   A beautiful day    Mr Carnefix  [16] and Johnathan Logan  [17] was
here.    Sylvester went up this evening

Monday 3rd    a fine day    nothing a Moving nowhare

Tuesday 4th   a fine clear day and very cold    have not seen a single person
through the day

Wednesday 5th   A beautiful day    Sylvester came this eveing and fetched the ax   
remained  only a few minutes    Mr Melvin [18] came also and pased over to Mr

Thirsday 6    A beautiful day    still and lonely    nothing A doing    Just
finished Bushes [19] Cap.     he Squaws have been a carring the turnips tops
into the Calf pasture this afternoon and I  ave paid them in poptatoes    
bought a basket of them

Friday   indications of rain    rather indsposed in helth.    verry still this
Morning     Indians just came     een trading with them.   Muly has just been
delivered of a bull Calf.    helth miserable all  day

Saturday 8th   helth much better    indications of Rain    Mulys Calf is in good
order this Morning.    the Indians have came this Morning to build a house just
above.    last night the Watch ran  down    just got it A going

Sunday 9th   Sylvester came this Morning.    A pleasant day.   the Boat just
past by.   trading with  the Indians

Monday 10th   rainy    commensed in the night.   Sylvester just gone to the
falls.    very still.    helth  quit good this Morning.

Tuesday 11th   rainy in the Morning    dul and still    nothing moving.   
making the hog-house in the  garden    Clear and sun shining sum of the time in
the after-part of the day and hevy  showers accompayned with hale    led the
Sows in the Garden this afternoon    Muly and  Piable also.   this is beautiful

Wednesday 12th   rainy.   in good spirits    liquise helth of body.    very
still this Morning    no person  in sight    this afternoon several Squaws
have been skinning that dead Calf.   the speckled  sow brought forth 9 pigs   
I got up between 10 and 11 and took care of them    trove out the  white
Sow    the rain came down in torents    drove away the Bull in the calf pasture

Thirsday 13th   rainy    discoverd water in the cellar    the Sow has 6 pigs   
helth good.   nothing  moving as yet 

Friday 14th   began to snow in the night    continued untill 10 in the Morning
then began to rain.    the water in the cellar discontinued.    Rabberson and
Shaw [20] called going to the fort  for the powder bag    removed the hog pen.   
the rain descends in torrents.   all the bigs are  now dead but three   
kiled one to day

Saturday 15th   Rain still continues.   not in very good helth this Morning.   
still no one a sturing but  Indians

Sunday 16th   rainy    Indians came to traid.    not in good helth.    Sylvester
has not came yet this  Morning    the white Sow had 10 pigs about 5 in the
morning    all in good helth.    I gave  two of them to the spekled Sow   
Indians came this Morning to traid    had sum difficulty  with one of them   
he very sone came to termes

Monday 17th    A beautiful Morning.   in good helth.   nothing A sturing untill
Rabberson and Shaw  returned from Nisqualle.   A Beautiful afternoon.   the
Indians Doctrin the sick this  afternoon    Mr Handcock just returned from
working on the road     remained all night.

Tuesday 18th   a delightful Morning    rather coll and frosty.   in good helth   
nothing but Indians A  moving.   Handcock just gone holm.   been trading with
the Indians.   Indications of rain    clowdy

Wednesday 19th   A clowdy Morning   not in very good helth though not realy sick   
very still and  dul

Thirsday 20th   A beautiful Morning   Had a heavely night.   in very good helth
this morning     nothing a moving.   it has been a fine day    not seen A canoe
passing down the bay    hardly  an Indian untill about 6 in the evening when
a Squaw came in great fear of mind telling  me that the Snohomas indians
were a cumming to kill them    sum went of on the water  and sum in the woods
secreting themselves   sum took the musket.   the whol turned out an  Indian

Friday 21st   in good helth and spirits    thank the auther of Nature   nothing
a moving yet

Saturday 22nd   Indications of a good day.   In good helth and spirits    thank
that Eternal cause of  all good that moving principle of Life

Sunday 23rd   a beautiful Morning and continued so nearly all day.   last night
Rabberson came  down with Sylvester to make a pare of shoes for Sylvester but
left is awl    he and sylvester  went back again in the afternoon.    nothing
a doing   still and lonsum.    this is A  disagreeable way of spending life.

Monday 24th   A pleasant morning    nothing A sturing    been buisy all the
morning.    began to  rain twards night 

Tuesday 25th   A fine warm Morning    been contemplating the heavens this
Morning    the Moon  and the shining Stars [also] the old Woman [at present
the Old Woman remains a  mystery] has just came bag and bagage to build the
house.   in good helth and spirits.

Wednesday 26th   rainy.   feel rather langued    weekness at the breast.  
nothing a sturing.   very  stormy

Thirsday 27th    stormy and windy    in good helth and spirits    thank the
bountiful giver of all  good and mercy

Friday 28th   rainy all the Morning    it is now twelve    in good helth and
spirits    nothing a sturing.       became quite clear at the going down of the
sun.   had considerable snow in the night     cold and clear

Saturday 29th   quite clear    sum snow on the ground    clold    the sun bids
fare to dispel the cold  and Snow    Melvin has just gone from here.   
quite pleasant.    Sylvester has just came with  the flower.

Sunday 30th   not in very good helth    nothing a doing.   commenced raining
this afternoon.

Monday 31st   rather rainy    Sylvester just gone to the falls     not in very
good helth.   nothing a  doing

Feb Tuesday 1st    quite a pleasant Morning    this is the first day of Feb   
in very good helth and  spirits    To day more Indians has moved here.   this is
a pleasant afternoon    ver still    nothing doing 

Wednesday 2nd   Misty    nothing as yet a doing.   very good helth.   been
trading sum.   turned out   beautiful day

Thirsday 3rd   A delightful Morning.   in good helth.   very silent.   Sylvester
just proceeded to the  fort    Mrs. Jones [21] and sum others in a Canoe.  
came misty this afternoon.   feel  dul and lonsum

Friday 4th   A fine day    not in very good helth    very still   nothing a
doing    Sylvester  has just came from the Fort.   went yesterday and
returned again to day

Saturday 5th    A beautiful morning    in very good helth    not much of
anything a sturing     Sylvester came holm rather late in the evening from the
Mill   nothing A moving

Sunday 6th   Quite a pleasant day   not much a doing   the day appeard very
short to Me.

Monday 7th   Sylvester just gone to the Mill   a beautiful day.   in good helth
and spirits

Tuesday 8th   Misty all day    the bull is dead    this morning the Indians are
skining him  for the body

Wednesday 9th   A very high tide this Morning    cleard off very pleasant    not
in very  good helth

Thursday 10th    quite A pleasant Morning    in much better helth this Morning.   
not  much A sturing

Friday 11th   Clowday all day    nothing A doing.   very buisy all day    Myself
feel  miserable to day

Saturday 12    A fine day.   bought A Cat to day    in better helth this Morning   
Sylvester came  holm this evening    Carnafix [and] Logan likewis remained all
night    went down the bay

Sunday 13th   a fine day.   Carnafix [and] just gone.   helth much beter.  
trading with Indians.

Monday 14th   Sylvester just gone to the falls.   rainy.   in good helth.   
Nothing a doing of  importance

Tuesday 15th    indications of a fine day.   in good helth and spirits.   Mr
Handcock just arived

Feb. Wednesday 16th    Sylvester just gone to the prairie to Sow the grain.  
quite warm and  pleasant.   in good helth to day    nothing as yet A sturing
of any consequence.   Mr  Handcock came this afternoon.

Thirsday 17th   rainy most of the time    Sylvester just started for the prairie
with grain.    black pig  dead.

Friday 18th   A delightful Morning    in good helth and spirits.   nothing of
importance operating

Saturday 19th   Rainy    very still   nothing a doing.   in good helth and
spirits.   been quite buisy all  day

Sunday 19th  indications of rain.   not in very good helth    had A slight turn
of falling sickness this  Morning    did not however continue long    feel
quite well at the preasant.

Monday 21st   quite a fine Morning    helth quite good    nothing as yet a doing   
had A beautiful  fine day

Tuesday 22    A delightful day.    had two slight turnes of falling sickness
last night in the bed    in  good helth and spirits to day     I was not aware
of having any untill told by Mr Handcock

Wednesday 23rd   A fine day    in good helth    been trading sum with the
Indians to day

Tursday 24th   A fine day    Shaw and Fergersun just started up the bay   
stayed all Night    news  from  Nisqualy relative to the Indians    sum
hostilities expected from sum of the upland  tribes

Friday 25th   A butiful day.   had A slight turn of falling sickness last night
in bead   feel well to  day

Saturday 26th   a butiful day    in good helth   nothing of importance a doing

Sunday 27th    indications of rain.   Sylvester did not com holm last night.  
considerable  excitement

Monday 28th A still misty morning    nothing a doing    sylvester has not yet
came.   just arived  this minuit

Tuesday 29   indications of a fine day    Sylvester just started for the falls   
in good helth.   nothing a  doing
March 1st

Wednesday 1st   A pleasant day.    helth as good as usual.    nothing of
importance transacting  untill the arival of Sylvester and Dow [22]    Sylvester
has came holm to live

Thirsday 2nd   indications of rain.   very buisy.   nothing of importance
transacting to day

Friday 3rd   indications of rain.   buisy in planting the gardin.   not in very
good helth.

Saturday 4   indications of rain    in hood helth    Dow and Handcock arived
last night in the  evening

Sunday 5    A delightful day    in good helth and spirits    trading with the
Indians considerable

Monday 6    indications of rain.   This is my birth day.   in good helth and
spirits    have been very  buisy all day

Tuesday 7    Misty.   in good helth and spirits    very still    nkothing of
importance occuring   Aapril  showers.

Wednesday 8    rainy    nothing of importance as yet occuring    in good helth.  
very still.   trading  sum little with the Indians

Thursday 9    rainy    not in extream good helth.    still nothing extreordinary
in operation     Sylvester did not cum holm last night

Friday 10    clowdy    Mr Handcock just started for the falls.    Sylvester did
not cum last night.     neither the cows    all came this morning.

Saturday 11    quite a fine day    Sylvester came last night    had a contest   
not however many  words.   still day

Sunday 12    a beautiful day   Sylvester came last night.  good helth and
spirits    nothing of  importance occuring

Monday 13    a beautiful day    fine helth    very still    Wing [23] and
Handcock just gone

Tuesday 14    A delightful day.    the Indians just returned the Canoe    boght
canoe of the Indians  to day for a Shirt sum peas [and] potatoes

Wednesday 15    indications of rain    been trading with the Indians this
Morning.  Oens Bush [24]  just gone to Handcock

Thirsday 16    A beautiful day    very still this Morning.    Mr Handcock left
for the Willamett.    nothing of importance

Friday 17    rather showrey.   in good helth.   nothing of importance occuring   
very still

Saturday 18    A fine day   nothing transacting.   to work in the gardin.    in
good helth and spirits.    very still

Sunday 19   A fine day    nothing of importance doing.   Simmons and King [25]
came this  afternoon

Monday 20    Sylvester and Simmons started for Nisqualy.   blustering sum of the
time.   nothing a  doing    last night Kimsey arived here.    commensed
planting the potatoes this morning.    very buisy today

Tuesday 21    rainy all the day    King just left for the falls.   in good
helth.   not much a doing

Wednesday 22    Snowy     Mr. Simmons just started for the falls.    very buisy
all day.   in good helth.    nothing doing.

Thirsday 23    A fine day   buisy in planting the gardin.    nothing a doing.  
in good helth and spirits  improving. 

Friday 24    a beautiful day.   planting.   very stil    the Indians are
remarkabley dormant.   in good  helth

Saturday 25    quite a pleasant day    buisy in planting    in good helth.   
the bay is very still.   no  Indians a sturing

Sunday 26    rather blustring.    enjoying good helth and spirits.   nothing of
importance transacting     Sylvester at holm

Monday 27    indications of a fine day.   potatoes taken to the falls    10 Bus
[i.e., bushels]    buisy in    planting and house hold affares

Tuesday 28    rainy    not much a doing    in good helth    bery vins in   
planting the potatoes

Wednesday 29    a fine day.   not in very good helth    had to of my turnes
lanst night in bedd   feel  rather dul

Thirsday 30    very still.   engaged in planting.    shwry all day.    not in
extream good helth.   had a  very melancholy day

Friday 31     rainy.   Sylvester did not cum holm last night.   not in good
helth.   everything is still    nothing opperating 

Saturday 1 of April    rainy and clowdy.   Sylvester came holm last night.  
every thing extreemly  still 

Sunday 2    A fine day    Mr Chambers [26] came here last night.    Sylvester
gone to the prairie     not in very good helth

Munday 3    a beautiful day    helth improving    very still    nothing a doing   
very buisy all day in  house-work

Tuesday 4    sum indications of rain    been to the prairie to day    been to
see the Judges [27]    had  quite an agreeable visit

Wednesday 5    appearance of rain.    in good helth    nothing a moving   
rather lonsum.    A  gardning sum litle

Thirsday 6th    very heavy rain in the Morning.    Sylvester did not go up
untill 9 this Morning.     quite buisy.    helth improving

Friday 7    rainy.   helth improving   remarkable still    making Sylvesters
vest.   just started.

Saturday 8    A beautiful day    making a vest.    nothing of importance
occuring    in good  helth.

Sunday 9    a delightful day.    My Man to holm all day    had a pleasant day   
in good helth  likewise

Monday 10    A fine day    commensed planting the potatoes on the south side of
the gardin.    in  good helth    nothing sturing

Tuesday 11    A fine day    buisy in planting potatoes.   nothing of importance
transacting.   in very  good helth

Wednesday 12    A delightful day.   in good helth    making the gardin.   
nothing a transacting     getting warm  

Thirsday 13    a fine day.   in good helth and spirits    the heavens are
profusious in effluvium

Friday 14    A fine day   in good hleth.   Simmons, Sylvester [and] Fergersun
just started for  Nisqually

Saturday 15    A beautiful day    fell rather dull.   very still   nothing
sturing untill Simons returned  from Nisqually 

Sunday 16    A beautiful day   in good helth.   going up to the falls    just
returned from the falls   fine  day

Monday 17     indications of rain.   not in very good helth   every thing
dormant.   helth improving  this evening

Tuesday 18    been writing all day.   not in extream good helth.

Wednesday 19    a beautiful day    helth improving    writing all day

Thursday 20   A fine day    good helth and spirits.   buisy in writing

Friday 21    buisy in writing and planning.   likewise in the gardin

Saturday 22    a fine day    very still    working the gardin 

Sunday [23]    been to the falls this morning    Sylvester planting the corn

Monday 23 [i.e., 24]      been to the falls to sign the contract with Simmons   
he refused to sign.     helth quite good    rainy by showrs

Tuesday 24 [i.e., 25]    clowdy.    nothing a sturing.   buisy all day in the

Wednesday 25 [i.e., 26]    a fine day    good helth    nothing of importance

Thirsday 26 [i.e., 27]    A fine day    had a contest with the Indians    in
good helth.   nothing of  importance transacting 

Friday 27 [i.e., 28]    a fine day    had a Slight turn of falling sickness in
sleep    feel rather stiff this  morning    still and dull this afternoon   
had a contest with the [Indians]    Made them kill  three dogs for goring one
of my pigs and heave them into the bay.   went aginst there  grein

Saturday 28 [i.e., 29]     a fine day.   in good helth and spirits

Sunday 29 [i.e., 30]     a fine day     been on the Prairie to Mr. Chambers

Monday 30  [i.e., May 1]       indications of rain.    in good helth.    buisy
all day

Tuesday 1 [i.e., 2]  of May    indications of rain.   not in good helth   had a
turn of falling sickness  last night

Wednesday 2 [i.e., 3]    A fine day    had a slight turn last night    Sylvester
cutting timber.     nothing a doing of consequence 

Thirsday 3 [i.e., 4]    quite a pleasant day.    not in good helth to day.

Friday 4 [i.e., 5]    pleasant day    helth miserable all day.    still

Saturday 5 [i.e., 6]     helth improving.   nothing of importance

Sunday 6 [i.e., 7]    helth misearable    nothing of importance

Monday 7 [i.e., 8]     helth improving.   went to the prairie yesterday

Tuesday 8 [i.e., 9]    helth improving.   nothing of importance

Wednesday 10    been to the falls.   helth improving.    nothing doing

Thirsday 11     A fine day    Fergerson and rabberson just gone to Nisqually.  
had a trade with  Fergerson for the Milk

Friday 12 of May   a fine day.   helth improving

Saturday 13     A fine day    just arived from the falls    had a turn of
sickness.    not very heavy in the  Cano

Sunday 14    A beautiful day    in good helth and spirits

Monday 15    A fine day.   Still nothing a doing of consequence

Tuesday 16    A fine day    in good helth    nothing of consequence

Wednesday 17    A fine day    helth improving    all Still and dull

Thursday 18    A fine day    A little rain    helth imrpving still

Friday 19    Rainy and dull.    helth on the gain

Saturday 20    been to the falls.   not in good helth.    rainy

Sunday 21.     rainy.    been to the Prairie to day

Monday 22.    not in good helth.    dull and gloomy

Tuesday 23.    helth on the gain.   nothing A Moving.   clowdy

Wednesday 24      Rainy in the Morning.   not in good helth.    rainy

Thirsday 25    Rainy.    helth on the gain.    dull and gloomy

Friday 26    Rainy.    Sylvester started for the Fort on the Raft to day

Saturday 27    indications of a clear day.    helth about the same.    all alone

Sunday 28    Indians a Moving to Jims Illehe. [28]   helth about the same.

Monday 29.   helth about the same.   still and gloomy.    nothing doing

Tuesday 30   still.   helth on the gain.    nothing a doing    dull

Wednesday 31.   last Night Sylvester arived from the Fort.   came with nothing.   
King came last  night.   nothing of importance    this Morning the Cano past
up contending against the tide

June the 1st 1848    Thirsday   Rainy.   Sylvester gone to the Prairie.   helth
about the same    nothing  a doing in the least

Friday 2    on the hol a fine day.   helth improving.   nothing a doing

Saturday 3   a fine day.   helth the same.    been to the falls with the Cattle

Sunday 4    Just came from the falls.    in good helth

Monday 5    been to the Election [29] .       helth about the same

Tuesday 6    A fine day.   in good helth.    not much A doing

Wednesday 7    A fine day.    helth good.    business rather dull

Thirsday 8    indications of rain.    helth good    not Much A doing

Friday 9    indications of rain.    in good helth.    dull times.    doing

Saturday 10    had a turn of falling sickness    lasted only a few Minuits.   
in very good helth to day.    ot much a doing

Sunday 11th  June 12th   been to the Prairie to day

Monday 12th    a fine day    in good helthand spirits to day

Tuesday 13    a fine day    in good helth.   Nothing doing in the least

Wednesday 14    appearance of rain.   good helth.   been to the falls to day   
The Bishop [30] has  ust left    going to take a claim below this

Thirsday 15    rainy in the Morning.   helth about the saim.   the Rev  Father
in God was hear and  oncluded the price for the Church

Friday 16    been to the falls.    in good helth and Spirits

Saturday 17    rainy in the Morning.    helth good.    fixing for starting

Sunday 18.    Just leaving for the Donswamus [31].      in good helth  

Monday 19    on the Donswamus bay    the bay rather shallow

Tuesday 20    started for holm.    came up with Glasco [32]

Wednesday 21    A fine day.   helth improving.    Nothing a doing

Thirsday 22    A fine day    Nothing a Sturing.    helth on the gain

Friday 23    a warm day.   dull    nothing doing.   helth on the gain to day

Saturday 24    helth improving.   Esther removed to the falls

Sunday 25    been to the falls.   Simmons removed down the bay    fine warm
weather.     no Indians about

Monday 26    drove the Cows down this Morning.   helth very good   

Tuesday 27    A warm day.   Sylvester commensed work with Mr. Simmons    helth
about  the same.   Nothing of importance transacting

Wednesday 28    A fine day.    the Priest arived yesterday at the church

Thirsday 29    very warm    helth about the same.   

Friday 30    exceeding warm    helth better.   Not much a doing   all alone   
no Indians  about    this is rather A dull way of spending life

Saturday 1 of July    in good helth.   Not much a doing.   all alone

Sunday 2    appearance of rain.    helth about the same.   vishionary objects

Monday 3    A fine day.   helth good.   all alone    rather melacholy.   dull

Tuesday 4    bought a Cano.   this is the forth of july    dull doings

Wednesday 5    A fine day    enjoying good helth.   not much a doing.   dulness

Thirsday 6    A fine day    just came from the falls.   in good helth

Friday 7    A worm day.   rather unwell.   noth much a sturing 

Saturday 8    benn to the Mill.   not in extream good helth to day

Sunday 9   a fine day.   helth improving.   nothing strange

Monday 10    fine day.   helth on the gain.    Sylvester been at holm to day   
found one of  the hogs dead on the beach this evening

Tuesday 11    a fine day    Frenshman came affter the Cano.   this is a dull day   
Mr  Chambers came here to day and remained all night    no news

Wednesday 12    a fine day    Mr Chambers just started.    dull and gloomy   
helth improving.   not the least A doing   no one sturing not [even] Indians

Thirsday 13    indications of rain.    helth good    nothing sturing       going
down bay

Friday 14    a warm day    in good helth.   not much a sturing to day

Saturday 15    been to the falls.   not in good helth    Not much doing

Sunday 16    helth better    nothing moving     Sylvester just arived

Monday 17    in good helth    buisy in addressing the Governer [33]

Tuesday 18   A fine day    in good helth    nothing doing

Wednesday 19    buisy in writing all day    Mr Crocket just arived

Thirsday 20    a fie day    nothing sturing    in good helth    benn to the

Friday 21    nothing doing.    buisy in writing.   not even a cano passing.

Saturday 22    fine    in the woods.   in good helth.   nothing doing

Sunday 23    a fine day    in good helth    meloncholy   

Monday 24    a fine day.   not in good helth.   not Much a doing     Such [entry

Tuesday 25    been to the falls.    raising the Priests house

Wednesday 26      not much a doing.    in good helth.   all alone

Thirsday 27    been sto the Priests.    in good helth    not much doing

Friday 28   in good helth    nothing a doing    all alone

Saturday 29    been to the falls to settle the companys conserns    helth good

Sunday 30   in good helth    nothing a doing  

Monday 31    been to the raisings on the Prairie    read the Message

Tuesday 1 of August    pulling the pees on the prairie    just got holm

Wednesday 2    all a  lone.   in good helth.   gethering the gardin seeds

Thirsday 3    been to the falls all day.   in good helth.   nothing new

Friday 4   all alone.   in good helth.   no persons a sturing.    Smokey

Saturday 5    the Rev Father in God just came and two other Fathers with him.  
in good helth.    nothing a sturing.   quite warm to day.

Sunday 6    removing the Shingles.   helth good, nothing Sturring

Monday 7    a fine day.   in good helth.   Sylvester gone to Eatons Prairie to

Tuesday 8    been to the Prairie to day.   in good helth and spirits

Wednesday 9    very smokey.   in good helth.   Indians been here with Salmon

Thursday 10    a fine day.   in good helth.   dull and gloomy    nothing doing

Friday 11   a fine day    in good helth.   nothiing a doing.   Smokey

Saturday 12    a fine day    nothing doing.    sum Indians passing.    Smokey

Sunday 13    a fine day.   not in good helth.    not much a doing

Monday 14    very smokey.   not in good helth.   been to the Priests to day

Tuesday 15   very Smokey.   in good helth.    Strong wind this afternoon

Wednesday 16    a fine day.   in good helth.   nothing doing    very dull

Thirsday 17    a fine day.   in good helth    Smokey.    very still to day

Friday 18   indications of rain.   in good helth.    nothing doing.

Saturday 19   small showers.   in good helth.   sum Indians passing Nisqually

Sunday 20   a fine day    been to the Prairie.   several people theare   not in
extream good helth     Sylvester gone to the Prairie to day to cut the Wheat

Monday 21    the Priest and Mr Bernie [34] just came with Paper    in good helth   
very still.     nothing a doing

Tuesday 22    a little rain during the night.    helth good    Started for
Eatons Prairie to see Sylvester     arived at  3 oclock

Wednesday 23    just arived from Eatons Prairie    in good helth

Thirsday 24    blasing out the trail up to the Falls    had a turn of falling
sickness going up    not in  good helth to day

Friday 25    a fine day    helth on the gain.    all alone

Saturday 26   a fine day    all alone.    helth quite good to day

Sunday 27    been up to the Prairie to day.   in good helth.   bought a hog of a
Indian Chief for A  Blanket in two Months

Monday 28    strong indications of Rain    all-alone    nothing doing as yet.   
helth quite good.     hard Rain this afternoon.

Tuesday 29    a fine day.    in good helth.    very dull    nothing sturing

1. The Ford family came from Missouri to Oregon in 1845 and moved north of
the Columbia to Puget Sound during the summer of 1846.  they settled on land
later taking their name —  Ford’s Prairie.  The father, Sidney Smith Ford
(1801-1866), farmed their claim, near the present site of Centralia.  His two
sons mentioned in the diary were Sidney Smith, Jr. (1829?1900), who was active
in the Yakima Indian War, and Thomas J. (1832?– ).  The father worked hard for
the separation of Washington from Oregon, and the entire family was active in
later territorial affairs.

2. Samuel Hancock (1824?-1883) came overland as a wagon-train commander in
1845 and in 1847 moved to Tumwater, where he first engaged in the lumber
business.  He also went to the California mines for a short time in 1849 but
returned to be a trader with the Indians living on the Sound.

3. George Wanch (1820?-1891?) was born in Germany but early moved to
Missouri, where he met Michael Simmons and friends who were planning an Oregon
trip.  He went West with them and settled on a donation land claim on the site
of the present town of Centralia.  He was a gunsmith by trade. (his name is
often incorrectly spelled both Wauch and Waunch)

4. Samuel B. Crocket (1824? – 1904?) came to the Sound with the Simmons party
in 1845.  In 1853 he moved to Whidbey Island, where his parents Colonel and Mrs.
Walter Crockett, had recently preceded him.

5. Daniel D. Kinsey (this possibly may have been a Kimsey, but most likely
Daniel Kinsey) came to the Sound in 1846.  In July, 1847, he and his fiancee’,
Ruth Brock,  became the first American couple married in the new settlement.

6.  William Packwood (1813-1897) came with his wife and four children to
Oregon in 1844, moving to Puget Sound in March, 1847. He first worked for the
Hudson’s Bay Company and in 1850 went to the California mines.  He returned two
years later, finally settling and farming the bottom land of the Nisqually

7.  William Shepard, probably. He was an early settler in the Northwest.

8. Michael Troutman Simmons (1814-1867), mentioned at length in the preface,
was always at the vanguard of early territorial activities.

9. Antonio B. Rabbeson (1824-?) came across the plains from Illinois, first
to the Willamette Valley and then, in 1846, to Puget Sound, where he was one of
the founders of the Puget Sound Lumber Company, called “the lumber company ”
hereafter.  He fought in the Yakima Indian War, was for a time surveyor of
customs, and later engaged in contracting and shipping.  Smith first misspells
his name Robertson, then Ratterson, Rabberson, and finally realizes that it is

10. Jesse Ferguson (1824-?) came to the West from Ohio.  He went to the Sound
with Simmons and was also one of the founders of the Lumber Co.

11. John Karrich Kindred (probably). (1826-1900) who was one of the founders
of the Lumber Co., but it could also have been his father, David Kindred (1778-
?).   The family had come to the Sound in the original Simmons party.  They
settled on a farm on Bush Prairie, where they helped in erecting the first
school in the region.

12. Gabriel Jones (1802?-?) also came to the Soun in the Simmons party.  He
and his family then settled on Bush Prairie about two miles below Tumwater.

13. George — Probably George Wanch [3] but possibly George Bush [19].

14. James B. McAllister (1812-1855) came with his family in the Simmons party. 
He made a thwarted attempt to go to the California mines but returned and farmed
until the Yakima uprising.  A soldier in the Indian war, he was killed on
October 27, 1855.

15. Esther — Probably one of the neighboring squaws.

16. A. D. Carnefix was another of the partners in the Lumber Co., settling at
Tumwater in 1847.

17. Jonathan B. Logan came to the Sound with Carnefix and Kindred in 1847 and
settled near  Budd Inlet.

18. J. Melvin, possibly Josiah Melvin (  -1880) who came to Oregon in 1846.

19. George Washington Bush (1790-1863) and family came to the Northwest in
1844 with the Simmons party and to the Sound country with them in 1845.  He
located his claim south of Tumwater, the region around his farm taking the name
Bush Prairie.
20. William Shaw, possibly.  He came to the Sound with Simmons but most likely
his son,  Benjamin Franklin Shaw (1829-1908) who had come to Oregon in 1844 and
to the Sound in 1845.  He was a founder of the Lumber Co., was later an
important figure in the Yakima Indian War, also served in the territorial
government, and finally farmed near the present site of Vancouver, Washington.

21. Keziah Jones (1805?-1868), wife of Gabriel Jones [12]

22. (Dow remains unidentified)

23.  (Wing remains unidentified)

24. William Owen Bush (1832-1907) was the son of George Bush [19]. He farmed
on Bush Prairie all his life, winning medals at the World’s Fair in Chicago for
his wheat.  He died on the original family donation land claim.

25.     (King remains unidentified)

26. Thomas McLain Chambers (1791-1876) came to Oregon in 1845 and settled in
the autumn of 1847, next to Sylvester’s prairie claim, southeast of Olympia.  He
erected the first mill in Pierce County near Steilacoom.

27. Judges: S. B. Crockett [4] and John R. Jackson (1800-1873) were the Lewis
County Judges at the time.  The judge mentioned was probably Jackson whose home
near Cowlitz Landing in the southern part of the current Lewis County, was the
center of public transactions at the time.  Jackson was Washington’s first
reconnaissance in 1844 and the time of his settling in 1845.

28. Illehe is Chinook for “place,” but the location of Jims Illehe could not
be determined.

29. This election on June 5 was undoubtedly the one at which Smith was elected
Lewis County representative to the Legislature, though the manuscript of the
election return (in the Oregon Historical Society Collection) is dated June 25.

30. Reverend Pascal Ricard, the Bishop, or “Rev. Father in God”  as Smith
calls him, was mentioned in the preface.

31. Donswamus Bay remains unlocated.

32. Thomas W. Glasgow (1816?-?) arrived on Puget Sound in January, 1847.  In
1848 he staked a claim and built a cabin on Whidbey Island; later he abandoned
this claim and settled near Fort Nisqually.

33. George Abernethy (1808-1877) was governor of Oregon Territory from 1845-

34.  James Birnie (1804-1864) was born in Scotland and came to the Northwest in
1818 to work for the North West Fur Company and later for the Hudson’s Bay
Company.  In 1845 he left the employ of the H.B.C. and settled and farmed at


Sylvester Narrative of the Founding of Olympia


Pacific Northwest Quarterly,  v. 36, (October 1945) 331-339.

 [Transcribed verbatim, including errors, by Ed Echtle and Roger Easton, 2003.  
Text in [brackets] inserted to aid in searching.]



When Hubert Howe Bancroft came to write the History of the early settlements on
the lower Columbia River and Puget Sound, one of the manuscript sources that he
acknowledged as particularly useful was Edmund Sylvester’s narrative of the
“Founding of Olympia.”

This manuscript, which Bancroft asserted to be “one of the most valuable
authorities on Washington Territory,” was much more than a record of the
establishment of the capital city.  It included that, to be sure, and since
Sylvester was known chiefly as one of the founders of Olympia, that event was
perhaps important enough to give the title to the whole piece.  But Sylvester’s
narrative gave the substance of an interview that Bancroft had with him in 1878,
thirty-five years after the Washington pioneer first came to the Pacific
Northwest.  It was his statement not only of his own experiences, but also of
what he knew about the early history of the territory.  Into it he put many
descriptive details not readily found elsewhere.  He told how western
frontiersmen came out over the Oregon Trail to mingle with New Englanders who
had sailed around the Horn to the Columbia.  He described the way the settlers
secured clothing and other necessities by exchanging salmon for them in the
Sandwich Islands or by supplying lumber to the Hudson’s Bay Company’s post at
Nisqually.  He related their experiences when, during the excitement of the
California gold rush, they left their claims in the north and struck out for the
Sacramento mines by pack horse and ox team.

The rest was more personal. He explained how he came to select the site of
Olympia for his home, and admitted his disappointment that the city had not
grown more rapidly.  After thirty-two years of “waiting for something to turn,”
he had to confess that “Olympia is yet in the future.”  He was thirty years too
soon, and even when the railroad came, it passed him by; the trading centers on
the Sound were located elsewhere.  Yet he was loyal to his community and
protested that he was never satisfied anywhere else.

These personal reminiscences and sidelights on the life of the early
Washington pioneers are what made Sylvester’s account valuable to Bancroft. They
make it no less interesting to readers today, particularly in view of the
succession of centennials that Washington communities will be celebrating during
the next few years.



The full text of the document is presented in the following pages by courtesy of
the Bancroft Library, University of California, in which institution the
original manuscript is preserved.  It should be noted that Sylvester very
apparently did not write it himself, but told his story informally and allowed
it to be written down by someone else. The unpolished phrasing and errors of
spelling, which are preserved as they appear in that transcription, should not,
therefore, be charged to Sylvester, but should be attributed to the
circumstances under which the writing took place, and to the fact that the man
with the pen was not acquainted with the names of the persons and places to
which Sylvester referred.  -EDITOR.



Time & Place – Sylvester’s Shop, Main St. Olympia, Sunday June 9th, 1878.
Present – Sylvester, Bancroft, Rabbison, & A. B. [A. B. Rabbeson]

Mr. Sylvester said:  I crossed Columbia river bar in 1843. Came around Cape Horn
in the bark Pallas from Newbury-port.  She brought Yankee notions for the
Columbia river trade and settlers. John M. Couch of the Newbury port had a
trading post in Oregon started about 1840; but he was back home.  He had been
out in the bark Chenamus (?),  and was home when I came out.  My brother had
command of the bark.  While my brother was out here he went back to the Sandwich
Islands and sold his bark to a party in Mazatlan.  She carried the mail between
the Sandwich Islands and Mazatlan, and was lost on the Margarita Islands after
that.  I met a man two or three years ago who was on board of her when she was
cast away there.  A man by the name of Higgins. The Margerita Islands are right
off Santa Barbara.  I came on the coast when I was 22 years old.  I am now in my
58 year having been born on the 2nd of March 1821.  Oregon Falls, where Oregon
City now is was called “Tumwater” also.  That is the Indian name; It is Falls
like “Deschutes” in French.  Our vessel lay off above the Island below Portland.
We had bateaus that we got from the Hudson Bay Company and lightered our cargo
up in bateaus over Clackamas Rapids to Oregon City, and then had to pack
everything up to the shore on our shoulders.  I think there has been a sailing
vessel up as far as Milwaukee.  Johnson an Englishman had a claim at the Island above Portland at the time.

The bigger part of the people were right from our own state, people that I
had been acquainted with.  They seemed almost like home people but in a new
country.  There were very few houses (?) in Oregon City, at that time.
Pettigrove and Foster were both from Maine; they both had houses there.  The
Oregon people were mostly



from New England at that time.  This is when I first arrived, but there was an
emigration came there that season of Western people, frontiersmen mostly.  They
came in 1843 in October some of them.

I find that very few get things as they really took place.  I was young
then, everything was new and the incidents are fresher in my mind than those
that took place in late years.  Something will occur in the streets and three or
four persons will make different parts and neither one will have it entirely
correct.  The only way I can explain it is that one was looking at one part and
another at another part at the same time.

That vessel took salmon away.  I know we put three or four hundred barrels
on the Clackamas.  It took them to the Sandwich Islands.  Outside of that I do
not recollect what the freight was to the Islands.  She brought back trade for
the settlers.  Governor Abernethy could tell the particular freight she had
back.  It was eastern goods brought there by Capt Couch’s vessels.  I helped to
build the two first houses at Portland one for Pettigrove and for Couch.

Pettigrove bought the claim from a man named Bill Overton.  He took up the claim
first.  He sold his settlers right to Pettigrove.  They selected that site
because it was the head of navigation.  There was a natural clearing there, a
very pretty place in the bend of the river.  I think Petticrove bought with a
view to lay it out as a town because he went right to work and had a road made
between that and the Tu [a] latin [Tualatin] Plains.  The Tualatin river comes
in above Oregon City on the West side; The place always went by that name since
I came into the country.  Lunt, I think, I will not be positive, took the lower
part.  Daniel H. Lansdale was next to Pettygrove.  He started a tannery right in
back of what is called Tanner’s creek today I think.  I went back there and
helped him to put up his buildinng.  He started in with wooden knives for
currying.  He was quite a genius.  He was there for a long time.  He took that
claim right back of Portland.  Above Portland was what they called the Johnson
claim. Right opposite was the Stevens claim, and right below the Stevens claim I
owned it myself, a mile down the river. I sold that when I came over here.

There was a town called Linnton started but it died out five or six miles
below Portland.  It was started by Gen. McCarver who afterwards died down here
at Tacoma.  He took this Tacoma claim.  That was started about the same time as
Portland.  An emigration came in in 1844, and Portland was started in 1844 with
two log houses.  Mr McCarver came in 1843.  The emigrants coming down the river
made a landing there (Linnton) and cut right through to Tualatin Plains.  I
think it was done in 1843. I knew all the emigrations at that time, nearly
everybody.  It is not a good site.  Vessels can come right up and go 5 or 6
miles above it.  Then the location was nothing.



As soon as they started back a little they had to take right up a hill.  It was
nothing near so favourable a place as Portland was.  Portland seemed to be a
natural point.  They could not go above it much.

We stopped at Astoria as we came along.  It was a trading place, a man by
the name of Burny, employed by the Hudson Bay Company employed at that time.
There were only a few Indian houses & trading houses outside of his house.  He
got a claim after he left Astoria on the North side of the river, and about 8 or
10 miles above Astoria.  He was an old Hudson Bay man.  It is right opposite
Cathlamet Island on the North side of the river.  They commenced at Oregon City
before I arrived in the country.  There were a few houses there when I came in.
Cushing had a trading post there.  It was Caleb Cushing and Co. of Newburyport.
Cushing and Johnson, I think the firm was.  Couch was in Johnson’s employ, and
he had started this trading post at Oregon City.  We were consigned to him.  I
think Canemah right above Oregon City on the East side was started whilst I was
there.  A man by the name of Hedges started it; that is right above the Falls on
the East side of the river.  I do not know the history of that since then.  It
has not grown much but it has a showing.  I left there on account of my health.
I did not have the ague but I was just losing my health and strength so that I
could not work.  There did not seem to be anything ailing me except that I lost
my strength and became puny.  I went down to Astoria and in two or three weeks I
got just as stout and rugged as ever.  I was raised on salt water.  I just made
up my mind that if I was to live in Oregon I must have a location on salt water.

So I came here to this country January, 1846.  I do not know what attracted my
attention this way except that I was destined to settle here I suppose.  The
first time I ever heard mention of this place was: Simmonds (sic) [Simmons] started and settled here, and a man named Charley Eaton came over in 1845.  He
came back & told me about this country.  He was an old settler here & died about
a year ago.  His name was Michael T. Simmons.  He took the Falls up here called
Tumwater now.  He selected that place on account of the water power.  It is
called the Crosby claim now.  The old original claim comes a quarter of a mile
down the Sound.  He sold afterwards to Cro[s]by [Crosby] & Co in Portland.  He
had 84 feet of fall in a quarter of a mile in three different falls.  It is a
great water power.  We built a saw mill there in 1847.  The whole eight of us.
We used to send lumber to Nisqually principally. Dr Tolmie was there at that
time in charge of the trading post; it is about 20 or 25 miles by water.  We did
not send lumber any distance.  We just took it down there in rafts, 25,000 feet,
at a time.  We used to supply the settlers around; and in 1849 the barracks were
established there and we supplied the barracks.  They had ready sale for all the
lumber they could make.  The first vessel that came here & took our lumber was
the old Hudson Bay Company’s steamer Beaver I think.



That used to run up North.  I do not know where they took it to.  I know we took
a big raft of it down here and sold it [to] Tolmie and he had the steamer come
up and take it.  That must have been in 1848.  We built the mill in the Fall of
1847.  I think the old mill is all rotted down & taken away.

Fort Nisqually was only a trading place, they had a landing down at the
bay & a store house there.  The landing was called Nisqually landing; there was
nothing but a storehouse there and then back about a mile was the Fort, where
their trading house was for trading with the Indians- a regular Hudson Bay Fort,
and block house of hewn logs.  They are all on the same principle.

Simmonds [Simmons] was the first settler on the Sound.  I was the second-
that is immediately on the Sound.  There was quite a number, three or four or
five families, that came with Simmonds, [Simmons] and settled on what is called
Simmonds [Simmons] Prairie, and Bushes Prairie- old man Kindred, McAllister, Jones
& Bush those were the families; and some single men were with them.

After Tumwater the next claim taken up on the Sound was this one, the town
site of Olympia which was taken up by me.  What directed me this way was the
location as to the advantages of trade with the shipping and with the
improvements these Falls would bring in here in time.  This was good soil and
just as good as ever lay out of doors.  It was heavily timbered but then I knew
in time it would be worth something to me.  I was satisfied these Falls would be
improved and would bring shipping in after lumber and they could not go above
here; so that I would be right handy to a market for everything I could raise.
That was my object in being or the salt water more than anything else.  I was
raised in a stones throw of it.  My market would be with the shipping that came
in here for lumber.

I had no idea of a town here at the time I took up the claim.  I had no
idea of it until 1850, after I came back from California.  I came up in the brig
Orbit.  I think she was the first American vessel in here for lumber & piles.
Swan took up the next claim adjoining me- John M. Swan, he is over here
now.  It is called Swantown now, that is the Eastern addition to Olympia.  The
line runs right up the Bay, between my land and his.  Before I went to
California there was a little opening here from the New England house down,
about an acre, naturally.  Oregon City was our nearest flour mill; the Cowlitz
settlement was the nearest place we could get any peas & wheat.  That is what we
had to live on all the time.  Sometimes we went to Nisqually for peas & wheat.
We used to go to Nisqually for our clothing.  We made shingles here on a flat
boat.  We took them to Nisqually and got



clothing for them.  They would limit us to our actual wants for fear we would
trade with the Indians.  Coming along back we used to camp and wait until the
tide went out and got clams for breakfast.  If we bought a shirt too often they
would think we were trading with the Indians.

There is an incident worth mentioning which occurred to four of us.  We
put a yoke of oxen apiece to a wagon and went through to California, the four of
us on the same wagon; and we are yet living here.  That was 28 or 29 years ago.
I was talking with them yesterday, with two [of] them.  As they used to say of
the Missourian, he would go anywhere with a wagon that you could go with a
packhorse.  Dr Tolmie used to say that of us.  We went through to the Cowlitz
and built a flat-boat.  We took our yokes & provisions down the river on the
flat-boat, and drove the oxen down by land and on the old Hudson Bay trail.  We
crossed the Columbia at Knighton’s place, St Helens.  The gold excitement broke
out in 1848 and everybody went to the Mines in 1849.  The party was made up of
four wagons, but this one wagon belonged to four of us, men who are still living
now & in good health.  With wagons was the only way we could go & take our
provisions with us.   Charlie Eaton and a party went through from here with pack
horses.  They are not near so convenient as wagons.  You can take quite a load
on a wagon, and it would have taken a great many horses to pack the same load.
And then when we got to California we had our wagon & cattle there to do
teaming.  Our load consisted of provisions.  Our wagon & cattle were worth a
great deal more when we got through there than they were here.  Bacon was the
mainstay; we had some flour, tea, coffee & such things.

We went up the West side of the Willamette, from there to Cowlitz
landing; down to Monticello; and up to what is called Sauves [Sauvies?] Landing
inside of Sauves Island.–I think that is the name of it.  There is an upper &
lower mouth of the Willamette.  The lower mouth comes out at St Helens.  What is
called Sauves Landing is back of that Island.

We started from there to the Tualatin Plains on an old road that is
cut through there.  We went to California along what is called the old emigrant
route.  Wagons had been through ahead of us.  Within a few days travel I suppose
there were camps all the way through, trains going to the mines.  The state now
goes by way of Shasta Butte & Redding.  We went away up around Klamath Lake and
came in on the old emigrant route, that came in from the States & was opened a
year or two before.  It is what is called the old emigrant road.  We were only
three days from the snow going down the Sacramento Valley where we arrived on
the 1st of July.  I was thirsty and


p 337

put my hands on the rocks to take a drink and my goodness I took them off as
quick as if I had been shot.  They burn your hands they were so hot.  The whole
plains were covered with steam, it was so hot.  It is a wonder that it did not
kill the whole of us.  Twenty one of us went up the Yueba and within a week
Twenty of us were down with fever.  Of those four men I am the oldest.  Then
there was A. B. Rabbison, [Rabbeson] Jesse Ferguson (?) and Joe Borst; these are
the four men named in the order of their age.  Borst took a claim on the Skookum

We went from there down to Sacramento where we all scattered and the next
time we met we met up here.  And I tell you we were a sorry looking set when we
got up here.  There did not any of us have any hair on our heads.   I arrived
here on the 1st of January 1850 on the brig Orbit.  In Sacramento four of us
that lived here bought her.  And we hired old Capt Dunham to sail her up here.
He was afterwards killed out here & his son came out about a year ago & occupied
his claim.  It was reserved for him by the Government.  We could buy vessels
cheap there then.  Twenty-Five hundred dollars was all we paid for this brig.
When we got into the Valley we went to Fosters bar.  There is where we
were all taken sick.  Foster had a trading post there.

We left here on the 2nd of April and got into Sacramento Valley about the
2nd of July.  We were all that length of time going by ox team.  About the 1st
of September we got in Sacramento.  We could not mine much; we were all sick.
There were no towns started there.  Sacramento was just starting then as a
camping town.  There were trading posts then in Marysville; it was an old post I
think.  We bought some things there & went away down the Sacramento.  Our idea
in going back was health; we would all have died there if we had not come North.
We came back in ballast.  But from here down she took lumber to San Francisco.
She was the first American vessel that was I think up here for lumber.  It was
the first American vessel that ever was up here.  It was the brig Orbit.  When I
got back I found things just as I had left them.  I had my log cabin here and
went right into it.  I had a big cedar tree that I made the whole cabin of.  I
packed the material out on my back.  this was the first house in the capital of
Washington Territory.  It was 16 ft square.  I put a partition in, and a floor
over-head, and made shingles & all out of the same tree.  I soon after that
layed this off into a town–and went on clearing & working.  I used to supply
logs for the mill.  I built up that corner where the New England house is.
I came first to think about a town–a man named Simmonds [Simmons] & Col.
Eby (sic) [Ebey] were here, and amongst them they thought this site was the
location for a town and put me in to the mind of laying it off.  We



got the name from the Olympic range.  The mountains were named when I came here.
Charles Smith who came up here on the Orbit.  He was the man who first suggested
the name to me.  He remained here, and talked about a town with us.  He was an
aquaintance of Capt Dunham’s, and was from the same place, Eastport Maine.  he
and Mike Symmonds [Simmons] started a store here, the first trading post that
was started here.  In suggesting to me to have a town laid out here they gave
that as a name.  They gave me their reason–the Olympic range here, so that it
would be proper.  That is the only name in the United States I believe of
Olympia.  The Indian name here was not suitable; it was one that could be
converted into blackguard meaning.  It was “Schictwood” signifying Bear.  It
happened to be a great place for hunting bear.  I had a scow afterwards that I
gave that name to.  Tumwater was called “Stitclas” by the Indians.  They were
not proper names.  We layed off the town and had a map made.  A man by the name
of Dr Fraser from Oregon City surveyed it first.  I was full owner.  I made Col.
Eby [Ebey] interested here for a while in starting it.  He did not do me any
good.  But on the contrary was a load for me to pack.  I took his interest

Stillicomb [Steilacoom] started after that.  I think Stillicomb
[Steilacoom] started in 1851.  Lafayette Balch took up the claim there, at
Stillicomb [Steilacoom] proper. A man named Chapman started the upper place.
There is only one farm there now on the point.  He was the father of John
Chapman who works over here in the mill now.

The United States started a Station & Fort there in 1849 about a mile and
a quarter back of where the Asylum is now.  I think Chapman located in 1850 at
the upper Stillicomb [Steilacoom].  The Government leased his claim.  Heath
belonged to the Hudson Bay Company, and had kept stock and afterwards died at
Fort Nisqually.  I was driven down there in 1846 and he was living there then &
I was at his house.  He had stock–sheep & cattle; he had an interest in the

The Government rented the place from the heirs of Heath and put men there
to afford protection from the Indians.  Stillicomb [Steilacoom] was made a
landing afterwards.  The first landing was right at the mouth of Stillicomb
[Steilacoom] Creek.  It is below Stillicomb [Steilacoom] proper.  I think there
is a flour mill there right at the mouth, built by old man Thomas M. Chambers.
He is dead now but the boys are there.

There are no other towns around here.  but below there was a milling
station.  Port Ludlow was I think the first milling station.  Then followed Port
Gamble.  Ludlow was started I think about 1851 because I know I directed the man
that started it, a man by the name of Sayward.  He was from the same State, of
Maine, Rockland.  I was keeping a boarding house & he stopped with me.  He said
he was going down Sound to locate a place for a mill and I told him to go there
& look at that place by all means before he started



anywhere else.  He went & examined it and took it up from my recommendation.  I
recommended it for a harbour & for convenience, water, and everything.  It is a
wonderful place.  Large ships can go in & go right back out of sight amongst the
little Islands.  The passage is narrow, but you can take in all the ships you
like & hide them–a whole navy, I guess.  I had been in there in canoes.  It was
one of [the] best places on the Sound.

After that Port Gamble was located by the Puget Mill Company.  After that
Fort Madison and Port Blakely were located.  I think they started in 1851.
The first American steamer on the Sound was the old Major Tompkins,
brought up here by John M. Scranton and Hunt, I think Thomas.  They came up in
the Summer of 1854.

Everything was new and there was plenty of money and a good time
generally.  That was the situation in general.  Nothing particular that I know
of outside of locating this place occurred within my knowledge.  I think Olympia
is yet in the future.  I have been here for 32 years waiting for something to
turn, and I think the growth of it has been very slow.  But my idea is just
this.  It is an out of the way place and hard to get to, and all the
intermediate places will settle up first.  All this interior will settle up and
then the trade is bound to come here, and the heavy capitalists will be here on
the Sound.  How long it will be is a question, but that is my idea, and I think
that is the general idea.  When they start to build the railroad across the
Cascade Mountains to tap the interior and then this Sound country will go ahead.
And here is where the main shipping point is going to be–some place on the
Sound.  I do not know where that place is going to be.

The Sound is mostly a timber country.  The agricultural lands lie back.
But all these rivers making into the Sound have rich bottoms, and they are going
to have rich settlements.  The timber is all conveniently placed along the
waters edge.  nature could have not done more for a country, as far as lumbering
country is concerned.  They have not commenced at the lumber more than a mile
back yet.  In Maine they go back 200 miles.  It is just commencing on this Sound
now.  I would like to have started in about where the country is now and been as
well fixed as I am now and of the same age as when I started, and I think I
would live to see a future.  I was thirty years too soon.  I never was satisfied
anywhere else then at Olympia.  The very first time I ever heard this place
mentioned I wanted to come here and I have been satisfied ever since.  If I had
a million of money I would settle right in Olympia–unless it was in the
Sandwich islands.  I think that is one of the pleasantest climates for a man to
wind up his days in, if he had plenty of means.



Funk: Doane’s Oyster Pan Roast

Captain Doane’s Oyster Pan Roast
By Goldie Robertson Funk

Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 43 (April 1952) 154-157.
 WHEN GOVERNORS and judges, legislators and lobbyists of the Northwest are but dimly remembered, the name of Captain Doane of Olympia, Washington, and his Oyster Pan Roast will still be household words.

For a whole generation most of the political maneuvers in Washington territory and state were devised in Doane’s Oyster House over hot plates of his famous Pan Roast. Not that Captain Doane assisted in the maneuvers- he furnished the Pan Roasts, the like of which were not to be had anywhere else in the world, partly because the native oysters that went into them were super excellent, partly because no one else knew the combination. It was the Captain’s own invention, and his secret until he died. Doane’s Pan Roast was the se plus ultra of good eating. It was the most talked about dish of its day- that is, the Captain’s day.

Not only was Doane’s Pan Roast a daily favorite of Olympians and visiting politicians, but travelers from everywhere who visited the Pacific States made a point of landing at Doane’s Oyster House, coming or going. Foreign visitors from many European countries partook of Doane’s Pan Roast and wrote home to their friends and newspapers about it. It is doubtful if any other human food has had wider spread or more fervid word-of-mouth advertising.

 When the Captain came to Olympia to stay in 1880 and saw the limitless acres of oysters to be had for the taking on all the tidelands, he opened a little place on the north side of Fifth Street, just off Main Street, now Capitol Way. He raked and opened his own oysters in the forenoon and served them, fried or in oyster stew, in the afternoon and evening. Besides a large transient population, many young men had come from the East to find a permanent location. Doane’s oysters proved so popular that he bought a place across the street where Drees’ Art Store and Phillips’ Shoe Store now are. The oyster house itself did not occupy all this space. There was a beautifully kept lawn in the rear and on the east side. A huge barn, completely covered with ivy, rose like a hill on the south side. Here was the Captain’s famous rose garden, not so extensive as choice and well kept. The bushes were all tagged. If he was asked the name of a rose, he looked at the tag, went to a slate on his back porch, found the corresponding number and the name.  He cared little for names- it was the colors and perfume he loved.

It was here the Captain invented his famous Pan Roast, here that politicians, statesmen, world travelers, the good and the great from everywhere foregathered to enjoy the delectable combination set before them, marvel at its inimitable flavor, and try to beg the secret from the Captain or his Chinese cook.

The Captain was big and burly and handsome and the very soul of hospitality. He met and welcomed his guests himself with a warmth and friendliness they never forgot. The cook prepared the orders; Jack and Wood, the two Doane boys, served them. Sixty gallons of oysters a day was an average. A Pan Roast required a large cupful of oysters, frizzled in four tablespoonfuls of melted butter, a cupful of tomato catsup, one tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce, one scant teaspoonful of Tabasco, salt and pepper, poured piping hot over oven toast. This was served on a large platter with pickles, coffee, or beer, and for many years the price was thirty-five cents for the Pan Roast and five cents for the beer or coffee. Years later the price was fifty cents. Today no one hesitates to pay $1.65 for a plate of Doane’s Pan Roast.

Born in 1825, Captain Woodbury J. Doane was a sea-faring man out of Maine, on whose wild coasts he learned the ways of winds and ships on his father’s sailing vessel. He became master of a ship at an age when most other boys were still in public school. He married at 18. His young wife died, leaving a little daughter. In 1866 he married Elizabeth Pendergast in Victoria, B.C. Miss Pendergast was a sister of Mrs. Mitchell Harris’ mother. (Mitchell Harris was an Olympia merchant for sixty years. His wife, Topsy Lichtenstein was a Seattle girl.) Two sons, Jack and Woodbury, were born to the Doanes. The boys were their father’s chief help in his Oyster House for many years. His wife died in 1875. Employing Chinese to harvest the oysters, the captain began to ship oysters, the first ever shipped out of Olympia. For years past they have been shipped all over the world.

Captain Doane’s life was crowded with the adventures, dangers, and hardships that go with the exploring of new lands and waters in the days of sailing ships and uncharted waters. Lured by the discovery of gold in California, he arrived in San Francisco in 1849. He followed all the gold excitements from then until 1880, when he returned to Olympia to stay.

In 1862 Captain Doane took a steamer, crowded with gold seekers, up the wild and dangerous Fraser River during the rush to the “Eldorado of the Cariboo.” Viscount Milton, M.P., on a British expedition to the Western Canadian provinces, was among the passengers. In his book Northwest Passage by Land, written after his return to England, the viscount wrote, “Captain Doane, (commander of the Fraser River boat, was a jolly, red faced fellow of exceeding hospitality. He invited us to his cabin, the only furnished room on board, and bringing out a box of cigars and ordering a whole decanter of brandy cocktails to be made, at once desired us to. make ourselves happy. Every fifteen minutes we were called by thin negro bartender to have a drink. A refusal would have been deemed rude and we had to exercise great ingenuity to evade continual invitations.” He added that this steamer cost no less than 75,000 to 100,000 pounds. The whole machinery, including boiler plates, had been brought on mule back for many miles.

Once, when the Captain was a pilot on the Fraser River on the steamer Sea Bird, the vessel caught fire. Passengers and crew were panic-stricken, but the Captain remained steady. The viscount records, “The Captain stood at the wheel, while the flames wrapped around him, until the steamer beached. He was badly burned. When taken from the blazing vessel the passengers took up a collection to purchase him a valuable watch as a token of their admiration and gratitude.” After Viscount Milton returned to England, he sent the Captain a fine shaving set as a token of his own gratitude.

An oldtimer who knew Captain Doane well, Roderick Sprague, reporter, feature writer, and later editor of the Daily Olympian, wrote, “His adventures and experiences would make volumes of interesting reading.” During the 1850’s he made the inland trip, afoot, up through British Columbia along the northward course of the Mackenzie River and the Great Slave lakes to the headwaters of one of the tributary streams flowing into the MacKenzie. He mushed across the mountain ranges between Alaska and the British Northwest Territory, and followed the Stikeen River to its mouth. This was a trip that tried the hardiest of men, but he laughed at the danger and the hardships and the loneliness. Asked if he never suffered from the cold on his northern expeditions, he said, with a twinkle in his eye, “Well, some men did. In fact, when one man died on a mushing trip they found his provisions froze inside of him.”

Captain Doane was one of the moving spirits at the time the overland telegraph was being strung through Alaska to Siberia across Bering Strait. He accompanied the vessels taking up the cable, but, just at the time when all was ready to complete the work, the success of the Atlantic cable was proven and the attempt to run the wires overland was abandoned.

For many years the Captain was mate on the Eliza Anderson, one of the best known steamers on Puget Sound, making the run between Seattle and Victoria, BC. He also served for some time as mate on the Zephyr, an extremely slow boat between Seattle and Olympia. The Captain once remarked that parents who took their children on his boat “were letting them grow up in ignorance.” Once more, before coming to Olympia, adventure beckoned him. With Okanogan Smith he explored the Okanogan country where he discovered several valuable mining claims. He was financially interested in the Six Eagles mine as it came into production. To quote Roderick Sprague, “His life was a saga of strength and daring, pitting the might of his courage against the forces of fate and laughing at the challenge.” Few men have left behind them such a record. Except for such as Captain Doane, a type of pioneer that has already disappeared, the great Northwest would still be an unknown country. All over the Northwest are still men now in the sunset of life who can look back on the encouragement as well as the financial help received from this great-hearted man. He was a friend to man. No deserving person ever asked his help in vain. His heart went out to the young and ambitious. He died in Olympia on February 14, 1903. There his body lay in state in the beautiful home of Mitchell and Topsy Harris, where hundreds came to look upon the face of a beloved friend.

Olympia, still the home of the Olympia oyster, preserves its tradition of Captain Doane’s Pan Roast, but it is served in a modern setting, its picture windows framing an enchanting view of placid Puget Sound with shores and islands dark with evergreen forests, its horizon bounded by the sharp whiteness of the soaring Olympic Mountains.


Bates, Kate Stevens: The Old Stevens Mansion

The Old Stevens Mansion 

By Kate Stevens Bates

Washington Historian, Vol 19 No 2 (April 1928), 108-111. 


 In view of the early landscaping of the Capitol grounds at Olympia one naturally wonders just what will be done with the old Stevens home on Capitol Way and Eleventh Street. One must wish that some means could be devised by which this historic building could be preserved for all time. It will be remembered that General Hazard Stevens put the house in thorough order just before his death having in mind the idea that by thus doing it might stand for years and finally be taken over by the State, for this old pioneer building with its many cherished memories and historiacal [sic] connections offers a rare opportunity and one which should not be neglected of being preserved as a most interesting relic of the early beginning of this great commonwealth of Washington and a worthy memorial of one of its most distinguished citizens. As we all know General Hazard Stevens was profoundly interested in old historic landmarks, and it was largly owing to his efforts that the venerable State House in Boston was saved from the encroachments of the Boston Transit Commission. While here in Washington, from his intimate knowledge of the history of the country, he was of invaluable aid to the State Daughters of the American Revolution in locating the precise spots of the Oregon Trail and other places where monuments were to be erected.

The Stevens Mansion dates back to 1856, prior to which time Isaac Ingalls Stevens, the first governor and organizer of Washington Territory, selected the land where now stands the house, because of its eminence and of the commanding view to be obtained from it of beautiful Puget Sound, backed by the snow clad Olympic Mountains, as soon as the intervening timber could be taken away. At that time the land on every side of the block, as far north as where now stands the Masonic Temple on Eighth Street and Capitol Way, was covered with a dense growth of native trees and underbrush and at times the roarings of cougars were heard in the woods.

As owner of the property, Governor Stevens had the great trees which covered it cut down and also those on the land sur- rounding it for the distance of two hundred feet on every side so as to prevent any trees falling on his land; next the huge stumps were removed and the land thoroughly cleared. This accomplished, 


he first planted an extensive vegetable garden, had a well, eighty feet in depth, dug at one side of the present back piazza and then began the building of the house. This was completed in time for the family, which consisted of the Governor and Mrs. Stevens, and their four children, Hazard, Sue, Maude and Kate, to move into it for the winter. In commemoration of this event a great house warming was given to which the whole town was invited, although this does not mean a very large assemblage as the population of the entire Territory at that time was only 3965 souls, exclusive of the Indians, and the officers and their wives from Steilacoom, and the officers of a naval vessel in the bay. Among the guests were some young women who had infants, so these, rather than forego the pleasures of a dance, brought their babies with them and after putting them to steep in one of the big chambers, went back to dance until the wee sma’ hours of the morning. There were a number of beautiful young girls in Olympia at that time, among them were Carrie and Annie Cock, Miss Hays and others. The little house, which for many years stood on the southeast corner of the block, was originally built for an office, at the same time as the mansion and used to be on the northeast corner. It is of interest to learn that is was in this little edifice that a dreadful tragedy occured for it was here that Quiemuth, the brother of Leschi, the noted Indian chief, was shot to death, greatly to the wrath an in indignation of Governor Stevens who had had him confined there for his protection against the whites.

The Governor and his family made their home in the mansion for about two years, and after they left Olympia it was occupied successively by various people. Prominent among these were: William Pickering, Governor of the Territory from 1862, to 1867, during the crucial period of the Civil War,- and Elisha Peyre Ferry, Surveyor General of the Territory, afterwards its Governor and, still later, when in 1889 Washington attained statehood, its first State Governor. The Ferry family occupied the house for twelve years. Other occupants of the mansion were: Captain J. G. Parker and his wife, both well known pioneers; General T. I. McKenny, civil war veteran and Indian Agent for the Territory, and his wife and family; J. E. Brown, Registrar of the Land Office; Major Breckenridge and family. Mr. Charles Hewitt, a prominent citizen of Tumwater and of a distinguished pioneer family was born in the house. The late judge T. N. Allen and family lived in it for twenty-nine years, and after the 


Judge’s disease, his widow and her sister, Miss Stamps, still continued to reside there. Since its renovation it has been occupied by tenants.

Anyone familiar with the manner in which houses of the style of this old executive mansion are being, or have been restored and preserved in most, if not all, of our cities all over the land, will realize that the one described above furnishes a rare opportunity, and one which should not be neglected, for the people, not alone of Olympia but of the entire State, to take advantage of. I know of no other state where the residence of its first Governor has been preserved. Now while the edifice is in good condition it, together with its beautiful, sightly grounds, keeping all of the fine old trees in them, should be taken possession of by our citizens, the house converted into a museum for the preservation and display of the relics of the various periods through which it has passed, and provided with a caretaker, and the picturesque grounds made into a public park, both for the benefit of the Olympians and the other citizens of Washington as well as for that of the numerous visitors to the State’s charming Capitol.

Notable examples of old, historic houses, preserved and cared for in the manner described above, are Mount Vernon on the Potomac River, George Washington’s venerated home; the House of the Seven Gables in Salem, Massachusetts, made famous by the novel of the same name by Nathaniel Hawthorne; the Paul Revere House in Boston; the Royal House in Medford, Massachusetts; the Van Courtland and Dykeman houses in New York, and the old Frauncis Tavern, the latter in the heart of the financial district of New York; the Lincoln House at Springfield, Illinois; and the Rochambeau House in Newport, Rhode Island; let me add still one other, in this instance of particular interest, as it was the ancestral home of Mrs. Margaret Lyman Stevens, the wife of General I. I. Stevens, also in Newport, Rhode Island, which is now in the hands of the Newport Historical Society who are converting it into an historic house. It is called the Wanton- Lyman Hazard House after Mrs. Stevens’ ancestors.

Now, while acknowledging that some, not all however, of these historic edifices are more elaborate in their style of architecture than is the house under discussion, none have a more romantic history or are of as much interest and value to our city and state as is this, its first executive mansion, while in no one 


of them have lived men of more varied accomplishments, or of higher types of character thanhe who erected this one, namely Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Washington’s first Governor, and his son, General Hazard Stevens who, with Mr. P. B. Van Trump, was the first person to climb Washington’s great peak, Mount Rainier.


Miller, Olympia Narrow Gauge Railroad

The Olympia Narrow Gauge Railroad
By William Winlock Miller

Vol 16 No 4 (October 1925): 243-250


For a period of five years, from 1869 to 1874, the most exciting public question in every town on the Eastern shore of Puget Sound was the location of the terminus and branch lines of the Northern Pacific Railroad which was then nearing completion.

Rivalry was intense for these favors as the town that first secured the terminus was assured of a commercial future. Olympia, as the capital of the state and the oldest town of importance on Puget Sound, was at first considered to have the best claim to the Northern Pacific terminus. Negotiations were almost completed when the death of the agent in whose name the terminal lands had been secured and the legal difficulties following his death halted all plans. Meanwhile the Northern Pacific officials, following their not too scrupulous plan of playing one town off against the others, had secured from Tacoma the promise of a larger grant of land than Olympia could possibly give. As a result, it was reasonably certain by the Fall of 1872 that Tacoma would become the terminus, and in July, 1873, the formal announcement was made.

With the announcement vanished the last vestiges of any hope that Olympia would be the commercial center of Western Washington. The Northern Pacific made no move to extend to Olympia their branch line which ran through Tenino. Without any rail connections Olympia was faced with commercial annihilation. The Sound commerce which it had held as the head of navigation was diverted to Tacoma. The crops of Lewis county, the richest country tributary to Olympia, were being routed to Portland on the Northern Pacific. Within a year the situation had become so serious that General Hazard Stevens declared in a circular letter that even the capital might be moved to a more accessible place. Popular feeling in Thurston County



was aggravated by resentment against the unfair dealings of the Northern Pacific and also because while the railroad running through Tenino was only fifteen miles away it was useless to Olympia. It was apparent that a railroad must be built to connect with this line at its nearest point, Tenino.

In 1870 a company headed by Governor Ferry and Marshall Blinn was organized. It was capitalized at $400,000.00 and its purpose was to build the Tenino-Olympia line for the Northern Pacific. Congress was memorialized to open the Des Chutes Channel and to grant 1337 acres of land at Budd Inlet which were to be offered to the railroad. Congress failed to act on the petition and the subsequent failure of the Northern Pacific to carry out their promises automatically terminated the usefulness of the. company.

In 1873 another company, the Olympia Railway and Mining Company, was organized largely through the efforts of Governor Solomon and Colonel Bee. As its name implies, its object was twofold: first, to build a railroad to Coal Bank near Tenino which would connect with the Northern Pacific, and, second, to develop the coal deposits of that district. The company was forced to seek public aid, and after a preliminary meeting and negotiations with prominent citizens a large public meeting was held on August 25th at Olympia. Every effort was made to have the meeting as representative as possible. judge O. B. McFadden, the territorial delegate, was chairman and Elwood Evans secretary. This meeting represents the commencement of Olympia’s effort to build rail communication for itself; a project which had important influence on the history of all Western Washington, as it, together with the Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad, was the first step to ,combat the control of the transcontinental railway. Conditions had reached a point where the Northern Pacific by extending or denying railway privileges could determine the fate of a community.

The proposition of the company was practically that the county should finance the road and provide terminal and settlement lands in return for which the company agreed to construct the road and to maintain passenger and freight depots at Olympia and Tumwater. This proposal was accepted almost unanimously and a bond issue of $150,000.00, the amount requested by the company, was proposed. The lands asked for by the company were the same pieces that had been pledged to the



Northern Pacific several years previously. A committee of thirteen men was appointed to cooperate with the company. These men, all prominent in public affairs, were later the leaders of the Olympia Railroad Union.

Under the laws of the territory it was impossible for Thurston county to issue the bonds without a Congressional act amending the organic act. The result was that months passed by and the Railway and Mining Company was still held up because of the failure of Congress to act. Furthermore, a number of the men who had agreed to sell or donate their lands to the Northern Pacific refused to do so for the new company. By December, 1873, it became apparent that no early action by Congress could be expected. Hazard Stevens issued a call on December 23rd for money to make the preliminary survey in order to be ready for actual construction as soon as Congress took action. General Stevens summarized the situation. “When that company * * * * comes to build the road all the preliminary work will have been done. And should the company decline to build the road we will be prepared to make other arrangements.”

The last sentence of his statement was the first announcement of the Narrow Gauge Railroad. By December 31st $660.00 had been raised and on that day the organization known as the Olympia Railroad Union was organized, consisting of seventeen of the subscribers to the fund with Hazard Stevens as President, S. D. Howe Vice President, and F. A. Hoffman, Secretary. On January 8th, 1879, [sic] the articles of incorporation were drawn up and a capitalization of $200,000.00 announced. While there was still hope that the Olympia Railway and Mining Company would be able to construct its road, the Union was prepared to take its place. $200,000.00 was an ambitious sum for a town of less than two thousand people to raise locally.  It was the intention of the Union not to seek outside aid. It was provided, however, that the stock, in $100.00 shares, could be bought with land, goods, articles of value, or even labor on the roadbed- an interesting insight into the pioneer financial condition of the territory. In the prospectus it was announced that the purpose of the Union was “to construct and operate a railroad from Olympia to intersect the Northern Pacific near Tenino”.  Public interest was soon aroused and in only a few weeks 1500 acres of land had been subscribed.

By the end of January it was evident that the company



would never build the road and Olympia was left to use its own resources if it wished the road. No company could undertake the construction of the railroad without a subsidy from the county which could not be issued except by an Act of Congress. The situation of Olympia in the farthest corner of an undeveloped territory with little or no surplus capital would have ended the project except for the determination of the citizens to carry it through. It is safe to assume that a town of equal size today, even with modern financial aids, could not survey and build a railroad. Olympia accepted the plan as entirely feasible and the Union began to consider actual construction work.

An engineer, T. B. Morris, had already prepared the surveys and estimates for grading with the money provided by the committee. An office was opened where these documents, together with railroad pamphlets and plans, were shown to the public.

Within a week the Railroad Union had launched a campaign to interest everyone in Thurston County in the railroad. It became the leading subject for discussion in Olympia. Lands and some money were pledged. Those who had neither lands nor money promised to work on the roadbed for a specified time. Several merchants subscribed to stock by giving provisions for the workmen and material for construction work. One man donated the use of his piledriver as his share. At a meeting held on March 7th the ladies agreed to send their Chinese servants to work on the road. It was announced on March 7th that 6200 acres of land, 100 town lots and $7,000.00 in cash or provisions had been subscribed, a not inconsiderable amount for a campaign of a few weeks.

As soon as the first burst of enthusiasm had spent itself, the united sentiment of the town was divided by a somewhat point- less.argument as to the width of the gauge. It was evident that Olympia could not   afford with so little money to construct a standard roadbed.   By a vote of the subscribers a three foot gauge was decided on. Another cause for disagreement was whether or not the County should aid the railroad. It was to serve all the County and because of the lack of private capital it seemed as if some public money would be needed. This was disagreeable to some prominent men who had little faith in the railroad as a financial matter. Active work began on April 7th and the first few miles of grading were done by the business men of Olympia and farmers



from the county. Miss Mary O’Neil, an early resident of Olympia, describes in the following paragraphs the opening of the work:

“The road from Olympia across Bush Prairie was graded by citizens, of the county turning out in a body and working on the right of way. On these field days all business was suspended. The people assembled early in the morning on Main Street and, headed by the band and Charley Granger’s big mule with a cannon strapped on his back, marched out to the right of way, every man armed with a pick and shovel. Governor Perry and other officials marched and worked with the others. The ladies always prepared a bountiful dinner at noon. Somedays there were perhaps 700 or 800 men at work and as much as a half mile of right of way was graded. Farmers with their teams, plows and scrapers came from all parts of the county and lent a hand.” This is a scene from pioneer life that deserves to be remembered for its picturesqueness.

 The beginning of construction gave an added impetus to the raising of funds. By April 11th $45,000.00 worth of land had been exchanged for stock, in addition to $2,400.00 in labor and $6,850.00 in cash and materials. The total of $54,250.00 assured a good beginning of the work.

After the grading had reached the point where the people of Olympia could not conveniently work, men were hired to continue the construction and they were paid largely in provisions. Their cash pay was provided by the fund from the sale of stock and contributions made by individual men. On May 1st it was announced that two months’ work by fifty men would complete the important part of the grading and a renewed call for funds was issued. Almost every citizen had subscribed to the first fund and there was little free wealth in Olympia, so this time there was trouble in raising funds. The financial condition of the Union was shaky due to the lack of ready money to continue construction or to equip the road.
 The pressing question was whether Congress would pass the bill to allow Thurston County to issue bonds for the completion of the road. Judge McFadden, the territorial delegate, managed by May 18th to secure the passage of the bill. The arrival of the telegram announcing the fact was a signal for a procession in honor of the occasion in which all the town took part. The bill set a maximum of $200,000.00 for the bond issue. The company



was to bond itself for $100,000.00 to maintain transportation for twenty-five years and the county was not to be responsible for the company’s obligations. The bonds were not to be issued until the roadbed was completed and the company showed itself capable of constructing the road. The passage of this bill made possible the construction of local roadbeds in other parts. hitherto Congress had refused to allow public funds to be used to aid private enterprise. Two previous Olympia bills had been rejected and the Seattle-Walla Walla Railroad had been denied the same privilege.

A large number of citizens who had taken no part in the work or financing of the road now began a campaign on the issue of public economy since the bond issue would eventually raise taxes unless the railroad was a financial success. The issuing of the bonds never was in real doubt as the people of Thurston County had gone too far to turn back. The authorization to issue the bonds was voted two to one on August 8th. In all 742 votes were cast giving some idea of the sparsity of population in Thurston County.

The most important part of the grading was completed in the season of 1874 before the funds of the Union were exhausted. After December, 1874, the newspapers make no mention of the road. The people of Olympia had reached their financial limit and nothing more could he expected from them. The roadbed stayed unfinished and while the Union still existed in name, its usefulness was ended. From time to time the County Commissioners went through the form of legalizing an extension of time for the issuing of the bonds. Eastern capital had been badly crippled in the panic of two years previously and there was little chance of finding a man in the territory wealthy enough to complete the project.

In June, 1877, through the efforts of the Union a. Seattle man, Amos Bowman, was interested. Although he was unable to carry out his proposals, his appearance was the occasion for a new effort. The unfinished road had been a sore point in Olympia’s pride. From a more practical standpoint, Olympia’s population and trade were remaining stationary while Seattle and Tacoma had forged far ahead.
    Mr. E. N. Ouimette a member of the original company, after canvassing the business men of Olympia, considered it the opportune time to revive the Railroad Union. Through his efforts



a meeting was called on June lst to form a new organization. The Thurston County Railroad Construction Company was organized, capitalized at $250,000.00 in $1.00 shares. $5,150.00 in cash was subscribed the first day.

Negotiations were opened with the Railroad Union to transfer its assets to the new company in order that the bonds might be issued for the new company. After some discussion it was agreed that when $15,000.00 in stock had been subscribed for the new company and $2,500.00 actually in the treasurer’s hands, the Union would transfer its rights. By July 6th $15,810.00 had been subscribed and on July 20th the transfer had been made.

Volunteer labor was again called for and 150 men worked on the grading at Tumwater. From this date on the paragraphs in the papers of that period contain continual references to the steady progress of the grading and trestle work. By May 10th the bonds were ready for issue and on this date a steamer brought the spikes for the trestlework and ties. The locomotive and rails came in a week’s time. The locomotive, of course, was shipped from the East while the rails were rerolled from the original Central Pacific rails at San Francisco. The cars were built by Ward and Mitchell at Tumwater. The instant the rails arrived they were hurried to the roadbed and sixty feet of track laid on which a small flat car was placed. The tracklaying was pushed so that on July 25th the date for completion was set on August lst. Two trains a day were scheduled to leave Olympia. Appended to the announcement were the passenger and freight rates for the road. From Olympia to Tumwater the fare was 12 1/2 cents; to Bush Station 50c; to Spurlock 75c; to Tenino $1.00. Ordinary freight was $1.00 a ton, bulky things such as hay $2.00.

On August lst the road was formally opened. The entire rolling stock of the road; the locomotive, one passenger car, one box car and three flat cars carried 350 Olympia people to Tenino, the running time being an hour and a half for fifteen miles. A prominent citizen opposed to the railroad rode in front of the train on his cayuse* to demonstrate the uselessness of modem transportation. The road that Olympia had waited for so long was at last completed.

The later history of the road is of little interest. In August, 1881, the name of the company was changed to the Olympia and

*An Unconscious Imitation of the man who walked his horse In front of Stephenson’s ‘Rocket.’



Chehalis Valley Railroad. In 1887 it again changed hands and became a subsidiary of the Oregon Improvement Co. under the name of the Port Townsend Southern Railroad. In 1891 the road was widened to standard gauge and extended to deep water on the west side of Budd Inlet. In 1898 the Oregon Improvement Co. was reorganized under the name of the Pacific Coast Co. and the little road passed into the hands of the Northern Pacific- a curious cycle that the road built to combat the Northern Pacific should at last have been bought by that company.

The Northern Pacific discontinued the road from Plumb Station to Tumwater and later tore up the track. The roadbed is still visible along the Chehalis-Olympia highway.

The Olympia-Tenino Railroad, while it did not bring great commercial prosperity to Olympia, did save the city from sinking into decay. Also it gave Thurston County and the surrounding territory the desired railroad communication with the rest of the territory. Most important, however, it placed a period at the end of the paragraph of pioneer railroad building which included the Baker road and the Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad, and which was one of the greatest. achievements of pioneer Washington. The Olympia and Tenino Railroad, while not the most important of these roads, deserves to be remembered as the most typical example of the pioneer initiative and self-reliance which made their construction possible.

Newell: Rogues, Buffoons and Statesmen (Index)




Rogues, Buffoons and Statesmen: The Inside Story of Washington’s Capital City

by Gordon Newell

Seattle: Superior Publishing Co., 1975.

Transcribed for Web, 2002
TRascribed verbatim, including errors.  Text in [brackets] inserted to aid searching.


Abbott, M. D., 337
Abernethy, Alexander S., 23,32, 33, 82
Acme Theater, 222, 266, 327
Active, str., 27, 28
Adams, Fred A, 293
Adams, George, 370, 391, 396, 402, 442
Aetzel, Mrs. George, 310
Agatz, Mrs. Fred, 290
Agee, John, 396
Albright, Amy, 352, 353
Alice, tug, 332
Alida, str., 71, 72
Alexander, Eddie, 455
Allen, Clay, 272
Allen, John B., 129,135,143,144
Allen, Pliny, 232, 239, 243, 257, 335, 347
Alida, str., 71, 72
Anderson, Mrs. A. N., 351
Anderson, E., 364
Anderson, Emmett, 472,476,479, 495
Andrews, Lloyd, 496, 499
Angle, Grant, 215, 242
Ankeny, Levy, 150, 181, 195, 225
Anti-Saloon League, 176, 200, 214, 226, 228, 229, 240, 243, 258, 265, 268, 271, 283, 316, 347,356,359
Armstrong, H. C. (Army), 427, 443
Arrasmith, J. W., 102, 141
Arthur, Chester A., 105
Ashley, W. G., 183,188,189,237, 238
Aston, Thomas, 360
Athens University, 131, 148, 492
Atkinson, N. P., 415
Atlanta, schooner, 163
Atwood, Stanley F., 389
Austin, Capt. Harold D., 470
Avalon Theater, 340
Axtell, Frances C., 255, 257
Ayer, Ellis, 152
Ayer, Louise, 191

Bagley, Clarence B., 58, 63, 65, 74,78,81,92,97,102-107,242
Bagley, Rev. Daniel, 49,55,60,28
Bagley, J. D., 47
Bagshaw, Enoch W., 353
Bailey, H. B., 439
Bailey Motel, 439
Bailey, Robert C., 496
Baker, A. C., 253
Baker, Bush T., 223, 263, 318
Baker, Frank S., 370
Baker, Fred K., 349, 353
Balch, Lafayette, 17
Balch, Roscoe, 360
Baldwin, A. J., 24, 31 i 57
Ball, Robert, 190
Ballaine, John E., 155
Ballard, Capt. W. R., 72
Ballew, Jack, 492
Bank of Olympia, 488
Banker, E. F., 368
Barnes, Bert H., 254
Barnes, Frank, 347
Barnes, George A., 12, 34, 38, 46, 52,56,61,63,69,76,100,103, 106,112, 133, 148
Barnes, Mrs. George A., 38
Barnes, Grant, 347
Barnes Hook & Ladder Co., 63, 93,96,100
Barrett, Eldon, 464
Barrett, Ernest, 205
Barrington, Ned, 177
Bartholet, Matt, 318
Barton, C. M., 133
Bates, D. C., 188
Bates, Jack E., 403
Bates, Kate (Stevens), 351, 398
Bayview Hotel, 361
Beach, C. E., 303
Beach, L. P., 65
Beach, W. M., 232
Beals, Judge Walter B., 367, 432
Bean, Abe, 358
Beatty, D., 24
Beatty, Oliver, 354
Beaver, str., 27
Beek, Cleo, 350
Beek, Dave, 442, 447
Beckett, Evro, 421
Beedy, Thomas, 141
Beeler, Judge Adam, 354
Beeman, Thomas, 339
Bell, William N., 28
Bell, W. P., 239
Benn, E. B., 359
Benn, E. M., 467
Benson, A. J., 241
Bercier, Peter, 10
Berger, H. O., 337
Berry, Alfred, 20, 21
Berry, C. E., 118
Berry, Clyde, 172
Bettman, Louis, 13, 100
Biesen, Cheater, 334
Bigelow, D. R., 17, 19, 56
Bigelow, George, 254, 275
Biles, S. D., 17
Biles’ Tannery, 171
Billings, William, 61, 75,98, 110, 173, 203
Bingea, Rev. Richard, 481
Birney, Charles, 378
Bish, Seth, 438
Black Hawk, ship, 57
Black, Clark G., 268
Black, Judge W. W., 255, 300, 301
Blaine, E. L., 289
Blair, Rev. Chester C., 351
Blake, Judge Bruce, 407
Blankenship, George E., 8, 133, 174
Blankenship, Mrs. George E., 54, 55
Blankenship, Robert, 172, 237, 286
Blethen, Alden J., 198, 207, 230, 276
Blethen, Gen. Clarence, 329
Blinn, Marshall, 69, 76, 78
Block, George, 420
Blodgett, F. I., 125
Bloomer, Nevada, 117, 118, 123
Boede, Violet, 394, 425
Boeing Airplane Co., 286, 401
Boeing, William, 286, 401
Bolan, A. J., 17, 25
Boldt, George, 454
Bone, Homer T., 310, 339, 362, 374, 399, 430
Bond, James J., 373
Bonker, Don, 496
Bookstore, The, 348
Bordeaux, Theodore, 264
Bouck, William, 311
Bowen, Charles, 254, 301, 308
Bowen, O. A., 123
Bowman, Claire, 354
Boyd, Thomas Henderson, 133, 139
Brabrook, E. D., 348, 349, 352, 440,452,482
Bradford, B. F., 17
Bradley, Ira T., 67, 118, 487
Braeger, Otto, 201
Brainerd, Erastus, 163, 272
Brazeal, Hollys, 341
Brazeal, Jack, 350
BreQkner, Elmer L., 303,342,350
Brenner, Billie, 399
Brenner, J. J., 253
Brenner Oyster Co., 173
Brenta, Thomas J., 83, 90
Breuer, Chester, 465
Bricker, J. C., 326
Bridgford, Dr. Wayne, 189, 218, 238, 253, 254, 275, 372, 373
Brintnall, B. W., 118
Bromley, Harold, 349
Bronson & LaGue Motor Co., 263
Brooks, N. B., 268
Brooks, Quincy A., 14
Brouillet, Frank, 496
Brown, B. F., 77
Brown, Beriah, 242
Brown Derby Motel, 492
Brown, Ed, 282
Brown, Dr. Edwin J., 221
Brown, George E., 359
Brown, J. Sox, 270
Brown, Jim, 366
Brown, leland P., 303
Brown, Theodore, 203
Brown’s Wharf, 77
Brownfield, Daniel, 17
Bruno, Louis, 496
Bryan, Charles, 321
Bryan, R. B., 123
Bryan, William Jennings, 153, 175, 220, 225, 297
Bryant Lumber Co., 380
Buchanan Lumber Co., 317, 377
Buckeye Extract Co., 215, 221, 248
Bucoda Enterprise, newspaper, 118
Bucove, Dr. Bernard, 468
Bullitt, A. Scott, 331, 339
Bunce Music Co., 347
Burke, Judge Thomas, 245
Burmeister Building, 357
Burnett, Monroe, 446
Burr, Charles, 428
Burwell, Trane, 310
Bush, A. S., 151, 171
Bush, George, 9, 18, 19, 23
Bush, W. O., 78
Butler, Hillory, 41, 102
Butts, Maj. Archibald, 251
Byrne, John, 190

Cain, Harry P., 429,439,458,459, 473
Calathea College, 132, 148
Callvert, S. A., 291
Campfire Bill, 290
Canfield, Damon, 496
Canwell, Albert, 443, 447, 471, 473
Capital, m.v., 348
Capital Apartments, 260, 292, 293,332,460
Capital Brewing Co., 155, 165, 171
Capital City, str., 179, 200
Capital City Creamery, 326
Capital City Iron Works, 279
Capital National Bank, 131,137, 174, 220, 310, 317, 341, 374
Capitol Club, 442, 448
Capitol Lake, 278, 446, 465, 469, 483,493
Capitol Pavilion, 493
Capitol Theater, 319, 327, 331, 352,421
Carlton, G. W., 76, 100
Calton [Carlton?] House, hotel, 76, 100, 168, 169, 206, 318, 356, 361, 445
Carlyon, Fred, 163
Carlyon, Dr. P. H.,163,172,201, 203, 204, 233 246, 248, 266, 278, 292, 293: 300, 315, 335, 396
Carnefix, A. D., 11
Carr, Charles R., 290
Carr, Grace, 351
Carroll, P. P., 107, 189, 190,221
Case, Lucy, 265
Case, Otto A., 362,,369, 389, 412, 449, 472, 475, 482, 496
Case, W. E., 280
Casey, Col. Silas, 29,31, 32
Cater, Mrs. C. C., 292
Cater, Ira, 292
Catlin, Seth, 17
Catt, Cary, Chapman, 298
Cavanaugh, Thomas H., 107, 109, 125, 129
Chadwick, Stephen F., 331, 409, 410
Chamberlin, George C., 367
Chamberlin, Mollie G., 367
Chambers, A. H., 11, 112, 116, 218, 239
Chambers, David J., 11, 79
Chambers, McLain, 11
Chambers, Thomas, 11
Chandler, E. M., 341
Chapman, J. M., 17
Chatfield, Chester, 279
Cheadle, Charles, 205
Cheadle, Edward, 191
Cheatham, Neal, 173
Chelan, cutter, 257
Chenowith, Judge F. A., 17, 19, 28, 29, 31
Cherberg, John A., 496
Cherrington, Ernest, 200, 228
Chestnut, Fred, 358
Chitty, A. J., 384
Christopher, A. H.
Chronicle, newspaper, 191, 337
City of Aberdeen, str., 152, 162, 179
City of Olympia, str., 163
City of Shelton, str., 152, 205
Clark, Asa, 463
Clark, Charles, 186
Clark, F. A., 239
Clark, Frank, 28, 31, 48-51, 59
Clark, Norman H., 181
Clark, Sam, 452
Clark, W. H., 85
Clausen, C. L., 352
Clausen, C. W., 331,344,348,352- 254
Clem, Florence, 297
Clem, Frances, 297
Clem, Frank S., 349
Clements, J. C., 65
Clendenin, John S., 16
Cleveland, Grover, 106,110,114, 118,123
Cline, Charles E., 159, 162, 164
Clinton, Rev. Percival, 356
Cock, Col. William, 24, 26
Coe, Earl, 439, 446, 449, 469, 472, 495
Coffee, John M., 389, 399, 423, 430, 439
Col. E. L. Drake, tanker, 238
Cole, Bert, 496
Cole, George, 59
Cole, William, 337, 346, 350, 403- 406
Collins, Bert H., 392
Columbia Engine Co., 57, 58, 63, 84, 93, 96, 97,100, 191
Coman, E. T., 300 Corner, W. W., 267
Comfort, A. B., 462
Commercial Age, newspaper, 63- 65
Conger, George C., 258, 271, 283
Conner, W. W., 267
Conqueror, barkentine, 338
Conrad, L. D., 337
Conser, William, 358
Constitution, str., 35
Constitution, USS, 377
Cooke, W.  J., 287
Cooke, Jay, 63, 69, 70, 99
Cool, Samuel, 11
Coolidge, Calvin, 320, 321, 339 Coon, Charles E., 193, 207, 225, 226
Cornelius, B., 23
Cornelius, Dr. F. J., 438
Cory, Arthur, 443
Cosgrove, Howard, 226
Cosgrove, Gov. Samuel, 224-227, 235
Costigan, Howard, 429
Cotterill, George F., 207, 226-229, 231, 258, 276, 429
Coughlin, Margaret, 394
Coulter, Samuel, 11, 63
Courtny Ford, brig, 171
Courier, weekly newspaper, 97, 105, 107
Cowen, David, 393,394, 403,425, 460
Cowles, H., 172
Coyle, W. J. (Wee) 301, 307, 321
Cranor, John R., 452
Crawford, Sam, 60, 242, 335
Groake, Dr. Nena J., 255, 257
Crockett, Sam, 10
Crosbie, Judge H. R. 17
Crosby, Bing, 12, 428
Crosby, Clanrick, 11, 12, 49, 69, 202
Crosby, Mrs. Harry L., 428
Crosby, Nathaniel, 12, 428
Crosby, Judge Walter, 272, 276, 326
Crossline, ferry, 448
Crow, Judge H. D., 256
Crowell, H. W., 188
Cummings, Robert C., 267, 444, 498
Cunningham, Ross, 461
Curtis, Charles, 339
Curtis, Lt. Silas B., 29
Cusack, Harry L., 284-286, 290
Cushman, F. W., 167, 200, 225, 350, 351, 360

Dacula, s.s., 295
Dailey, James E., 246
Daily Capital, newspaper, 133
Daily Courier, newspaper, 66, 74, 78, 92
Daily Critic, newspaper, 105
Daily Experiment, newspaper, 82, 84
Daily, James A., 385
Daily Olympian, newspaper, 78
Daisy, str., 94
Dakota, s.s., 72, 77, 79, 85, 91
Dallam, Frank M., 267
Daly, James, 383
Daniels, Thurston, 157, 168
Daragh, Robert, 274
Darling, Albert, 237
Davis, Ed, 343
Davis, John W., 321
Davis, Linck, 225, 281
Dawley Bros, Constr. Co., 327
Dawley, J. M., 433, 459
Day, William S., 499
Delmore, Lawrence L., Jr., 483
Denny, Arthur A., 17, 19, 28, 39, 40, 42, 55,189
Denny, John C., 349
de Koven, Reginald, 231
De Lacey, Hugh, 429, 439
De Voe, Emma, 229, 230, 244, 245, 298
De Vore, Rev. John F., 49
De Wolfe, Charles H., 43
De Wolfe, Herbert, 234
Dewey, Adm. George, 164
Diamond, Joseph, 469
Dickson, Dr. Fred, 482
Dill, C. C., 260, 280, 286, 287,31 1, 339, 379, 409, 423
Dill, Rosalie, 389
Dittman, Ainelia, 303
Doane, W. J., 253
Doane, Capt. Woodbury, 91, 166
Doane’s Oyster House, 91,96,246
Dobbins, J. S., 103,106
Dobrin, Donald, 354
Dofflemeyer, James, 190
Dofflemeyer Point, 220
Dohm, Gen. Edward C., 310, 319, 327,366,402,417
Dore, Fred, 496
Doty, Boyd P., 228, 243, 258
Douglas, Sir James, 27
Downing, Carl, 450
Draham, George, 253, 263, 312, 321, 485
Drumheller, Joseph, 414, 415
Duby, William, 216
Duby’s Garage, 223
Dufault, Charles, 263, 285, 357
Dugan, F. P., 52
Dunbar, John H., 338, 339, 344, 348, 350, 352-354
Dunbar, Judge R. O., 237, 243
Duncan, Lt. J. K., 18
Dunham, F. A., 105
Duniway, Abigail Scott, 66, 102, 123
Dunlap, W. G., 34
Dunn, Duncan, 324
Durgin, L. G., 17
Durkan, Martin J., 497, 501, 503
Duxbury, Maynard, 243
Dye, Ross, 340
Dyer, T. P., 141
Dysart, Keith, 504 E
Earhart, Amelia, 332
Eastvold, Don, 472, 475, 477, 485
Eaton, C. S., 220
Eaton, Charles P., 10, 25
Eaton, Julia, 297
Ebey, Isaac N., 11, 12, 36, 487
Edison Theater, 184
Edmonds, T. J., 384
Edwards, A. C., 225
Edwards, E. A., 435
Edwards, Capt. Mike, 221
Eels, Edwin, 242
Ellis, Ike, 104
Ellis, Willie, 224
Eliza Anderson, str., 40, 42, 56, 60, 62, 71, 99, lO4, 110
Emilie Parker, schooner, 24
Emma Hayward, str., 104, 110-112,115, 116
Emmanuel, Sam, 468, 470, 472
Engel, Helen, 407
Ernst, Charles, 370, 388
Eshelman, Dudley, 159
Ethel Zane, schooner, 171
Evans, Gov. Daniel J., 358, 492, 494, 496, 497, 499, 500, 501, 503-504
Evans, Elwood, 17,19,26,29,34, 35, 44-52, 56, 59, 95
Evans, George, 172
Evening Olympian, newspaper, 119, 133
Evelyn G., yacht, 171 F

F. E. Lovejoy, m.v., 438
Fairchild, Muir, 242
Fairy, str., 15
Falconer, J. A., 210, 211, 214, 228
Farquhar, A., 180
Faulkner, L. B., 132, 139, 165, 192, 200, 252, 256, 273, 274, 296
Faulknor, Judson, 363
Favorite, str., 76
Faylor, R. W., 192
Ferguson, E. C., 102
Ferguson, J. E., 321
Ferguson, Jesse, 10
Feme, Jesse, 118
Ferry, Gov. Elisha P., 63, 66-69, 73,77,83, 88,90,94,123,126, 128,136,443
Ferry , Eliza, 68
Ferry, Josephine, 141
Ferryman, John, 385
Fifield, Dr. Wendell, 495
Fillmore, Millard, 14
Finch, Capt. D. B., 56, 62, 71
Fishback, H. O., 344
Flagstead, Pete, 274
Flanders, Gov. Alvin, 59, 63, 64
Fleet, Reuben, 274
Fleetwood, str., 110-112,116,121, 122,137
Florida Maru, s.s., 402
Foley, John, 141
Follansbee, Prof L. E., 112,118, 132,148
Forbus, Lady Willie, 425
Forest, W. T., 123
Foes, Henry, 367, 376
Foster, Addison G., 170
Foster, W. J., 237
Fox, Clayton, 205
Fox, Capt. John, 442
Frayn, R. Mort, 475, 481
Freeman, Robert, 468
French, Dan C., 165, 294
French, Edward L., 267, 321
Freshwater, Eagle, 242
Frost, M. H., 17
Frost, Robert, 96, 114, 139, 237
Fry, W. Newton, 415, 424
Fultz, Hollis B., 238, 297, 301, 307, 323
Fultz, William, 408
Funk, George H., 173, 237, 292, 484, 485
Funk, Norman, 297
Furste, Edward, 37
Furseth, Oliver, 396 G

G. W. Kendall, brig, 14
Gabey, Daniel, 162
Gale, J. N., 58, 66, 88, 112
Gallagher, George, 52
Garnmell, David, 407
Gammon, George, 385, 386
Gardner, Mrs. Edward P., 287
Garfielde, Selucius, 32, 41, 47, 55, 59, 60, 62-64, 66
Garrecht, F. A., 246
Garrett, Coydon (Nifty), 365, 366, 383, 389
Canison, Ruth, 296, 297
Garson, Mary C., 459
Garton, Art, 455
Gehrman, Agnes, 412, 425
Gollatly, John A., 300, 339, 344, 358, 362
General Administration Bldg., 483, 484
Geo. E. Starr, str., 92, 104
George, N. E., 327
George, Raleigh, 276
Gholson, Gov. R. D., 36,37,39,77
Giddings, Edward, 24
Gilbert, J. W., 270
Gilbert, lealie, 438
Gilbert, Percy, 284
Giles, Charles, 164
Giles, Judge Milton, 220, 231, 241, 263
Giles, Tom, 318
Gill, Hiram C., 141, 215, 246, 258, 276, 277
Glasgow, Thomas W., 11
Glovin, Marvin, 343
Godat, Emmett, 327
Gold Bar Restaurant, 179, 238, 250
Goldsworthy, H. G., 333
Gong, Rev. Don, 78
Goodall & Nelson Steamship Co., 72, 77, 104                –
Goodloe, William, 470, 478, 499
Goodpasture, G. H., 290, 291
Goodwin, John N., 69
Gordon, Benjamin, 11
Gordon, Judge M. J., 234
Gorham, Charles W., 293
Gorrie, Frank G., 386
Gorrie, Jack O., 430, 431
Gorton, Slade, 496, 504, 505
Goss, Francis P.
Goudy, George, 21, 34, 37
Gove, Capt. D. J., 15
Governor Hotel, 341, 356, 361, 488
Governor House, 488
Gowey, J. F., 121, 124, 126, 469
Graham, Robert V., 496
Graham, Verne, 452
Granger, Charles, 32
Grant, cutter, 63, 64, 67, 88
Great Northern Railway, 180, 181
Grebe, USS 377 Grecian, brig, 12
Greeley, Horace, 63
Green, Joshua, 282
Green Tree Saloon, 186
Greene, Judge Roger, 114, 142, 166
Greenfield, William, 351
Greenwood Inn, 492
Grogerson, Henry, 379
Gregg, H. A., 350
Gregory, Adm. Luther E., 379, 431
Greyhound, str., 204, 220, 248, 249
Gribble, Uford, 354
Grieve, R. R., 442, 475, 496
Griffiths, Austin, 339
Grigg, C. E., 222
Grigsby, Gay, 379
Grim, Raymond, 352 Guiberson, C. B., 183 Guie, E. H., 304
Gunn, Elisha T., 58, 74, 92, 107
Guyot, Mrs. Fred, 291

Haddon, Lulu, 367
Hagan, C. H., 158
Hagan, Joe, 149
Hagemeyer, W. A., 218, 219
Haight, James A., 161
Hale, Capt. C. H., 14,17, 18,42
Hale, Mrs. P. C., 121
Hall, Ton, 463, 482
Haller, Theodore, 334
Halteman, W. A., 210
Ham, W. H., 150
Hamblen, Herbert, 439, 447
Hamilton, Dick, 380
Hamilton, G. W., 363, 406, 408
Hamilton, Gen. Oris, 235
Hamilton, T. J., 125
Hamm, Mrs. M. A., 23
Hancock, Samuel, 11
Hansell, J. E., 348
Hansen, Carl, 320, 326
Hansen, Julia Butler, 424, 425, 465, 471, 475, 481, 495, 496, 597
Hanson, H. C., 419
Hanson, Ole, 230, 233, 246, 295, 410
Harding, Warren G., 286, 311, 320
Harley, Clinton S., 440
Harlin, Robert, 433
Harmon, Hill, 141
Hamed, John, 74
Harney, Gen. W. S., 36
Harrigan, George, 428
Harris Drygoods Co., 187, 341
Harris, I., 61
Harris, Mitchell, 187, 237, 239, 240, 241, 254
Harris, Selwyn, 152
Harrison, Benjamin, 123,124
Hart, Albert, 297
Hart, Gov. Louis F., 257,261,281, 282, 295, 298, 301, 304-308, 311, 314, 315, 317, 319-321, 323, 324, 331
Hartley, Gov. Roland H., 280, 300, 301, 321, 325, 327-329, 331, 333, 335, 341, 344-349, 352-360, 362, 364,365, 367,
375, 389
Hartung, Dr. Frank, 438
Hartwell, Charles M., 219
Hassalo, str., 116
Hastings, Fred W., 343
Hatch, Capt. Z. J., 110, 121
Havens, Claud, 360, 364, 373
Hay, Gov. Marion E., 225, 226, 228-233, 239, 242, 244, 250, 255, 256, 335, 411
Haycox, W. E., 303,304,308
Hays, Capt. Gilmore, 25,26
Hays, Isaac, 32
Hays, Rutherford B., 90, 92,93
Heald, Timothy, 23
Heffernan, J. T., 329
Helm, Bruce, 504, 505
Hemrick, Andrew, 228
Henderson, Ed, 172, 262, 263, 439, 460
Henderson, G. E., 312
Hendrickson, Roy, 326
Henry, Al, 434, 496
Henry, Anson, 42, 46, 51
Henry, Edward E., 395 434, 466
Henry Francis, 41, 56, 59, 62, 82, 106, 121, 145
Henry, Hewitt, 465
Henry, T. N., 199
Heo, 61, 146
Herndon, Capt. Ed, 318
Herrmann, Karl, 496
Hester, D. R., 301
Hewitt, R., 63
Hewitt & Ashley, 188
Heyna, Dr. Garrett, 497, 498, 503
Hicks, B. N., 316, 359, 360, 376
Hicks, Gwin, 168
Hicks, U. E., 52, 55, 168
Highmiller, Dr. Ralph, 438
Hill, Ben F., 270, 321
Hill, James, 180
Hill, Knute, 334, 409, 423
Hill, Sam B., 321, 331
Hillman, C. D., 220,,222, 237, 251
Hiltz, Phillip, 97, 98
Hinkle, J. Grant, 303, 344, 350, 355
Hinkle, Vana R., 395
Hinton, Charles W., 344, 348
Hodde, Charles W., 394, 426, 450, 451, 458, 463, 464, 471, 475, 499
Hoff, Neal, 479, 483
Holcomb, Marjorie, 297
Holcomb, Judge 0. R., 295
Holcomb, Si, 424, 475
Holden, Ashley, 392, 393, 481
Holgate, Josephine, 191
Holgate, Milton, 28
Hollopeter, Louise, 264
Holman, Emma, 135
Holmes, Everett, 398
Holmes, Hal, 423, 439
Homan, A. G., 445
Hoover, Herbert,’301, 339, 347, 349, 352, 356, 360-362
Hoover, J. Webster, 337, 223
Hopkins, W. W., 353
Horan, Walt, 423, 439
Horr, J. C., 133, 229
Horton, Ed, 263
Horton, William, 77, 113
Houser, Paul, 339, 371
Howard, Rebecca, 39, 47, 54, 95, 238
Howe, Horace, 47
Howe, Horace, Jr., 50
Howe, Samuel D., 17
Howell, I. M., 265, 270, 272, 298
Hoyt, Judge John P., 114
Hubbard, Charles F., 246
Hudson’s Bay Co., 8, 16, 27, 28, 36
Huggett, Charlotte, 297
Huggett, Mrs. Roy, 297
Huggins, George E., 168, 222
Huggins, Georgia, 168
Huggins Hotel, 168, 222
Hume, B. F., 340
Hume, Mrs. B. F., 407
Humes, Sam, 352, 353
Humphrey, W. E., 200, 225, 243
Huntamer, L. C., 361
Huntington, H. D., 17
Huntley, Ernest, 456, 457
Hurley, George, 432, 434
Hurley, Margaret, 480, 496
Hum, Reba, 343, 345, 358
Hurspool, John C., 354
Huge, Harry C., 359, 405, 431
Hutchinson, Dr. E. N., 362
Hutchinson, Mary, 358
Hutchinson, Richard, 235, 236, 261
Hutton, Mary, 229, 230
Hyatt, Ham, 318

Idaho, str., 116
Ingham, Dr. G. W., 183,184,188, 192, 204, 238, 253, 263
insurance Building, 302,208,336
Intercity Transit, 488
IRVINE£ Joe, 329
Isabel, str., 71
Ismay, Thomas, 291
Israel, George C., 235
Isom, Virginia, 297
Ivy, Eugene, 479

Jackson, Henry M., 410,459,473, 474,494,496
Jackson, John P., 17
Jackson, Robert, 437
Jackstead, William, 351
Jacobs, Judge Orange, 65
James, Jack, 272
January, Mrs. W. A., 288
Jennings, Thomas D., 337
Johnson, Albert, 339
Johnson, Judge Bertil, 477
Johnson, C. Montgomery, 459, 48,1, 492
Johnson, Curtis, 437
Johnson, Ed C., 326
Johnson, H. C., 348
Johnson, JameoC., 321
Johnson, W. Lon, 294, 321, 335, 337
Johnston, Elmer, 477
Johns, Charles E., 450
Jones, Gabriel, 10
Jones, George L, 326
Jones, Homer R., 439
Jones, H. T., (Deep Creek), 182
Jones, John R. (Jackrabbit), 464
Jones, J. S., 207
Jones, Judge Richard, 117
Jones, Wesley L., 154, 167, 226, 286, 311, 331, 356, 359, 360, 362

Kane, Dr. Franklin, 295
Karr, J. Rose, 223
Kastner, Jessie, 315
Kautz, Lt. August, 31, 32
Keefe, James E., 496
Kegley, C. B., 265
Kegley, C. H., 175
Kegley, T. J., 203
Kelley, Guy E., 283
Kellogg, Gardner, 68, 191
Kelly, E. Pat, 405, 406
Kelly, Pearl, 308
Kelly, Roy E., 434
Kendall, Benjamin F., 17, 24, 29, 31, 35, 42, 43, 44, 46-51
Kennedy, Asaneth Ann, 54
Kennedy, H. F., 316
Kenney, Frank M., 218, 237,263, 292
Ker, Julia Waldrip, 326
Kerschner, Joe, 340, 341
Kevin, Edward, 184,191, 319
Kevin, Elizabeth, 297,319
KGY, radio station, 318,324,350, .362
Kincaid, William, 31
Kindred, David, 10
King, C. D., 218
Kingsbury, E. P., 191, 223
Kingsley, W. J., 326
Kinnear, George, 412
Kinsey, Daniel P., 108
Kinsey, J. D., 288
Klambush, William, 286
Knapp, Ralph, 334
Kneeland Hotel, 202, 206, 231, 240, 288, 356, 445, 455
Kneeland, W. H., 202
Knoblauch, Reuben, 464, 496
Knox Hotel, 221,,235
Knox, Mrs. J. D., 221, 2,35
Kramer, A. Ludlow, 495
Kueekelhan, Lee, 496
Kuntz, J. E., 312, 218, 320, 397
Kupka, George, 464

La Follette, W. L., 243, 339
Lamborn, Frank M., 282
Lamont, Rev. T. J., 152
Lamping, George, 300
Lancaster, Columbia, 16, 17, 32, 41
Lander, Judge Edward, 16, 18, 28, 29, 41, 50, 51
Landon, Dan, 355
Lane, Joseph, 14
Lang, Louis M., 306
Langdon, C. L., 340
Langford, Judge William, 114
Langlie, Gov. Arthur B., 409412, 414, 417, 422, 425, 428-431, 446-454, 457, 458, 461, 463, 466, 470, 472, 476, 478,
481, 494
Lantz, Esther, 367
Larison, Mrs. J. J., 291
Lairsen, Ole, 307, 321
Lasher, Mary, 297
Laughton, Charles E., 123, 129, 136,143,145
Lawrence, Richard, 475
Leach, Alfred William, 296
Ledgerwood, John T., 382
Legislative Building, 295, 312, 314, 419, 320, 323, 327, 331, 333, 336, 337, 338, 343, 344, 364, 369
Leiter, John H., 129, 243
Leland, C. H., 421
Lemon, Gerry, 485
Lemon, Mildred, 152
Lemon, Millard, 173, 254, 263, 266, 296, 341
Leonard, J. E., 284
Leschi, 10, 22, 25, 27, 28, 30-32, 48, 273, 310
Leschi (son of Quiemuth) 146
Leschi, George, 22
Leverich, Jess, 379
Levine, David, 376
Lewis, A. C., 17
Lewis, Al, 419
Lewis, Harry, 297
Lewis, J. Hamilton, 154
Lewis, Judge J. R., 102
Lewis, Victor Alonzo, 338
Libby, J. Frank, 327
Liberty Theater, 319, 327, 350
Lightner, Isaac, 34
Lilian, Stanley, 297
Lincoln, Abraham, 37,38,40,41, 42, 50, 52, 53, 55
Lindberg, Charles R., 337, 384
Lindberg, William F., 379
Lindley, Mrs. Charles, 303
Lindley, Mary, 297
Lister, Gov. Ernest, 169,171,182, 255-263, 267, 272, 274, 278, 290, 281-285,,293-295
Lister, Mrs. Ernest, 260-261
Lister, Florence, 262, 288
Lister, John, 262
Livesly, Daniel, 172
Llewellyn, Gen. Enaley, 464, 455
Llewellyn, Gen. Fred, 246
Logan, J. B., 11
Long, Henry, 130
Longacre, Dr. F. A., 275,390,398
Long Wharf, 112, 137, 173
Lord, C. J., 137,148,168,174,183, 204, 218, 220, 237, 253, 263, 277, 296, 303, 310, 317, 319, 359
Lovejoy, George, 412
Luce, F. H., 159
Lumberman, tug, 332
Lyle, Roy C., 311
Lynch, H. L., 445
Lynch, John S., 264, 408, 426
Lyric Theater, 222
Lytle, Walter, 340

MacEachern, Anna, 300
Mack, Russell V., 446, 449, 496
Mackay, Gordon, 185, 202, 215, 218-220, 240, 241, 262, 263
Mackintosh, Judge Kenneth, 339
Madison, Helene, 352
Magnolia, str., 256, 298
Magnuson, Don, 382, 473
Magnuson, Warren G., 373, 374, 376, 380, 384, 389, 408, 423, 429, 459, 494, 495, 496
Major, Don, 421
Major Tompkins, str., 24
Mallen, Robert, 237
Mallory, Ernest, 439, 460, 484
Malstrom, Kathryn, 367,425
Malta Maru, a.s., 327, 332
Mann, C. B., 146, 273, 327
Maple Vista Apartments, 460
Mardesich, August, 464, 477,496
Marsh, Edwin, 34, 69
Marsh, Shirley, 412
Marsh, Capt. W. B., 386
Marshall, C. A., 254
Martin, Gov. Clarence D., 362, 367, 368, 372-376, 380-383, 387-389, 391, 395, 400-404, 408, 409-412, 447
Martin, Tom, 447, 472, 496
Massachusetts, USS, 37
Matthews, Rev. Mark A., 230, 258, 272, 318. 329
Maury, H. J., 327
Maxon, Maj. H. J. G., 27, 29, 32
Maxwell, Earl, 414
Maybury, Charles R., 260, 261, 267, 281, 285, 378, 412, 429, 472
Maynard, Mrs. Clarence E., 331
Maynard, C. W., 286
Maynard, Dr. David, 12, 54, 55
McAllister, James, 9, 25, 26
McAllister, James Benton, 10
McArdle, L. D., 260,261,270,304, 306, 307, 312
McBratney, Mr. & Mrs. L., 216
McBride, Gov. Henry, 175, 180-182, 191, 192, 225, 226, 279, 331, 335
McCall, O. F., 325
McCarthy, Joseph, 472-474
McCaughan, Dan, 437
McCaughan, Edna, 297
McCauley, J. M., 380
McConaha, G. N., 14, 17, 19
McCoy, George, 258
McCroskey, Earl, 402
McCutcheon, John T, 392, 473, 480
McDermott, James, 476, 477
McDermott, Dr. James, 496
McDonald, Donald, 376
McDonald, E. A., 175
McElroy, P. F., 370
McElroy, Thornton F., 13,16,17, 52, 56, 59,63, 65, 76, 89
McFadden, Judge O. B., 70,75,76
McGee, Richard A., 426
McGill, Henry M., 37, 42, 52
McGowan, W. (Big Bill), 186,218, 236, 241
McGraw, Gov. John H., 141, 142, 148,149, 154
McGraw, Kate, 142
McGraw, May, 142, 152
McGreavy, Dan, 240
McGuire, Wilbur, 342
McKay, Gen. Neil R., 310, 445
McKee, Ruth K., 329
McKenny, Gen. T. I., 61, 76, 101, 112, 121, 131, 191
McKenzie, George, 192
McKinney, Frank, 237
MeLarty, Thomas, 218
McLaughlin, Dr. John, 8, 9
McMahon, Mrs. Edward, 246
McMaster, W. C., 228
McMicken, William, 100
McMillan, John S., 211, 212,221
McMullen, Gov. Fayette, 32-34, 211
McNair, R. A., 164
McNamara, Daniel W., 206
McNeill, Sgt. Fred, 326
McQuestion, Ida, 358
McRae, Donald, 280
Mead, Gov. Albert E., 193, 194, 199, 200, 207,211, 214, 220, 225,226,228
Meany, Prof Edmund S., 136, 143, 161, 231, 281, 295
Meath, Edward, 270
Meays, J. H., 218
Meeker, Ezra, 21, 22, 27, 28, 31, 63, 144, 150,162, 234
Megler, Joseph, 136, 170, 171
Meigs, L. O., 210, 226, 227, 2,33, 234
Mentzer, T. F., 144
Mercer, Asa S., 55
Mervin, C. P., 304
Message, newspaper, 65
Messenger, str., 81, 89, 94, 104
Meyer, Herman, 287
Meyers, Al, 386
Meyers, Louis, 61
Meyers, Victor A., 363, W5, 371, 376, 377, 379, 383, 389,-391, 393, 400, 402, 405, 412, 429, 435,440,441,459,495
Milan Maru, S.S., 327
Miles, Joseph, 26
Miller & Ethridge Mill, 53
Miller,  Capt. Bluford, 29
Miller, Edmund, 365, 372
Miller, Floyd, 480
Miller, Mrs. H. J., 315, 325
Miller, John F., 331
Miller, William Winlock, 25, 205
Miller, Mrs. William Winlock, 205
Miller’s Department Store, 341
Mills, Chapin, 393, 394
Mills, George, 187, 263, 340, 351, 361
Mills, Jesse T., 176, 188, 279
Milroy, W. J., 348, 352, 353
Mitchell Hotel, 192,199,202,206, 291, 309,341
Mitchell, Hugh B., 430,439,471, 472
Mitchell, J. L., 17
Mitchell, Judge John R., 286
Mitchell, M. B., 359
Mitchell, W. H., 192
Mitchell, William, 32
Mitchell, William, .354
Mohler, Carl, 414-416, 426
Monroe, Judge Victor, 16,18
Moore, A. J., 11, 13
Moore, A. W., 14
Moore, Janet, 267
Moore, Gov. M. F., 59, 63
Moore, Gov. Miles C., 123, 125
Moore, P. D., 55, 76
Moore, Ray, 459
Morgan, D. H., 24
Morgan, Harry, 113
Morgan, John, 437
Morgan, Lulu D., 394
Morning News, newspaper, 218, 219
Morning Olympian, newspaper, 133
Morrison, Ellis, 149
Morrow & Blackman, 292
Moses, A. Benton, 26, 31
Moses, S. P., 118
Moss, Gen. H. J., 296
Mottman, Fritz, 485
Mottman, George A., 153, 163, 174, 199, 203, 206, 237, 247, 254, 257, 262, 263, 264, 273, 277, 278, 279, 301, 309,
MottmaMercantile Co., [sic,  Mottman Mercantile Co?] 162, 187, 247, 301, 488
Moulton, Mark, 334
Mowell, Dr. J. W., 283
Mowell, Mrs. J. W., 290, 302
Mueller, George, 214
Mukilteo s.s., 317
Multnomah, str., 137, 152, 162, 163, 173, 174, 179, 200, 204, 221, 237, 249
Murphy, John Miller, 37-40, 42, 44,46-53,61,66-69,76,78,82, 84,85,89,90-95,100,102,115, 119, 125, 132, 136, 137,
139, 150, 155, 161, 162, 169, 175, 176, 177, 187, 211, 224, 238, 242, 302
Murphy, Kobel, 371, 384
Murphy, Richard, 435
Murray, J. N., 133
Murrow,L V.,352,374,382,383
Mustard, Dr. Jack, 275
Mustard, Jean, 297
Myers, Charles, 325
Myers, Florence, 367

Naden, George, 237
Naden, Mrs. George, 303
Neal, Grant, 191 Neal, M. T.,404
Nelson, H. L., 385
Ness, Rev. Henry, 452
New England Hotel, 88, 290
Newell, Bernice, 141
Newell, Capt. G. R., 445
Newell, Roy E., 332
Newell, Gov. William A., 90, 92, 95,103,106,138,149,152,166
Newell, William H., 41, 60, 83, 177
Newman, Pauline, 377
New Transcript, newspaper, 112, 118
Nicely, Wallace, 369
Nichols, Ralph, 229, 231
Nichols, Sam H., 221, 225, 232, 234, 281
Nisqually, str., 249,250,256,298
Nixon, Richard M., 474, 505
“Noah’s Ark”, 352
Noniinenson, Mrs. C., 274
Norman, Fred, 384,423,429,439, 446
Norrie, Charles, 376
North Coast Lines, 337, 378
Northcraft, William, 31
Northern Pacific Railway, 32,53, 59, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 76, 77, 83, 94, 96, 99, 107, 131, 133, 134, 153, 176, 179, 184,
206, 278
Northerner, s.s., 36
Northland, D. V., 324
North Pacific, str., 71, 77, 112
Northwest Teacher, newspaper, 112
Novelty Theater, 222
Nulton, Claire, 297 0

O. C. Raymond, brig, 12
O’Brien, John L., 413, 426, 473, 496, 497
O’Brien, P. J., 174, 188
O’Brien, Gen. R. G., 92, 120, 124, 137, 145, 151
.O’Brien, Mrs. R. G., 310
O’Brien, Robert S., 496
O’Connell, Jerry, 447
O’Connell, John J., 496, 501
O’Conner, M., 172
Odlin, Reno, 374
Ogden, W. J., 146
Old Settler, str., 82, 117
O’Leary, Dr. J. J., 326
O’Leary, Thomas, 280, 286, 287, 290
Oliver Wolcott, cutter, 94
Olmstead, Roy, 359
Olsen, Olaf, L., 344, 350, 392
Olson, E. W., 283-285
Olympia, str., 71
Olympia, USS, 164, 165, 174
Olympia, s.s., 341, 350
Olympia Airport, 340, 439
Olympia Bar Association, 106
Olympia Bicycle Club, 175
Olympia Building & Loan Assn., 105
Olympia Brewing Co., 183, 203, 215, 218, 221, 222, 268, 274, 278, 289, 290, 377, 493, 468
(see Capital Brewing Co.)
Olympia Canning Co., 289
Olympia Collegiate Institute, 100, 11 2, 132, 147, 216, 264
Olympia Fir Lumber Co., 317
Olympia lst National Bank, 100, 110,,156, 220, 362, 374
Olympia Maru, m.s., 341
Olympia No. 2, fire engine, 101, 121, 122, 191, 192, 201, 202
Olympia Gas & Electric Co., 104, 113
Olympia Harbor Lumber Co., 357, 377
Olympia Grays Harbor Electric, 119
Olympia High School, 187, 205, 216, 291, 292, 303, 309
Olympia Hotel, 120,121,124,136, 148, 152, 158, 162, 168, 176, 181, 187, 191, 192
Olympia Iron Works, 131
Olympia Junk Co., 308, 318
Olympia Knitting Mills, 237,340
Olympia Land Co., 118
Olympia Light & Power Co., 132, 138, 139, 146, 149, 165, 179, 202, 273, 297, 326
Olympia Mfg. & Building Co., 218, 219, 236, 238
Olympia ball team, 187, 205
Olympia Motors, 337
Olympia Opera House, 132,168, 228, 302
Olympia Railway Co., 120, 124, 130, 132, 133, 138
Olympia Reserve Fleet, 438
Olympia Sas& Door Co., 171
Olympia Senators, ball team, 205, 274, 318, 342
Olympia Shipbuilding C.., 277, 288
Olympia Soda Works, 206
Olympia State Bank, 131
Olympia-Tacoma Navigation Co., 249, 298
Olympia-Tenino Railroad, 74,76, 78-82, 113
Olympia-Tumwater Foundation, 468
Olympia & Tumwater Railway Co., 120, 132
Olympia Veneer Co., 310, 487
Olympia Water Co., 77, 93, 98, 119, 131, 190, 202, 263, 264
Olympia Wine & Liquor Co., 204
Olympian, newspaper, 133, 145, 149, 152, 161, 165, 169, 175, 205, 219, 310, 327, 337, 347, 350,356,489
Olympian, tug, 238
Olympian Hotel, 291, 296, 301, 302, 333, 334, 337, 341, 360, 361, 419, 492
Olympic Aeronautical Co., 340
Olympic Aviation School, 340
Olzendam, Roderic, 452,453,461, 462,467
Orbit, brig, 11, 12, 338
Oregon Improvement Co., 113, 131, 147, 184
Oregon, Washington Railway, 99,104,107,112,116,137,297
Oridono Maru, S,S., 332
Orrick, Rev. J. M. 239
Ory, schooner, 171
Osborne, Louis, 217
Ostrander, Dr. Nathaniel, 96,112
Otter, str., 110
Ouimette, E. N., 79, 96
Overhulse, John M., 219
Overland Press, newspaper, 42, 43, 46, 58
Owings, Frank, 303
Owings, Col. N. H., 93,109,112, 121
Oxford Saloon, 277, 280

Pacific Coast Investment Co., 341
Pacific Coast Steamship Co., 104
Pacific House, hotel, 24, 39, 47
Pacific Lutheran Seminary, 216, 264
Pacific Tribune, newspaper, 58, 65
Packwood, Elisha, 11
Packwood, William, 11
Page, J. M., 162
Page, Leila, 186
Palladium, newspaper, 147,161, 162
Palmer, E. B., 355, 368, 375
Panama, s.s., 77
Parker, Capt. Gil, 117
Parker, Judge Emmett N., 234, 263
Parker, J. G., 13, 24, 77
Parr, Harry L., 239, 246, 406
Partisan, newspaper, 107
Partlow, Dr. H. W., 275
Partlow, Dr. K. L., 275, 310
Patterson, Ren, 171
Pattison, John, 225
Paulhamus, J. S., 207, 212, 229, 232,243,245,257
Payn, Elias, 190
Peabody, Capt. Alex, 390, 406, 448,453,457
Peck, Benjamin, 284
Pemberton, William, 362
Pennock, William, 442, 447, 453, 458,469
Peoples University, 187, 211
Peppard, Dr. Thomas, 263
Percival, Dock, 84, 89, 121, 131, 215, 238, 256, 282, 459
Percival, Mr. and Mrs. H.A., 216, 309
Percival, John C., 89,131
Percival, Capt. Samuel, 15, 75, 76,131, 309
Perkins, J. L., 24
Perkins, Sam, 177,200,224,251, 357
Peters, J. L., 296
Peters, Joe, 272
Peters, Ruth, 295
Peterson, A. J., 326
Peterson, Payson, 410, 459
Pettus, Edward, 415
Phantom, str., 94
Phelan, Florence, 354
Phillips, A. A., 106, 112, 171, 297
Phillips, A J., 278, 326,332,437
Phillips, Frank, 326
Phillips, James A., 437
Phillips & Newell, contractors, 332, 337, 340, 351, 357
Phillips, Richard, 297
Phillips, William, 171
Pickering, Gov. William, 41, 45, 46, 53, 55, 65
Pickett,,Capt. George E., 36
Pierce, Franklin, 16, 24, 48
Pierce, Capt. H. M., 163, 291
Pierce, John, 291, 340
Pierce, Thad, 291, 296, 356
Pierson, Van R., 193
Piles, Samuel H., 195, 200, 288
Ping, Elisha, 78
Pinnell, John, 56, 62,89,176,487
Pioneer, str. 53
Pioneer & Democrat, 20, 21, 27, 37, 42
Plumb, William H., 14
Plummer, W. H., 158, 160, 170 Poe, A. M., 10, 42, 46
Poindexter, Miles C., 225, 286, 311, 339
Polson, Alex, 214, 231
Port Angeles, s.s., 317
Port of Olympia, 310, 311, 317, 320, 338, 341, 350
Port Townsend Southern Rwy., 113, 116, 131, 147, 153, 179, 184,242,278
Potts, William, 348
Powe, William, 217
Powell, Luther D., 319
Prather, Thomas, 38, 58, 75
Premier, schooner, 171
Preston, Harold, 180
Preston, Josephine Corliss, 290, 299, 304, 339
Priest Point Park, 203, 264, 265, 276, 297, 318, 332, 372, 494
Proff, Harold, 438
Prosch, Charles, 20,42,48,52,58, 59, 63, 65, 92
Prosch, Thomas, 242
Prospector, tug, 338
Puget Sound Agricultural Co., 16
Puget Sound Bridge & Dredging Co., 173, 215, 243
Puget Sound Courier, newspaper, 20, 27, 43, 66
Puget Sound Freight Lines, 459
Puget Sound Power & Light Co., 297,326,378
Puget Sound Shipbuilding Co., 427

Queen of the Pacific, s.s., 94, 109, 123
Quiemuth, 22, 25, 30, 31, 310
Quinn, Richard, 247

Rabbeson, A. B., 10
Rabbeson & Harned, undertakers, 84
Rabbitt, Tom, 447, 453
Raboin, Phil, 437
Rasmussen, A. L. (Slim), 477, 480,496
Rathbun, J. C. 35, 147, 161, 163
Ray, William, 246
Ray’s Texaco, 411
Raymond, E. D., 191, 204, 217, 238
Reagan, Ronald, 407
Reardon, Kieran, 402, 403, 425
Recorder, newspaper, 192, 198, 200, 203, 219, 223, 232, 310, 337
Redpath, Catherine, 264
Redpath, Dr. N. J., 203, 204, 217, 218, 237, 275 Reed, Fred, 231
Reed, Mark, 174, 213, 253, 267, 298, 315, 321, 324, 325, 334, 343,345,358
Reed, Thomas M., 44, 121, 123
Reeves, Belle, 315, 325, 339, 358, 367, 391, 410, 416, 446
Reid, George T., 210, 211
Reilly, E. J. (Fresh Water), 391, 393, 403, 412, 424, 477, 480
Reinhart, C. S. (Cap), 172, 203, 237
Reliable Welding Works, 419, 427,438
Republican, newspaper, 107
Republican Partisan, newspaper, 118,133
Revelle, Paul, 443
Review, newspaper, 118, 133
Rex Theater, 292, 327
Reynolds, George, livery stable, 187, 216, 242, 247
Ricard, Fr. Pascal, 11
Rice, Elmore, 216
Richardson, H. G., 192
Riley, Ed (Salt Water, 391, 404
Riley, John, 172
Ritner, Beverly, 264
Ritner, Catherine, 264
Robbins, Ronald, 438
Robert Dollar, 338
Roberts, George, 47
Roberts, Joseph D., 395
Roberts, W. A., 105
Robinson, Judge John S., 412
Robinson, J. W., 133, 137, 144, 193
Robinson, Joseph T., 339
Robinson, N. G., 364, 365
Rockway, 0. R., 421
Rodgers, James, 63, 64
Rogers, Jack, 479
Rogers, Gov. John R., 150-157, 159, 161-163, 168, 169, 174, 176, 178, 182, 323, 411, 469
Rogers, Ray, 172
Rogers, W. W., 310
Rogers, Mrs. W. W., 340
Ronald, W. G., 377, 379, 382, 383
Rose, Dr. J. A., 438
Rose-Nepple Garage, 292
Rosellini, Gov. Albert D., 404, 424, 433, 439, 444, 450, 460, 463, 469, 470, 475, 478, 482, 494-497, 498, 500, 503-505
Rosellini, Hugh, 434
Rosenthal, Gus, 242
Rosenwald, Julius, 258
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 300, 301, 362, 373-375, 398
Roosevelt, Theodore, 187, 194, 204,226,255
Rosa, E. F., 351
Ross, E. W., 212
Roudebush, Rex, 334
Rowe, Virginia, 297
Rude, H. P., 316
Rundle, A. C., 210
Ruoff, Richard, 480
Ruth, A. S., 176, 177, 181, 187, 195, 198, 213, 214, 226, 231, 233,236,243
Ruth, Fr. Sebastian, 309, 318
Ryan, J. H., 415

S. G. Simpson, str” 298
St. Martin’s College, 153, 187, 264, 309, 318, 488, 493
St. Peters Hospital, 112, 205, 283, 300, 317, 319, 421, 430
Saginaw, s.s., 317
Salomon, Gov. E. S., 64, 65, 67, 74,92
San Diego, dredge, 173
Sandison, Gordon, 426
Sand Man, tug, 332
Santa Barbara, s.s., 204
Sapp, Jess, 464
Sarah Warren, bark, 15
Satterlee, Arleta, 297
Savage, Charles, R., 402, 40231, 270, 321, 325, 331, 34, 425, 429, 439, 446, 449, 496
Savidge, Clark, 146, 38, 344, 345, 348, 349, 352, 353, 354, 358
Sawyer, Ben, 384, 411
Sayward, W. P., 17
Schade, Fred, 370, 371, 377
Schaefer, A. G., 439
Schnieder, Fred, 190
Schietwoot, scow, 14
Schively, John H., 214, 225, 232, 234, 236
Schmidt, Adolph, 341
Schmidt, Clara Louise, 297
Schmidt, Frank, 237
Schmidt, Leopold D., 154, 165, 166, 174, 183, 202, 203, 291
Schmidt, Leopold (2) 289
Schmidt, Louise, 264
Schmidt, Peter G., 221, 196, 302, 351, 356
Schneider, Conrad, 172
Schnieder, Fred, 190
Schroeder, Fred, 460
Schoettler, Robert J., 467
Schwellenbach, Lewis B., 362, 409
Scobey, J. O’B., 161, 162, 163
Scott, Clement, 258
Scott, James, 63
Scott, Gen. Winfield, 48
Scudder, John, 17
Sears, Carlton, 341, 463
Seaside, str., 152
Seattle Brewing & Malting Co., 228
Seattle, Chief, 13, 34, 184
Security Bank & Trust Co., 310
Security Building, 331
Semple, Gov. Eugene, 114, 115
Shacklett, Dean, 489
Shain, Clarence B., 417, 421, 428, 451
Shannon, George D., 121, 139, 165
Shaw, Col. Benjamin, 11, 21
Shaw, Frank, 11, 29
Shazer, George, 11
Shead, Oliver, 76
Shefelman, Harold, 476, 482, 494
Shelton, David, 17
Shenandoah, dirigible, 320
Sherman, W. W., 284
Shively, William, 445
Sholund, Irv, 464
Shore, R. G., 192
Shorett, Judson W., 394
Short, William M., 329
Showalter, Noah, 340, 344, 363, 389
Shroeder, William, 224
Shubrick, cutter, 35
Sickels, George L., 139
Sieler, Herbert, 403
Simmons, Christopher Columbus, 9, 54
Simmons, Kenneth, 464
Simmons, Michael T., 8, 11, 12, 14,17, 19, 21, 54, 180
Simpson, Sol G., 174, 213
Simpson, Rev. T. H., 308, 309
Sims, Ed, 257-259, 265, 267, 270, 315, 316, 324, 325, 328, 334, 335, 343, 347, 358
Sioux, str., 28P
Slaughter, Lt. W. A., 2,5
Sloan, James A., 310
Sloan Shipyard, 295, 310, 317
Sluggia, 30
Smith, Alfred E., 320, 339, 361
Smith, Amanda B., 484
Smith, Charles Harte, 12
Smith, E. L., 59
Smith, H. W., 220
Smith, Jacob, 17
Smith, Jurie B., 382, 391
Smith, Mrs. Jury B., 425
Smith, Levi Lathrop, 10
Smith, Matt, 16
Smith, Michael B., 395, 403
Smith, Sidney, 501, 502
Smith, Tom, 392, 409, 429, 452
Smith, Vernon, 476
Smokehouse, 206, 253, 254, 263, 279, 488
Smyth, Delta V., 332
Snow, J. M., 205, 239
Sophy, Gerald, 411
Sousa, John Phillip, 168
Sparling, John, 340
Speckart, Joseph R., 291
Sprague, John W., 69
Springer, C. H., 112,237,263,296
Springer Mill Co., 112, 238, 487
Squire, Gov. Watson C., 105, 106, 108, 109, 114, 129, 135, 157, 158, 170 158. 170
Stanford, Elizabeth, 297
Stanton, Richard H., 14
Starr, E. A., 71, 72, 76
Starr, L. M., 71, 72, 76
Starett, E. Morris, 376
State Capitol Museum, 319
State Patrol, 306, 312, 317, 320
Stearns, Ed, 421
Steele, E. N., 326, 341, 374, 375
Stentz, J. B., 215, 216, 248
Stevens, Cappi, 442
Stevens, Hazzard, 22, 24, 76, 138, 146, 149, 272, 492
Stevens, Gov. Isaac I., 1, 8, 9,14, 16-18, 21-30, 32, 34, 41, 43,48, 179, 272, 324, 351
Stevenson,, George C.i 193,, 194- 196, 201
Stevenson, John C. (Radio Speaker) 365, 371,.389, 392
Stewart, Mrs. A. H., 121
Stixrud, P., 172
Stocking, Frank W., 216
Stocking, Fred, 237, 254, 260
Story, Dr. E. C., 252, 275, 286
Story, J. B., 340
Streets, R. R., 251
Strickland, Dr. H. S., 251, 357
Stringer, John, 300
Stronier, G. W., 273
Strong, Judge William, 18, 32, 36
Struve, Henry 74,77
Sullivan, John L., 139
Sullivan, P. C., 154
Sullivan, William A., 412, 472, 496
Summers, Jake, 58
Sunday, Billy, 228
Sunset Telephone Co., 119
Susie, str., 91
Suzzallo, Dr. Henry, 295, 324, 328, 329, 331
Swan, James, 218
Swan, John, 40
Swanson, Ralph A., 460, 468, 484
Swantown, 40
Swantown Fill, 332
Swayne, C. J., 218
Sweetman, Maude, 315, 333-336, 343, 358
Sylvester, Edmund, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15 23, 34, 46, 106, 125, 175
Sylvester, John N., 402, 404
Sylvester Park, 178, 343, 487

T. J. Potter, str., 116
Tacoma, tug, 171
Tadlock, J. M., 310
Taft, William Howard, 220, 225, 243, 250, 251, 255
Talcott Bros. Co., 171, 332
Talcott, Charles, 96, 98, 100, 116, 279
Talcott, Mrs. George, 291
Talcott, Grant, 116,191, 298, 445
Tanner, brig, 173
Tanner, W. B., 295
Tappan, William H., 17, 18
Tatro, Stewart, 398
Taylor, E. W., 150
Taylor, Howard D., 243, 246, 257, 260, 261, 267, 282, 304, 412, 425, 426, 449, 468, 472
Taylor, Tom, 221
Tebo, Joseph, 14
Temperance Echo, newspaper, 58, 66, 88, 92, 112
Temple of Justice, 246, 247, 257, 261, 271, 283, 291, 296
Tenino, 70, 74, 148, 241, 253
Tenino Journal, newspaper, 280
Territorial  Republican, newspaper, 58, 63
The Doctor, str., 163
The Evergreen State College, 492, 493
Thomas, Jay, 331, 338, 339
Thompson, E. J., 317-, 338, 339
Thompson, E. J., 317, 341, 360
Thompson, Rev. D. P., 267
Thompson, L. F., 17
Thompson, Gen. Maurice, 285
Thorp, Wayne, 465
Thurston, Samuel, 16
Ticknor, Riley, 459
Tidal Wave, ship, 79
Tilley, Rice, 63, 489
Tilton, Gen. Samuel, 24,26,37,59
Titus, L. E., 337, 340, 341
Titus, Mrs. L. E., 840
Titus, Myron H., 368, 385, 386
Todd, Charles, 371
Todd, Elmer, 431
Toklas & Kaufman, drygood, 85, 100, 116, 127, 174
Tollefson, Thor, 439
Tolman, Warren D., 182
Tolmie, Dr. Robert, 10, 32
Totten, W. P., 346
Tracy, Harry, 172
Transcript, newspaper, 58,65,74, 88,92, 98,107,120
Traveler, str., 24, 77
Traveller, launch, 205
Tribune, newspaper, 133,145
Troth, L., 172
Troxell, B., 312
Troy, Harold, 356, 366
Troy, P. M., 201, 203, 237, 246, 264, 266, 296, 356
Troy, Smith, 297, 356, 408, 446, 454, 456, 458, 472, 485
Truax, Sewall, 102,103
Trullinger, Truman, 420, 432
Truman, Harry S., 428, 437, 446, 474
Tumwater Club, 222, 227, 246
Tumwater Lumber Co., 357
Tumwater Paper Mills, 337, 351, 408
Turner, Ben, 104
Turner, Judge George, 113, 117, 157, 158, 175, 191, 193, 194
Turner, W. R., 445
Turney, L. J. S., 42, 44
Tassier, launch, 171
Tyee Motor Inn, 492

Umatilla, dredge, 111
Union Guard, newspaper, 58
Union Pacific Railway, 130,131, 147, 204, 278
United Wireless Telegraph, 238
U.S. Eagle 57, USS, 310

Van Arsdale, Harry, 296
Van Dell, John, 283, 284
Vanderzicht, John R., 452, 469
Van Dyk, Ralph, 382, 403, 404
Van Eaton, Harold, 424,480,482, 483
Van Epps, T. C., 124
Van Houten, B. C., 149
Vance, Tom, 287, 290
Vance, William, 254
Variety Theater, 186
Vidette, bark, 171
Villard, Henry, 94, 96, 99, 107, 113
Vincent, Benjamin, 79
Vincent, Phil, 163, 398
Virginia V, str., 459
Vivian, Charles, 133
Volland, Addie S., 237
Voorhees, Charles S., 107

Wagner, Charles L., 285
Wagner, G. 241
Wahooit (Yelm Jim), 30,31
Waldron, Robert, 382, 383, 386, 391
Wall, Harry, 339, 441
Wallace, Leander C., 11
Wallace, Gov. William H., 16,23, 28, 37, 41, 42, 48
Wallgren, Gov. Mon C., 363,428, 429, 430, 433, 436, 437, 450
Wanamaker, Pearl, 346,347,358, 367, 394, 395, 410, 440, 463, 476, 481, 496
Wapama, S.S., 327
Warbass, Dr. U.G., 34, 39
Warburton, Stanton, 243
Ward, E. R., 277
Ward, Ira, Jr., 17
Ward, Marvin (Bud), 407
Warner, A. D., 158
Washington, dredge, 327
Washington Democrat, newspaper, 52, 55
Washington. Hotel, 8, 19, 35, 58, 88, 168, 179
Washington, Nat, 396, 465, 473, 478, 496
Washington Standard, newspaper, 38, 52, 53, 58, 60, 78, 88, 92, 105, 118, 153, 163, 172, 242, 310
Washington Statesman, newspaper, 41, 60, 83
Washington Veneer Co., 327,351, 377, 487
Willey, Lafayette, 83
Willey, Philander, 83
Willey, Capt. Samuel, 83,91,137, 152, 291
Willey, S. Steam Navigation Co., 179
Williams, Ina P., 281, 282
Williams, Samuel, 116
Willie, str., 91
Willimantic, bark, 26
Willson, Capt. Fred, 298
Wilson, Eugene T., 143
Wilson, John L., 123, 150, 175, 207, 234
Wilson, Judge John M., 239,326, 338, 348
Wilson, Woodrow, 255, 280, 286
Wilson G. Hunt, str., 35
Wilsoir & Zabel Theaters, 319
Winstanley, Guy, 206, 253, 263
Wintler, Ella, 425
Wiseman, Fred J., 248
Wohleb, Joseph, 267, 319, 326, 356, 428
Wood, Isaac, 37, 105, 238
Wood, Mary, 33
Woodall, Perry B, 413, 427, 440, .442, 462, 496, 503
Woodruff, Sam, 112,145
Woodward, A. E., 319
Wool, Gen. John E., 30, 34
Wotton, W. S., 286
Wright, Alex, 251
Wright, Judge Charles T., 485
Wright,. Judge D. F., 339, 348, 353, 366
Wright, Col. George, 30
Wright, George P., 198
Wright, Capt. Torn, 71  , 72, 99, 104, 110
Wyche, Judge J. A., 44 y
Yantis, B. F., 17, 23
Yantis, George F., 276, 277, 36 370, 376, 379, 383, 394, 398 408, 431
Yelle, Cliff, 262, 277, 367, 370 376, 379, 383, 394, 398, 408 431
Yelout, Jim, 272, 273
Yesler, Henry, 40
Yosemite, str., 221, 237
Young, Brigham, 476
Young, C. W., 141, 156
Young, E. T., 88, 119, 132, 162
Young, Capt. Voiney C. F., 338
Young, William, 88

Zabel, E. A., 421, 483
Zednick, Victor, 259   ,270, 282,1 315, 339, 429, 439, 475
Zephyr, str., 72, 77, 81, 94, 104,; 110, 117
Zighaus, Irvin W., 285
Zioncheck, Marion, 342, 363, 389




Ingham: Early Doctors of Olympia



by Dr. T.R. Ingham

(Used with permission from Thurston County Historic Commission)





Charles E. McArthur was born July 9, 1901 on a Kansas wheat farm near Walton,
some ten miles north of Wichita.  He attended the one room school at Walton and
worked on the farm with horses until he was 16; severe allergy to horses drove
him from this occupation which he loved, and he probably would have been a
farmer for life but for that problem.  Working nights as a time keeper for Santa
Fe gave him sufficient funds to complete an AB degree at Bethell College in
Newton, Kansas with his major interest in physiology.

He secured a master’s degree in biochemistry in 1928 and became the professor of
chemistry and physiology at the Palmer Union College (Albany, Missouri, not
chiropractic).  From there, Charles went to the University of Oklahoma in 1930
and continued to teach physiology, during which time he studied medicine,
obtaining his MD degree in 1938.  He also completed sufficient work to receive a
PhD in physiology but doe to minor technicalities, did not receive this degree.

A year at Seattle General Hospital starting in 1938 followed by an additional
year—before coming to Olympia to take office in the National Bank of Commerce
building in 1940.  When World War II closed upon us, Dr. McArthur and I were the
only reasonably healthy doctors left to treat the community, now bulging with
many military attached personnel, particularly from Brooklyn, New York.  We
alternated nights on call, which meant that on nights on call we did not have
time to go to bed.

After the war was over, Charles became very active in that area of medicine
which emphasizes the need for doctors to first be doctors, and second to be
specialists.  He was co-founder of the Academy of General practice in 1947, and
its first president of the state chapter in 1948.  He became chairman of the
General Practice A.M.A. section in 1948:  he instituted the “yearly physical
exam for every MD” at AMA meetings in 1955, and was awarded an AMA appreciation
certificate in 1964 on its tenth anniversary for a program that has been growing
in scope and now does screening physical examinations on over 2,000 doctors a
year.  He was the first president of the American Board for Family Physicians,
and this organization is apparently growing in strength, emphasizing the need
for all doctors to carry on a certain amount of general practice.

For some eight years, he was editor of the World Wide Medical Abstracts, has
been on the advisory committee of the National Heart Institute, and is a Fellow
of the American College of Cardiology.

Despite repeated negative biopsies of a personal problem in his parotid gland,
Charles insisted on pursuance of the matter over a five year period and as a
result recently received successful curative operation which has left him with
the mark of facial paralysis, but has preserved his health and life.  He has two
daughters, five grandchildren, and one great grand child by a previous marriage.
He now lives in a very well designed attractive home on Capitol Boulevard with
his wife Mary Ho.

T.R. Ingham.

Copy of faded copy of note for St. Pete, call Bell about 1968.




In keeping with our policy of presenting members of our staff, here is the story
of Dr. Lawrence M. Wilson:

Dr. Wilson was born and raised in the mid-west and was married just after
graduating in medicine from Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1933.
After a three-year residency in surgery at St. Luke’s Hospital, St. Louis, he
and his wife, Colette, set out for the Pacific Coast.  Neither had been West
before, but after hearing reports from friends they decided that was where they
wanted to live.

Incidentally, they traveled in a brand new 1936 Ford.  Cost:  $652, deluxe
model, at that time!  He took basic science examinations in Oregon and
Washington and started touring the coast.  However, they were so taken with the
Puget Sound area, particularly with Olympia, their decision to settle here was
easily reached.

At that time, Olympia had about 8,000 residents and a dozen doctors, as well a
fine new hospital.

Dr. Wilson had the first oxygen tent brought to Olympia.  A couple of years
later he used the first intravenous anesthetic in St. Peter Hospital–after
considerable controversy with Sister Benosa who was in charge of surgery at that

In those years doctors furnished all their own instruments as well as their own
scrub suits.  The procedure of surgery furnishing the surgical gloves had just

Dr. Wilson’s practice was interrupted in January 1942, to star his four years’
service in the Army, having been a reserve officer for several years previously.

Upon his return to Olympia after the war, he found office space unobtainable, so
he bought the old Coulter home at 1502 Capitol Way and converted it into an
office site.  This he still maintains.

He was chief of the hospital staff in 1941, again in 1946, and served several
years as a member of the board of the Medical Bureau.  He was secretary and
president of the Thurston-Mason County Medical Society.

While serving as secretary he inserted the last minutes, closing the record book
of the society that had been in service nearly 100 years.

This county society was the first one established in the State of Washington.

Over the years Dr. Wilson has been a member of the American Academy of General
Practitioners, serving as the first Speaker of the State House of Delegates for
two years, at the time the House of Delegates was established.  He is also a
member of the American Association of Physicians and Surgeons, the Washington
State Obstetrical Society, and a member of the American Society of Abdominal

He is a past president of the Active Club, and the Kiwanis Club.  He served as a
member of the YMCA Board of Directors for seven years, the last four as its
present, at which time the new swimming pool was built as its first major
addition in 50 years.

He is an avid yachtsman and belongs to the Olympia Yacht Club where he keeps his
42 foot boat the “Willie.”  His wife is a widely known golfer here and has won
championships and city titles.  They have two sons and a daughter.  Four
grandchildren round out this closely knit family.  They are active lifetime
members of the Christian Church.



Hugh Wyman was born in 1858 and raised in Detroit, Michigan, where he attended
school and received his medical degree there from the Michigan College of
Medicine in 1882.  He came directly to Olympia and associated in practice a
short time with Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander at 515 Main Street.

Shortly thereafter, as a surgeon attached to the Marine Corps, he embarked on
the gunboat, S.S. Pinta at Tumwater.  This was before the long dock which
extended for years to the area now occupied by the Jacaranda, and gunboats and
similar ships regarded Tumwater as the port, and negotiated the narrow channel
up to vicinity of the present Crosby Museum Home.

The Pinta took Dr. Wyman to Sitka, where he met Henrietta Milsner.  She was the
daughter of Governor Milsner, who went to Sitka in 1867 to deal with the
Russians directly, in purchase of Alaska (Seward’s Folly) from Alaska.
Milsner’s other daughter became interested in Admiral Koontz, Chief of Naval
Operations, and marriage of these two to their corresponding suitors occurred in
1885.  Henrietta and Hugh had but the one child, Prudence Wyman, born a year
after their marriage in Treadwell.

Hugh left the Marine Corps service shortly after marriage, and went to
Treadwell, a small community across the bay from Juneau, to render medical care
to the gold miners.  Treadwell had a fabulous load, and was an exceeding
prosperous gold mine until its termination by a landslide, that washed the mine,
settlement and all into the bay; despite many subsequent attempts, this lode has
not been rediscovered, and is said to contain a tremendous amount of gold ore –
(Maybe we should move Fort Knox to that location now!).

In the meanwhile, Hugh also took part in starting the Alaska Juneau mine, which
operated on a lower grade ore for many years with multiple “shaker tables” which
many of us have been privileged to see; the finely ground concentrated ore
flowed across a washboard like shaking table and collected in a pocket at one
corner, like pool balls hitting a corner pocket.  Bag samples of this collection
were not given to visitors in 1929 when the Capital-Capital cruising race
terminated in Juneau.

In 1892, Dr. Wyman returned to Olympia and lived in a small home at 112 West
10th.  Prudence then age six, started kindergarten with Winnie Lang (Schmidt)
held in the basement of St. John’s Church.  Dr. Wyman became the leading surgeon
and performed appendectomies and similar operations in the old St. Peter
Hospital (209 West 11th).  In 1896, he purchased the Sylvester home from the
Sylvesters, and moved to that location.

He was a good student and travelled to New York City nearly every summer for a
refresher course, first learning general surgery (hernia repairs and
appendectomies), and later concentrating on eye, ear, nose and throat.  Shortly
after moving to the Sylvesters home, Dr. Wyman built his own office (708 Main
Street) which was a neat gleaming white office.

Diabetes mellitus plagued Dr. Wyman and lead to his death in 1913 shortly before
his fifty-seventh birthday.  Mrs. Wyman left Olympia for a time, to be with her
sister (Mrs. Koontz, the Admiral’s wife), and her daughter Prudence married
Captain Howard of the U.S. Navy – The Sylvester home was rented to Harry
Heermans (founder of the Moxlie Creek water system, later taken over by Olympia
for its city owned water supply).  During the next decade, this house was filled
with music generated by the Heerman boys (Joe, Jack and Don) and their sister
Ruth.  While the Heermans were living there, Mrs. Wyman returned to Olympia to
live in a brown two story frame home, standing nearby (771 Washington).
Prudence Howard became a widow from her husband’s death in World War I, and
later married Joe Wohleb; these two moved back to the Sylvester home, and
converted Mrs. Wyman’s home into an architectural office.  Some years after Joe
Wohleb’s death, Prudence married Admiral Greene, moved to Virginia.  She
returned to live in the Olympian Hotel, following the death of Admiral Greene,
and lived out her days as a charming sophisticated person who knew much of our
town in its early days.



Robert Kincaid was a Canadian, born in 1863, who graduated from Queen’s
University Medical Facility, Kingston, Ontario.  He came to Olympia in our year
of statehood, 1889, to live in a small white house surrounded by picket fence,
on northeast corner of “Tenth & Main”.  At that time, the grade was about eight
feet below Main, causing the house to be down in a hollow.

Doctor Kincaid and his wife were alleged to be brilliant and studious, and yet
his practice did not flourish well.  His office was reached by “rickety” stairs
to the second floor of a small white frame building just west of Toklas and
Kaufman (Mottman) store.  Low cash flow was always a problem.  The Kincaid’s had
two children, a daughter Adria and son Trevor.  Trevor was well known around the
town as the youngster forever chasing butterflies with a net.  He later became
better known as a zoologist of world fame, and was professor of this subject for
many years at University of Washington.



About Civil War time a Boston orphan went to Minnesota to live with his uncle
Mayo (no Mayo Clinic relative).  His uncle, Oscar Rhodes, was a giant of a man
(7 feet 300 pound plus) who farmed inn Delphi Township.  This orphan grew to be
a man, settled in the 1,200 people town of Blooming Prairie, Minnesota and
increased the population by one on January 23, 1887, with the arrival of Albert
Miller Treat.

After clearing the hurdles of a one room school, Albert attended University of
Minnesota, then took an additional year to receive his MD degree at Jefferson
University in 1910; a one year internship at Fairview, Minnesota followed.

A.M. specialized in general practice in small town for the next 21 years, except
for a two year World War I interruption.  Two years at Bickleton, Washington
(near Goldendale) where he married Maude Hosfelt, a Seattle Minor Hospital
nurse; five years at Pingree, North Dakota; two years in U.S. Army (1917-19)
attached to British Army in Birmingham, England, hospital; 13 years at Fairview,
Montana, in Yellowstone Valley near Dickinson, North Dakota.

The barter system brought on in full swing by the depression “blew it” in 1932.
A.M. packed his bags and went to Vienna, the medical center of the world, and
under Professor Hajek in EENT and Sallman in eye, acquired a specialist training
in ENT by 1934.

Olympia appeared the best location to Dr. Treat with this training fresh in
mind.  George Ingham who had taken the same ENT training in 1908 was now backing
away from mastoid work, now in 1934 largely handled by Frank Gibson.  John
Mowell, deceased, left Gibson, Longakeer and George Murphy to handle the eye
department, with no one doing more in that field beyond refractions (fitting of
glasses).  From 1934 to 1951, A.M. Treat was the stead dependable ENT man of our
town who handled his referrals smoothly, and understood the promise of the
generalist in a small community.

When asked about war experiences, A.M. told me it was more psychological than
physical.  Rumor claimed 14 transports had been torpedoed off the Jersey Coast
when Captain Treat started overseas from New York in 1917.  He asked the ship’s
captain about “abandon ship drills” and was promptly assigned direction of this
project.  Life boats were insufficient to handle the passenger list.  A large
life raft rested on the top deck for the excess.  A.M. found that all hands on
deck still had insufficient strength to lift the raft, let alone launch it!
Conclusion:  if torpedo strikes, go to the top of ship, jump in raft, and hope
same floats if ship sinks.  Ship did not sink.

In 1942, Dr. Treat again served in war duty – chief of the Washington Junior
High emergency hospital – consisting of that school building’s basement with a
few old fashioned operating tables, and abundance of triangle bandages, splints
and old instruments.  A cold dark January 1943, Sunday morning was the time he
drove through the sleet to station because of red alert, inadvertently flashed
to the “fan-out” phone system of medical division by Message Control Center,
when the practice alert in Seattle operators forgot to close the switchboard
keys to lesser control centers in Puget Sound cities.  I found Dr. Treat in
charge which all personnel present and accounted for on station at 8:00 a.m. on
inspection grounds, with everything in readiness for all out disaster.  (It was
still pitch dark for we were on War accelerated time and without street lights,
and all windows masked.)

The car he drove for this War II service was mirror image of his present
favorite, a 1947 Chrysler coupe.

Two sons carry on the Treat name.  George Nathaniel is an executive for Crown
Zellerback in San Francisco.  William Albert is an Ob Gyn specialist in Oxboro.



Charles E. McArthur was born July 4, 1901, on a Kansas wheat farm near Walton
some 30 miles north of Wichita.  He went to the one room school at Walton and
worked on the farm with horses until 16; severe allergy to horses drove him away
from this occupation which he loved — and he probably would have been a farmer
but for that problem.  Working nights as a timekeeper for Santa Fe gave him
sufficient funds to complete an AB degree at Bethel College in Newton, Kansas,
in 1927 with considerable emphasis in physiology.

He secured a master’s degree then in biochemistry in 1928 at the University of
Kansas and became the professor of chemistry and physiology at Palmer Junior
College, Albany, Missouri.  From there, Charlie went to the University of
Oklahoma in 1930 and continued to teach physiology during which time he studied
medicine, obtaining his MD degree in 1938.  He also completed sufficient work to
receive a PhD in immunology, but because of minor technicalities did not receive
his degree.

A year at Seattle General starting in 1938 followed by an additional year with
Roger Anderson in 1939 completed his formal training; he arrived in Olympia to
take office in the National Bank of Commerce Building in 1940.

When World War II closed upon us Dr. McArthur and I were the only reasonably
healthy doctors left to treat the community bulging with many attached military
personnel from Brooklyn, New York.  We alternated nights on call, which meant
that on nights on call we did not bother to go to bed.

After the war was over Charlie became very active in that area of medicine which
emphasizes the need for doctors to first be doctors and second to be specialist.
He was a founder of the Academy of General Practice in 1947 and its first
president of the state chapter in 1948; he was chairman of the General Practice,
AMA section, in 1958; he instituted the Yearly PE for every MD at AMA meetings
in 1955 and was awarded an AMA appreciation certificate in 1964 on its tenth
anniversary for a program that has been growing in scope and now does screening
physical examinations on over 2,00 doctors a year.  He was the first president
of the American Board for Family Practice.  This organization is apparently
growing in strength, emphasizing the need that all doctors do a certain amount
of general practice.

For some eight years, he was editor of World Medical Abstracts, has been on the
Advisory Committee of the National Heart Institute and is a Fellow of the
American College of Cardiology.

Despite repeated negative biopsies of a personal problem in his parotid gland,
Charlie insisted on pursuance of the mater over a five year period, and as a
result recently received successful and curative operation which has left its
mark of facial paralysis but preserved his health.  He has two daughters, five
grandchildren and one great-grandchild by a previous marriage.  He now lives in
a very well designed, attractive home on Capitol Boulevard with his wife, Mary



H.W. Coulter practice in Olympia from 1924 until his death December 21, 1953.

There is a bit of mystery about this man’s birth – the dates ranging from 1878
(AMA Directory), to 1880 (Medical School diploma), to 1883 (Who’s Who,
Washington, 1934), but all are agreed that November 13 was his birthday.  His
Irish ancestry father, Henry, married a Scotch gal, Martha McLaughlin, settled
in Lewiston, Maine to practice law and had Heber Wilson as their only child.  A
railroad accident near Lewiston suddenly made H.W. an orphan at age 13.  During
his childhood, he had spent his summers on one uncle’s large farm near Lewiston
and learned to love animals; during the winters, he often rode in the surrey
with the local family doctors, and learned to love medicine.  This combination
developed a powerful, muscular man who loved animals and people, and with the
help of his bachelor attorney uncle, James Coulter (Lewiston, Maine), he
completed his elementary schooling and secured doctorate  of medicine at Trinity
College (Toronto School of Medicine) in 1903.  This four year stint coincided
with the Boer (South African) War, in which he served some time there in the
Canadian Army, sufficient to receive personal congratulations and handshake from
Queen Victoria.

After medical school, hospital service in Toronto,, H.W. travelled in Europe and
Asia, then started practice in Maine (1907), South Dakota (1908), Idaho (1912),
North Dakota (1913), and finally State of Washington in 1920, starting first in
Seattle, then Montesano, and finally Olympia in 1924.

A Deep Lake (Millersylvania) dairy farmer’s daughter caught Wilson’s eye,
leading to marriage in 1928 – but she seldom saw him after that for H.W. was on
the road night and day seeing patients.  He loved to drive, and not uncommonly
would make 20 to 40 home medical visits night, carrying for young and old with
little concern about financial reimbursement.  With the advent of welfare
payments to doctors for home visits to recipients in 1945, Dr. Coulter’s
caseload became open knowledge to the auditors who were thoroughly astounded at
his long hours of activity with little time for rest; his hobby other than
practice of medicine, was watching hockey and basketball; a Sunday drive to
Vancouver, BC to see a game and return, was about the only time wife, Anna, saw
him for any lengthy time.

Obstetrics was one of his first loves and many a delivery he accouchered in the
old Maxwell Maternity Home (SE intersection 4th & Olympic Way).

Diabetes mellitus with heavy insulin requirements starting in 1932 did not slow
him down, but did make him thinner.  Fulminating uremia following minor cold
took him rather suddenly December 20, 1953.  Following his desires, notice urged
that expression of condolence be  gifts too the Thurston County Humane Society,
rather than flowers.

Ref. AMA Directory 13 Edi. 1934 T.R. Ingham, MD
Who’s Who, Washington & Oregon, 1934
Widow Anna Langford Coulter, 2816 Otis, Olympia
Original diplomas
Sunday, Olympian, December 20, 1953



Practiced medicine in Olympia 1871-1880
First Supt. Western Washington Hospital for Insane, 1880

John W. Waughop was born in Tazewell County, Illinois, October 22, 1839 and grew
up on a farm.  His parents of Scotch ancestry had come there by team from their
Portsmouth, Virginia home by team, were exemplary members of the Methodist
Church, hardworking farmers with family of ten, plus a homeless waif whom they
took under their care.

After a country school education, John entered Eureka College, but his studies
were interrupted by “The Rebellion”.  After a 90-day volunteer service answering
President Lincoln’s call for 75,000 men, he enlisted “for three years or during
the war, unless sooner discharged”, during which time he served in battles of
Donelson and Shiloh, and then did hospital service at Lake Providence, LA.

In July 1864, his honorable discharge permitted him to take a course of medical
lectures at the University of Michigan, followed by formal medical training at
Long Island Hospital, Brooklyn, where he graduated in 1865.  (Ed. note, the
record does not indicate whether he was Board Certified, but people in Olympia
agreed that he was an excellent doctor.)

In July of 1865, John Waughop started practice in White Cloud, Kansas, became
mayor of the town, and left in 1866 to practice at Blue Island (near Chicago)
for five years.  (Ed. note – there must be a good story to this, but I do not
have the information).

Eliza S. Rexford became his wife in 1866; she was the daughter of the prominent
citizen, the Honorable Stephen Rexford of Cook County, Illinois.  This marriage
yielded a son, Philip, who graduated from Harvard College in 1890, and Harvard
Medical School in 1893.

After coming to Olympia where he practiced from 1871 to 1880, Dr. Waughop was
offered and accepted the appointment for the new hospital for the insane at
Steilacoom.  While there, it is said many fine buildings were constructed to
create an institution for 600 inmates as well provided as in any state in the
Union.  He was president off Washington State Medical Society in 1893, and
member of many honorary societies before his death, the date of which I do not
have available.

Source Illustrated History State of Washington
Chicago, Lewis Publishing Company, 1893, Page 88



Dr. Redpath was born January 19, 1860 in Cowlitz County, Washington on his
father’s homestead, near the present town of Kelso.

His grandfather, Adam Redpath, was born in Scotland in 1803.  In 1818, he came
to America with his parents, James and Isabel (Hay).  She died and was buried at
sea.  They settled in Randolph County, Illinois, in 1821.  Adam and his two
sons, James and Robert came West around 1852 and settled on a Donation Claim in
Cowlitz County, Washington.  Their claim was adjacent to the Dr. Nathaniel
Ostrander claim, and in 1856 James Redpath married Priscilla Catherine
Ostrander.  They had two children, Nathaniel James born January 19, 1860, and
Lilly born in 1857.  The family moved to Albany, Oregon where his father had a
market until his death in 1869.  Mrs. James Redpath, with her two children moved
back with her parents, Dr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Ostrander, at Freeport,
Washington, for about two years then returned to Albany, Oregon.  She worked as
a seamstress to support her children.  Nathaniel worked at any job he could to
help support the family and gain his education.  He attended a private school
because his first day in public school he was seated with a young negro.  His
mother being from Missouri could not tolerate this so he attended a private
school.  In 1879, Mrs. Redpath married Mr. Charles Bruce Montaque, a widower
with six children.  They moved to Lebanon, Oregon, where Mr. Montaque was in the
mercantile business and had real estate holdings.

Young Nathaniel worked hard for his education.  Among the various jobs he held
were working as a Telegraph operator and in his grandfather Dr. Ostrander’s
drugstore in Tumwater.  He attended Albany Collegiate Institute, at this time he
decided on a life devoted to the Medical Profession.  He attended the Medical
Department of Willamette University, graduated from Jefferson Medical College –
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1887.

In 1882, he married Anna R. Bridgford, a sister of Dr. Wayne Bridgford.  He was
in charge of a general mercantile store for one year at that time.

After graduation from Jefferson Medical College in 1887, he immediately opened
his office in Olympia, Washington.  However, in September of that year he was
offered a position at the Western State Hospital for the Insane, located at Fort
Steilacoom, Washington.  He stayed there until 1896.  While there he had a most
interesting life and learned a great deal about treatment of mental patients.
However, his wife died there and he did not want to continue.  He took a
position as ship’s doctor on a sailing vessel to Japan.  At the time he left
Western State Hospital, the patients gave him a beautifully carved oak cabinet
for his surgical instruments.  The initials N.J.R. are carved as part of the
decoration on the cabinet.  Also, the staff gave him a beautiful sterling silver
water pitcher tray and goblet as a token of their appreciation of his friendship
and devotion to patients and staff alike.

In 1897, he again opened an office in Olympia for practice of medicine and
surgery.  His offices were located in the Chambers Building at the Northeast
corner of 4th and Main Streets.  He remained in these offices until he purchased
a building known as the Columbia Building located at 206-208 East 4th Avenue.
He remained in that office until his death in April 1924.

He was always eager to leave and better himself for the good of his professional
ability.  He took many post graduate courses such as N.Y. Post-graduate
Institute, Philadelphia Polyclinic and later Columbia University and Mayo’s

He enjoyed swimming, tennis, golf, photography and fishing.

In 1903 he married Miss Lucy Elizabeth Maynard, daughter of Mary Alice
(Buchanan) and Charles W. Maynard.  Mr. Maynard was at that time Treasurer for
the State of Washington.  Their previous home having been Chehalis, Lewis
County, Washington.  The Maynard home was located on the north side of 11th
Avenue across from the old St. Peters Hospital.  A most convenient spot for Dr.
Redpath to drop in for a cup of coffee after his hospital rounds.  Dr. and Mrs.
Redpath had three children, 1 – Catherine Alice born July 22, 1906, 2 – James N.
born 1909 but he died at 10 months of age.  The third child was Nathaniel J.
Jr., born December 7, 1910.

Both Dr. and Mrs. Redpath were active in civic affairs.  He was a member of
Pierce County Medical Association, Thurston-Mason County Medical and Washington
State Medical Association.  He was Past Master of the local Masonic Lodge #1 F &
AM, member of the Afifi Shrine and 32nd degree Mason.

Also an original member of the Olympia Golf and Country Club and local Elks

Dr. Redpath’s life extended over an interesting period of time in our
transportation, from the days of the horse and buggy, bicycle, motorcycle, and
finally the automobile.  Before the automobile became the general means of
transportation, the doctor was expected to go to the patient rather than the
reverse as is common practice today.  Names such as Gate, Malone, Oakville,
Tenino, Porter, Rochester, Yelm, Rainier, Littlerock, Tono, Bucoda, Kamilche,
McKenna and many others were well known in the Redpath household.  Much of the
time the calls for help came from places with no other direction as to how to
reach them than by the names of farmers along the way.  In those days appendix
were apt to be removed by the light of a kerosene lamp with the kitchen table
used as the operating table.  Babies were born at home – not in a hospital.
Many times Dr. Redpath would drive himself or ride his bicycle to the end of the
road, where he would be met by someone in a rowboat or a launch to take him
across a river or across the bay to the home of the ailing patient.  Sometimes
he would find an entire family stick with say smallpox.  He would often stay
with them for several days if no other aid were available.  His patients seemed
to love him for his kindness and devotion as well as professional knowledge.

One incident Dr. Redpath enjoyed telling concerned an Indian and his wife; the
wife had suffered a broken leg.  The couple lived in a small one room house at
Kamilche.  When the doctor entered the room, it was so dark he could hardly see.
He finally located the bed, only to discover the husband, who pointed to a heap
of rages in the corner of the room.  When Dr. Redpath went over to the corner he
discovered his patient.  Upon investigation he found the broken leg seemed to be
in perfect position and was bandaged expertly with a bandage of kelp.  It is my
understanding the bandage was left intact and resulted in a perfect healing.
However, during his diagnosis the doctor wanted to compare the broken leg with
the normal one to check the amount of swelling.  However, at this time the
husband, who had been watching from the bed, called to the doctor “Only one!
Only one!”

These were also days of the booming logging camps.  Many terrible accidents
occurred due to the lack of safety features in the logging methods used.
Bordeaux, Mud Bay Camp #2, McCleary, Shelton, Vail and Fir Tree were among the
many places calling for help.  Shelton eventually established a very fine small
hospital which made treatment of many logging accidents much simpler and I’m
sure helped in saving many lives.  The  hospital was made possible through the
generosity of Mark Reed.

Then came the era of the shipyards with more crippling accidents.  This was
during the days of World War I.  Many a time in the middle of the night, a
worker would awaken Dr. Redpath to remove a piece of steel from his eye.  This
same period was the time of the very real “flu” epidemic.  This “flu” struck
very suddenly, a worker would often leave the shipyards and by the time he
reached the doctor’s office he would have a temperature of 1030 or 1040.
Hospitals were full and patients had to be cared for at home.  House calls could
not possibly be completed in the course of a normal day, in fact there were
times when it was almost continuous day and night.

How the medical men of these days managed to survive as long as they did is a
marvel to me.  They must have received a great deal of satisfaction from the
knowledge that they were doing their best to serve mankind.

[Ed. note:  The Redpath home built at the turn of the century on southwest
corner of 7th Avenue and Washington is now located on southeast corner of Water
and 17th Avenue.  It still contains the original furnishings which are receiving
loving care by its current owner.]



“Well, mah boyee, what’chu lookin’ so sad about?” – a drawl coming from a tall
lanky more broad-shouldered graying sandy-haired man with twinkle in his eye –
reminds me of only one man – John Frank Gibson – and the feeling of warmth,
friendship and uplift this kindly inquiry imparted.  Would that I could recall
the many friendly quips starting “We fellers down from Texas…” that would
bring a roar of laughter to his fellow Rotarians when he dropped a friendly barb
to conclude some preceding speaker’s comment:

J.F. was born in Paris, Texas, July 9, 1880, son of Dr. and Mrs. David Gibson,
attended University of Texas (Austin) and studied medicine at John Sealy
Hospital (Galveston) where he also interned.  Graduate work in Chicago and
Vienna (Austria) gave him specialized training in eye, ear, nose and throat.

Following marriage in 1909 to a Virginian, Imogene Pace Nickell, he started
practice in Paris, Texas, had an only son (Frank), and served in the U.S. Army
Medical Corps throughout the entire World War I.  When his mother died in the
early 20s, Dr. Gibson came to the Northwest for cooler climate, at suggestion of
Mr. Long (Longbell Lbr., Co., Longview) and moved to Olympia in 1923.

Munson’s Drug Store counter, and later the Security Drug store counter were kept
in an uproar as J.F. handled the dice box (Ship, captain and crew) against old
friends during short quiet periods between patient calls.  I have a warm spot in
my heart for the prompt attention he gave my son, Cap, whose ears needed
surgical drainage 2:00 a.m. one Sunday morning (par for the course).  The
Thursday and Friday gang poker clubs counted on J.F. to supply the wisecracks
for the evening and make the friendships priceless.

As President of the Thurston-County Medical Society, Ralph Highmiller wrote a
memorium which merits repeating:  “Measured by Eternity, the span of life is but
a fleeting experience.  To mankind, however, life is measured by years and by
achievement.  Some lives are so filled with useful service that they stand out,
even as the flame exceeds the spark.   Such was the life of our friend and
fellow member, John Frank Gibson.

A prominent member and past president of Thurston-Mason County Medical Society,
and a member of the Washington State Medical Society for more then 25 years.

He retired in June 1950 because of impaired health.  In his profession he was
highly esteemed for his ability and he had the confidence and goodwill of all
our members.  We think of him as a friend, counselor and a physician well
qualified in his chosen specialty.  As a friend, he was faithful, loyal, and
helpful in many ways.  As a counselor his wisdom could be trusted.  He had the
prize of human wisdom, a deep knowledge that comes from being continually
exposed to the pitiful frailties of mankind.  His sharp wit, and his sense of
good humor made him indeed to those who knew him.

He passed from our midst April 2, 1951, but he left us such a rich heritage of
memory that we, his brother members, find it difficult to believe that he has
gone.  We will miss his presence, wise counsel, calm deliberations and ready
advice in the everyday problems of living.

Be it therefore resolved that this report be spread upon the minutes of our
Association, and that a copy be sent to his wife as an expression of our great
admiration and gratitude for his loyal service to our Association, as well as
our deep sympathy for those who remain and feel so keenly his absence.”

Information source:  Frank Gibson, PO 337, Spokane, 99211



The above-named is one of the early physicians in this area whose history was
well recorded by his great granddaughter, Catherine Redpath Weller, as follows:

“Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander, who was one of our early pioneer doctors, was born in
Ulster County, New York in 1818.  His grandfather David came from Holland and
settled in New York.  Nathaniel’s father, who was Abel Ostrander, was born in
1776 and died October 3, 1859 at age 84.  Abel was married to Catherine
Easterly, and they had six children, three boys and three girls; Nathaniel was
the youngest of these.

Young Nathaniel was raised by his Uncle Nathaniel until at the age of 18 he went
to Missouri.  There he clerked in a store in a town called Sweet Springs that
was located in Saline County.  When 19, he married Eliza Jane Yantis on April
11, 1838.  They lived in Sweet Springs and had three children before Nathaniel
decided to study medicine.  After he received his medical training at St. Louis
University, he returned to Sweet Springs to practice medicine.

However, the urge to come West was too much for him.  So in 1849, he made a trip
to California.  He wasn’t a good miner but continued to practice medicine among
the miners until he made enough money to bring his family out west.

When the family finally started west, they had five little girls:   Pricilla,
Catherine, Mary Ann, Susan Charlotte, Sarah Teresa and Margaret Jane.  They left
Missouri in April 1852 in the same group as the Yantis family which made it very
nice for Mrs. Ostrander, since she was a Yantis.  Abel Ostrander, Nathaniel’s
father, also accompanied them on the trip.  Among others who were in that wagon
train were Gilmore Hayes and Tom Prather.

Along the way a dispute arose as to whether they should travel on Sunday or take
that day for rest for themselves and their stock.  The Yantis group decided to
rest on Sunday and the Hayes crowd decided to go on and travel each day.  Dr.
Ostrander decided to take his family with the Hayes group and try to hurry
through.  However, he later agreed it was not the best plan as the Yantis group
arrived in Portland at about the same time and didn’t experience as much
sickness and didn’t lose as much stock.

The entire party with the Hayes group suffered terribly from diseases and the
hardships of the trip.  They all had black measles which later turned into
cholera.  When they reached the Snake River in Idaho, Mrs. Ostrander and her
five little girls were all sick with the measles.  Susan, eight years old, died
and was buried on the river bank.  Here, too, Eva was born; she weighed only
three pounds and was so tiny that they Indians wanted to buy her.  They offered
a few pennies and some blankets as pay.  Even this newborn baby had measles.
Mrs. Ostrander also lost a sister-in-law, the wife of her brother Franklin
Yantis, the grandmother of George and Robert Yantis and also for George and
Robert Blankenship.  She herself was so miserable she told later that at the
time she wished they could all die.

However, after six months of constant travel they finally arrived in Portland in
September 1852.  From the Dalles, they made the trip to Portland in canoes down
the Columbia River.

They spent the winter in Portland, then in the spring of 1853 they moved up to
the Cowlitz where Dr. Ostrander and his father took up a homestead of 640 acres.
That claim was later known as the town of Ostrander in honor of the doctor.

Later they moved to Freeport which is now Longview.  Dr. Ostrander was the first
probate judge of Cowlitz County and also served several terms in the Territorial
Legislature.  During this period he continued his practice of medicine and often
had to travel 25 to 50 miles by horse to visit his patients.  At that time, the
usual fee for a maternity case was $5.00.

In 1872 the family moved to Tumwater where they bought the home of Nathaniel
Crosby, who incidentally was Bing Crosby’s grandfather.  They lived in Tumwater
for five years and Dr. Ostrander ran the Drug Store in connection with his
medical practice.

Finally in 1877 they left Tumwater and moved to Olympia where they spent the
remainder of their lives.  They built their family home which is still standing
in the block bounded by Franklin, Adams, 8th and 9th, with the house facing 8th
Street.  He became the first mayor of Olympia.  Mrs. Ostrander died February 22,
1899 and Dr. Ostrander died three years later on February 7, 1902.

In those early days drugs were not as carefully labeled and there were no laws
controlling such things.  Dr. Ostrander always claimed he never gave anyone a
prescription without first testing it himself.  That way he could always make
sure it was the right thing.

Another incident I have enjoyed hearing had to do with my grandmother Priscilla
Catherine.  Being the oldest of the children, she always thought it was her duty
to introduce all sisters whenever her mother had callers.  She would introduce
herself and give her age, then say, `this is my sister Mary Ann, she is 15 years
old; this is Susan Charlotte 13 years old; this is Sarah Teresa, 11 years old;
this is Margaret Jane, 9; and this is Maria Evelyn who is only 5 – Pa was in
California that year.’

The Ostrander family consisted of ten daughters and one son:

1.  Priscilla Catherine, my grandmother was the oldest and she married James
Redpath and lived in Kelso where my father Nathaniel James Redpath was born
January 19, 1860.

2.  Mary Ann, married Thomas Roe of Longview and later moved to Forest Grove,

3.  Susan Charlotte was the little girl who died on the plains.

4.  Sarah Teresa married Charles Catlin, a pioneer of Cowlitz County for whom
the town of Catlin was named.

5.  Margaret Jane married Michael O’Conner and lived here in Olympia.  He had a
stationery and bookstore here and also was the first telegraph operator in

6.  Maria Evelyn married W.W. Work of Olympia.

7.  Isabella May married E.E. Eastman of Tumwater.

8.  John Yantis, the only boy in the family, married Fannie Crosby and spent
most of his life in business in Alaska.

9.  Florene Eliza married Walter Crosby and lived in Olympia.

10.  Fanny Lee married C.M. Moore and is now living here in Olympia as you all
know (written later) died January 7, 1951 at age 84.

11.  Minnie Augusta died in infancy.

In bringing this to a conclusion, I would like to read part of what Mrs. George
Blankenship wrote of Dr. Ostrander in her TILLICUM TALES:  `He was every strong
for the right’ are the words that came most readily to the compiler’s pencil
when attempt was made to draw a pen picture of that veteran old war horse in the
medical profession, Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander.  For many years while living on his
homestead on the Cowlitz River he was the only doctor to minister to the
distress of the people for many miles.  His daughters can still remember their
father hurrying out, sometimes in the dead of night, saddling his faithful nag,
filling his saddle bags with medicines and frequently used surgical instruments
and starting on a trip of perhaps 20 or even 50 miles in response to a summons
for medical aid.  Many of the men and women today in Cowlitz County, with heads
white with scar of age were ushered into this world by the genial doctor.
Brusk, sometimes gruff in his manners, all who best knew this grand old man,
knew his heart was of pure gold, his moral life beyond reproach and his family
relations loving and pure; a staunch friend, loyal to his political and
fraternal affiliations.  Dr. Ostrander’s memory is still fondly cherished by his
former friends.

Before I close I want to tell you I am indebted for all my information to my
Aunt Fanny Moore, who is the youngest of the Ostrander children, and she is here

This was a biography written by Catherine Weller sometime in the 40s and prior
to Fanny Moore’s death in 1951.  The Ostrander home in Olympia has been replaced
today by the Timberland Olympia Public Library.

Not mentioned in this otherwise very comprehensive biography is the part Dr.
Ostrander played in medical politics.  At the preliminary meeting for
organization of the Washington Territory Medical Society on January 4, 1873, Dr.
Ostrander together with Rufus Willard and J.W. Waughop were censors.  The
meeting was held in Olympia with A.H. Steele as its president.  Action taken was
to have 100 circulars printed so as to send one to each doctor of medicine in
the Territory and urge attendance at the next meeting.  This was held again in
Olympia on February 19, 1873 with adoption of constitution and by-laws and
election of permanent officers for the year.  Censors Drs. Ostrander and Waughop
were appointed as essayists for the next regular meeting to be held in six
months.  Dr. Ostrander continued to be a leader in the organization until his

T.R. Ingham, December 1991



Dr. Alden Hatch Steele long ranked with the most progressive, capable and
honored physicians of Western Washington and Oregon.  He was born in Oswego, New
York, February 10, 1823, a son of Orlo and Fanny (Abby) Steele, who were native
of Connecticut.  After mastering the common branches of learning, Dr. Steele
determined upon the practice of medicine as a life work and began reading under
the direction of P.H. Hurd of Oswego, New York, and subsequently continued his
studies under direction of Dr. James R. Wood, noted surgeon and medical educator
of New York City.  He then entered the medical department of the University of
New York and was graduated in 1846, after which he located for practice in his
native city.  Subsequently, he opened an office in Kenosha, Wisconsin and in
1849 started for Oregon with a stage company, and while en route overtook the
Rifle Regiment U.S.A.  He was invited joint the officers and traveled with them
to Vancouver.  He settled in Oregon City, Oregon in 1849, and for 14 years
successfully engaged in practice there.  He was a most progressive physician, in
research and practice.  He was the first to administer chloroform in amputation
north of San Francisco, this being the first time anesthetic was used in
surgery, the operation being performed in 1852.  Dr. Steele not only figured
prominently in professional circles in Oregon City, but also took active part in
public life, serving for 11 years as a member of the city council and for three
years a mayor.

In August 1854 was celebrated the marriage of Dr. Steele and Miss Hannah H.
Blackler.  Her grandfather was a captain in the Revolutionary War and commanded
the flotilla with which Washington crossed the Delaware.  Dr. and Mrs. Steele
became parents of two children but only one Mrs. Russel G. O’Brien, widow of
General O’Brien, is mentioned elsewhere in this work.  (Grandmother of Mrs.
Virginia Aetzel (Truman) Schmidt, Mrs. O’Brien died in 1932.)

For a short time in 1857, Dr. Steele was with General Palmer in the Grand Ronde
Indian reservation and there, as at Oregon City, he had wonderful influence over
the Indians who came to him to settle all their difficulties.  In 1863, when the
troops in Oregon were called east, Dr. Steele was appointed surgeon of Fort
Dalles, when the post hospital was virtually a general hospital.  After three
years service there, his own health becoming impaired, he was transferred to
Fort Stevens, at the mouth of the Columbia River.  In June 1868, he was sent to
Fort Steilacoom, but the fort there was abandoned in 1869, and the troops were
sent to Alaska.  Declining further service in the army, Dr. Steele came to
Olympia, where he spent the rest of his life.

In 1869-1870 when Colonel Sam Ross of the United States Army was Superintendent
of Indian Affairs in Washington territory, Dr. Steele was appointed physician to
the Indians of Nisqually and the Chehalis reservation.  He was, for 15 years,
examining surgeon for pensions for both the Army and Navy, beginning in 1873,
and in 1876 he was appointed by Governor Ferry regent of the Territorial
University, which position he filled for two terms, or until 1880.  He was
likewise for six years medical inspector of the Territorial penitentiary and for
25 years, he was medical examiner for the New York Mutual Life Insurance
Company.  For a considerable period, he served as one of the directors of the
First National Bank of Olympia, continuing in that office from the organization
of the bank until a few years prior to its failure in 1893.  He was one of the
organizers of the first gas and power companies and a stockholder in the
railroad to Tenino (T.M. Reed, President) and also in the Olympia Hotel built by
the citizens to help leap the capital here in Olympia.  He did important work
for the government as a pioneer physician of the northwest and for his fellow
townsmen as well.

He was a man of the highest character, thoroughly reliable, just, considerate
and kindly.  The Indians came to know that they could trust him fully, and he
enjoyed in equal measure the confidence and goodwill of the white men.  He died
in Olympia, June 29, 1902.

The above was published in Volume III of 1917 edition of Washington West of
Cascades, S.J. Clarke Company, Chicago.

The Dr. Steele home exists at its original site, 1010 Franklin, perhaps one of
the oldest houses in Olympia today (1994).



Dr. U.G. Warbass would respectfully announce to the citizens of Olympia and
Washington Territory that he was fitted up a large and commodious building as a
hospital for the convenience of the sick and afflicted, on Third Street, one
door east of the Pacific house.

Having relinquished all business of a public nature, the doctor is determined to
devote his entire ability and energy to the wants and comforts of his patients.
Being a Lycentiate and member of the State Medical Society of New Jersey, and
having had 13 years of an extensive practice (six of which have been devoted
almost exclusively to surgery) he feels satisfied that the wants of the
community are entirely supplied in an operation of a surgerical nature, as well
as medical advice.

Office in the same building of the hospital.  For further information and terms,
address by letter Dr. U.G. Warbass, Olympia, Washington Territory.

From advertisement appearing in Pioneer and Democrat newspaper, July 20, 1860.



My father, Dr. G. W. Ingham was a well-known physician and surgeon in Olympia
from 1891 to 1954.  He was born at the Ingham homestead in Algona, Iowa in 1868
the sixth of eight children.  Dad often told me how he had to use a rope to find
his way to the nearby barn during Iowa blizzards to feed the Ingham horse, “Old
Nell” and chop ice out of the barrel of water so the latter could get a drink.
As a youth, he was an active, muscular boy whose bosom pal was a Sioux Indian
youth.  They both earned pocket money shooting nickels out of the air with their
Sioux Indian arrows (1).

G.W.’s father was retired Civil War captain who started out as a surveyor and
finished life as Kossuth County banker and large Iowa farm owner.  He was the
first settler in Algona after negotiating United States purchase of northern
Iowa lands from the Sioux.  Dr. G.W., as a youth, developed great muscular
strength working on these farms.

After getting his degree in surveying from University of Iowa, Dr. Ingham spent
the hot Iowa summer carrying a heavy transit a mile at a time to establish
section corners.  “There must be a better way to earn a living” entered his mind
and led to his MD degree in medicine from University of Michigan in 1889.  In
the Fall of 1891, he started medical practice in the Chamber’s Building (4th &
Main).  This was just before the depression of 1893, and his many letters to his
father are now on record at Henderson House in Tumwater filled with accurate
history of that era.

During the next 40 years, Dr. Ingham had a very busy medical practice which
included delivering many babies, taking care of St. Peter Hospital’s contracts
for care of injured loggers and serving on many medical activities (2).  His
hobbies included fly fishing (of which he was an expert) with Dr. P.J. Carlyon
on the Deschutes River, duck hunting with his Seattle friends at Nisqually and
McAllister Gun Clubs, and rummy games with his Shelton friends.  The latter
tried to keep his earned fees in town when he joined them at Bill Smith’s saloon
for a friendly game after making a medical call to that area.

Dr. Ingham married Emma Reed in 1895, took post-graduate work in Vienna 1907-08,
and became a pioneer expert in mastoid surgery in Olympia, for which he used
chloroform as anesthetic (3).   In addition to medicine, G.W. became heavily
involved in business which included Fredson Brothers Logging Company (Kamilche),
Olympia Knitting Mills, Reed-Ingham Investment Company with building of Liberty
Theater and Liberty Garage, and founder of Olympia Oyster Investment Company at
Oyster Bay.  The latter consumed much of his interest and time (4).

The severe economic depression of the 30s took its toll on Dr. Ingham’s business
ventures:  Knitting Mills became bankrupt in 1932; logging company closed down;
and oyster business nearly destroyed by pulp mill pollution and importation of
pests (5).

Ill health with multiple surgeries compounded Dr. Ingham’s problems during the
30s, from which he gradually recovered during the 40s and returned to limited
medical practice until his retirement in 1949.  A home fire in 1954 caused his
death on May 21.

The above is just a brief synopsis of the life of George William Ingham, whose
biography together with multiple pictures has been written for his descendant’s



Next to my father, I consider John Wilson Mowell the greatest doctor.  He
attended my mother (home delivery with aid of forceps and chloroform), and dad
carried on the resuscitation – but that’s another subject.

Dr. Mowell was born March 5, 1861 in Shemmokin, Pennsylvania but since his
parents moved to Missouri when he was five, he has been regarded here “J.W. from
Missouri” and lived a life true to that inquisitive “show me” spirit.  He
attended school at Dell until age 17, then taught school for four terms, then
entered normal school at Warrensburg, Missouri for a year.  In 1882, Dr. Mowell
married America Feaster in Lincoln, Missouri on December 26, and moved to St.
Louis where he worked as a shipping clerk for Brownell and Wight Car Company,
and later for Brown Woodworking Company.  In 1885, he entered Missouri Medical
College in that city and graduated with his MD in 1888.  While in school, he had
two sons:  Arthur who died from poliomyelitis at age one and Shelley.  The
marriage soon fell apart thereafter; Shelley stayed with his mother, and later
came to Olympia in 1902 to serve as cashier in C.J. Lord’s Capital National Bank
for many years.

After medical school, J.W. practiced a few months in Warsaw, Missouri, then Lind
Creek, Missouri, then visited awhile in Texas, and came October 7, 1890 to
Tumwater, alone, to live with his maternal aunt and start practice of medicine
here.  He married Ada Albertz Sprague in 1898, built his home on the northeast
corner of Union and Washington in 1907, and in addition to medical practice,
became a leader in the community in many ways: vice president of Olympia
National Bank, member of Olympia Golf and Country Club, Married Folks Dancing
Club and City Council (Knight of Court Honor, 1924).

As a person, John Mowell drove himself and those about him in a likeable but
intense manner.  He made friends easily, being a competent musician with many
instruments and singing a good tenor.  His zeal for care of the injured workman
carried him on a collision course with many doctors who predicted socialized
medicine.  Nevertheless, he was a founder of the first Industrial Insurance
Company in this state.  Mark Reed and his associates saw that a private company
could never secure full participation by all industry for prepaid industrial
insurance, and this led to the Washington State Industrial Insurance in about
1911, with Dr. Mowell as its first medical director.

Meanwhile, with his thirst for knowledge, Dr. Mowell secured a telescope and
became an expert in astronomy; secured a billiard table and became a local
champion in three cushion baul.  (Jerry Kuykendall and I spent many hours
playing billiards on this table, always taking care to have the basement room at
proper temperature to protect the quality of the perfectly matched set of ivory
billiard balls.)  Later, J.W. studied criminology and became so proficient as to
solve a baffling embezzlement problem that occurred in the Industrial Insurance
Department, which led to the TRUE DETECTIVE story recorded by Hollis Fultz.

John was health officer here for several years, and chairman of the Medical
Reserve Board during World War I.  During this period, he contracted pneumonia
requiring surgical drainage of empyema at Camp Lewis.  With his physical
capacity limited, he returned to private practice in 1921 and confined his work
chiefly to eye refraction and supplying of glasses.  Thyroid carcinoma befell
him and his thyroidectomy left him with a permanent tracheostomy, with which he
trained himself to talk again.

Dr. John is remembered as a very kind and gentle person.  The story is oft
repeated, that when he had to leave his home before his wife returned from
Women’s Club, he left a note on the door, “Ada, the key is under the mat.”

As of 1994, the Mowell (6) house is still standing at the northeast corner of
Washington and Union Avenue.

T.R. Ingham, MD
January 22, 1994



The above named is perhaps one of the earliest doctors to practice medicine in
Olympia as noted by the following Columbian newspaper advertisement:



About Fifteen miles below Olympia on
Puget Sound, has opened for the
benefit of the sick and afflicted a
HOSPITAL at his “point” where he will be in
readiness at all times to attend with
counsel and medical assistance all who
may make application.
March 26, 1853,–29ly

Although we know little about this man, that little suggests he was an
interesting individual as noted in the Columbian two months later on May 7,

“A man whom Dr. Johnson once reproved for following a useless and
demoralizing business, said  in excuse: ‘You know Doctor that I must
live!’  The brave old hater of everything mean and hateful coolly replied
that ‘he did not see the least necessity for that.’

“A lady sent for the doctor in great trouble to say she had a frightful
dream and seen her grandmother.
‘What did you eat for supper?  Madam.’
‘Quarter of mince pie, Doctor.’
‘Had you ate two, Madam, you would have seen your grandfather, also.'”

Pioneer Ezra Meeker wrote in his 1905 edition of Pioneer Reminiscences of Puget
Sound [page 43] “At the point a little beyond where we landed we found next
morning J.R. Johnson, MD, with his cabin on the point under the pretentious name
of  JOHNSON’S HOSPITAL, opened as he said for the benefit of the sick, but
which, from what I saw in my later trips think his greatest business was in
disposing of cheap whiskey of which he contributed his share of the patronage.”

Some 90 years after the above when Johnson’s Point ceased to be Poncin’s Joint
(private estate) the area again became location of a doctor, but this time an
excellent one, the late Dr. Ralph Brown.



Dr. Wayne LeSeuer Bridgford was veteran a colorful physician who practiced
medicine in Olympia for nearly 36 years and died at age 59 in his home, Tuesday,
February 22, 1938 some three months before his 60th birthday.

The Bridgeford name was well known in Virginia before the Civil War which
divided many families.  Those members favoring the North retained the name but
those who favored State of Virginia and supported the South dropped the E.  Dr.
Wayne made sure there was not an E in his name Bridgford.

His father crossed this country in a Conestoga wagon on the Oregon Trail to
homestead in the Willamette Valley in what is now Scio on current Highway I-5.
It was there that Wayne was born May 25, 1878.  At Albany College in Oregon he
played football and was a tuba player in its band. After receiving his BA degree
at Albany, (now Lewis and Clark) in 1897 Wayne earned his MD degree at San
Francisco’s Cooper Medical College in 1902.  This school later became Stanford
University’s Medical School.

On July 26, 1902, he married Adalene Chamberlain. During his college days he had
become acquainted with “Addie” who lived in her home town of Albany in her
mother’s boarding house. After spending two more years in medical training in
Portland, Oregon hospitals, he  moved to Olympia.

Initially Dr. Bridgford associated with the well established physician, Dr. N.J.
Redpath, and then set out on his own, taking office on second floor of the
Pacific Building with reception room shared with Dentist Dr. Curtis Egbert. When
the Security Building was completed in the 20’s Doctor Bridgford took an
independent office on the fourth floor, the move being occasioned because of
elevator service.

Like Dr. John Mowell, Dr. Bridgford fitted glasses for many patients with aid of
a box of assorted trial lens.  As the leader inn internal medicine in Olympia,
he later installed in his office the town’s  first large x-ray machine (7) with
its diagnostic table that permitted gastro-intestinal and kidney studies and led
to his great interest in treatment of peptic ulcer.  For this he created special
anti-acid preparations which were prepared by Carlton Sears pharmacy, and far
more pleasant to take than the usual Sippy powders and very popular in this
area.  It became patented as Neutroacid and sold extensively throughout the

The good doctor played a large part in local activities,   He was elected
coroner for Thurston-Mason Counties November 10, 1904 (Morning Olympian),
elected Grand Exalted Ruler of Olympia’s B.P.O. Elks #186 March 8, 1908,  a
“32nd degree Mason.and an important force in the work of this order, being
active in Scottish Rite work as well as the Masonic Blue Lodge.  He was a former
wise master of the lodge of Rose Croix, Scottish Rite body.  He was a Shriner.”
(8) Dr. Bridgford also served on the City Council and as Mayor.

The doctor’s first residence was on north side of 15th Street between Sylvester
and Water  when his first child Waynette Schmidt) was born  At that time
Governor Hayes kept a cow near the nearby Mansion, and it was  killed by Dr.
Bridgford’s pit bull.  In 1920 the family moved to 203 West 17th when State of
Washington constructed the Insurance Building.  His second child, Wayne “Buzzie”
was  born after this move an active musically inclined youth who played drums
professionally and is now deceased  Buzzie apparently inherited his father’s
keen ear and musical talent.  The doctor’s daughter like this author, failed to
have musical expertise.  Both did poorly despite piano teacher Mrs. Helen
Phillips (9) efforts.

This house which started out as a cottage (10) with  received considerable
expansion:  the living room was enlarged, and permitted an open air bedroom
upstairs; later a master bedroom with separate bath and side entrance with small
hall was added to west side of the home.  Between backyard and garage a large
playhouse filled with children’s toys was constructed, but curtains on the
windows were not permitted.  Waynette later learned her father was able to
observe children activities from his bathroom window; he kept a close eye on the

Dr. Bridgford was a strong character about whom there were the usual number of
anecdotes, of which the best known is his confrontation with Mel Morris who ran
a store for lady’s clothing.   Mel sent the doctor a month over-due bill with
the large letter PLEASE written on same; Dr. Bridgford, without bothering to
take off his white office jacket, marched up the block to Mel’s store and handed
him this bill together with Mel’s much larger and longer over-due statement for
medical services rendered by the good doctor; the accounts were settled promptly
and the Doctor returned to his office with additional money in his pocket.

Ill health cause Dr. Bridgford’s retirement from practice in 1936 and he died
peacefully in his home February 22, 1938.  His wife Addie died a few years
later, and his daughter Waynette Schmidt is living today and supplied me with
most of the above information.

T.R. Ingham, MD
January 19, 1994


1  These were made from a straight shaft of hickory without feather tale, with
sharp flint embedded in chestnut for its leading point, extremely accurate in
flight, and with rawhide bow string had sufficient penetration to drop a bison.

2  Head of hospital staff, head of the Thurston-Mason County Medical Society,
World War I Draft Board Medical Examiner, State Board of Medical Examiners, etc.

3  Chloroform was the preferred anesthetic in parts of Europe because of its
freedom from fire, a risk associated with ether in hot climates.

4  More can be found in E.N. Steele’s book, The Rise and Fall of the Olympia
Oyster Industry.

5  “Slipper shells” with importation of eastern oysters and Japanese oyster
drills with import of pacific oyster seed.  These continue to be problems today,
but pulp mill residues essentially gone.

6  It is typical of the many fine homes built in Olympia by Bill Ogle in the
first decade of this century.

7  Drs.G.W. Ingham and H.W. Partlow preceded Dr. Bridgford with x-ray machines,
but they were only good for diagnosis of fractured extremities, bulky and poor
in quality.  St. Peter Hospital installed an x-ray machine similar to
Bridgford’s at his urging, and Dr. Ralph Brown used Bridgeford’s machine for
many years when he took over that Security Building office after Bridgford’s

8  Olympian February 23, 1938

9  Nick-named Mrs. Phitt-lips by her less talented students.

10  This home started out as a small cottage built by Sprague, who later became
Governor of Oregon.


Newell: So Fair a Dwelling Place

Scanned version

“So Fair a Dwelling Place”: A History of Olympia and Thurston County Washington

By Gordon Newell

Olympia: Olympia News Publishing, 1950.

Electronically Transcribed 2001.
By Edward Echtle

Note: transcription retains errors appearing in the original text, and no doubt includes a few
added in the transcription process.  Please check unclear passages against an original copy.




 The sea changes but little and in 1841, as today, the ocean gateways to the Par
West were not always hospitable to the stranger seeking a landfall. The squadron of
Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, acting Commodore, U.S.N., 33 months out of Norfolk by way
of Antarctic, South Pacific and California, lay hove-to off the mouth of the Columbia.

It was April 28, and the bar was breaking. Great seas flung themselves against the
rock bulwark of Cape Disappointment and foamed outward over the unnamed sand-spit at
its base. To the South, seas broke on the sands of Clatsop Spit, and they, too, roared
outward toward the channel. Where they met with the cracking of titanic whips, the bar
itself was a seething maelstrom of churning, sand-filled water.

Lieutenant Wilkes was not a timid man. He it was who, 20 years later, almost
precipitated war between the United States and England when he stopped a British mail
steamer on the high seas and removed from her the Confederate commissioners, Mason
and Slidell.

 But the Great River of the West is treacherous as it meets the sea and not to be
taken lightly at the best of times. The brig Porpoise was standing in dangerously close to
the nameless sands at Disappointment’s foot. Signal flags soared to the Vincennes’ mizzen,
and the little squadron squared away to the north, rolling up the northern coast of the
Oregon Territory.

 Two days later, on May 1, the squadron raised Cape Flattery; the yards were braced
round and the ships swept past the tall rock, Tatoosh. The seamen watched smoke climb
from the Indian villages and the Indians watched the first American government vessels
sail into American waters in the Pacific Northwest.
 Captain George Vancouver had sailed these waters 49 years earlier, in command of
His Majesty’s sloop, Discovery, and the armed tender, Chatham. Off the coast, he had met
the Yankee merchant skipper Robert Gray on the ship Columbia.
 From this meeting, the Discovery and Chatham sailed north to discover and chart
the waters of Puget Sound. The Columbia sailed south to discover and chart the waters of
Grays Harbor and the Columbia.

 For countless centuries the far Northwest had remained a trackless territory. In the space of a few weeks, Vancouver and Gray placed the present coast of Washington in the well-mapped atlas of exact knowledge. 

 Vancouver and Gray, in 1792, were the true pioneers of the far Northwest, but it is
Wilkes the last of the explorers, who has left his mark most deeply on the headlands and
inlets of the upper Sound.

 Vancouver and his lieutenant, Peter Puget, spent but little time in the Discovery’s
launch and yawl south of Vashon’s Island, which Vancouver named for another of his


 Mount Rainier and Discovery Bay, Admiralty Inlet, Hoods Canal, Elliott Bay and
Dungeness they named for British ships and seamen and British villages, but it remained
for Wilkes thoroughly to chart and name the shores and bays of the southern tip of Puget

The geography of these shores is well sprinkled with good American names from
the muster-lists of Wilkes’ ships. Hartstene Island he named for his first lieutenant, H. J.
Hartstene. Henderson, Eld, Totten and Hammersley Inlets bear the names of Wilkes’
officers, as does Budd Inlet, the harbor of Olympia. Beautiful Drayton Passage, off
Anderson Island, was fittingly enough named for Joseph Drayton, the expedition’s artist. A
half hundred or more points and capes, from Olympia to the San Juans, were likewise
named by Wilkes, and most of those names remain to this day.

Two English names were given to islands of the upper Sound by Wilkes, however.
Anderson Island and McNeil Island were named for officers of the Hudson’s Bay
Company, who entertained the Americans at Nisqually and served as pilots aboard the
squadron flagship on the upper Sound.


The Hudson’s Bay men knew the waterways well. As early as 1824 an expedition
left Astoria for the Puget Sound country. Led by James McMillan, it made its way by
canoe and portage from the Columbia River to Grays Harbor. Through a dark and tangled
wilderness, it paddled its way through November rains up the Chehalis River to the Black
River, up the Black River to its headwaters in Black Lake, just west of the present site of
Olympia. From there the men portaged to Eld Inlet and made their way up Puget Sound to
the Fraser River.

Upon their return, the group divided at the Chehalis, one group returning to Astoria
by the route they had come, the other traveling overland to the Cowlitz River near the
present site of Toledo and down that stream to the Columbia. This route became the famed
Cowlitz Trail, over which the first American settlers were later to pour into the Puget
Sound country.

 In the spring of 1833, the company sent Archibald McDonald to establish a trading
post at Nisqually, and when this fortress-store was occupied, the old circuitous route to the
Columbia River by way of Black Lake, the Chehalis River and Grays Harbor fell into
disuse. The Cowlitz Trail was the accepted land entrance to the new frontier.

The Englishmen took leave of Wilkes when he received word of the loss of one of
his sloops which he had dispatched to the Columbia River. It had stranded on those
treacherous sands below Cape Disappointment, and the sands had received a name, along
with the bones, of the U.S.S. Peacock. Peacock Spit has claimed many proud ships in the
100 or more years since then.

Wilkes never returned to Puget Sound. The Hudson’s Bay post at Nisqually was
eight years old when the American squadron arrived. It was to remain for 30 more … until
1870, but it was free of American visitors and competitors for less than five years of that


 In April, 1845, a covered wagon train stopped at Washougal while a baby was born
to Mrs. Michael Simmons … the first white child to be born north of the Columbia. Then
the train pushed on over the Cowlitz Trail to the Falls of the DesChutes, called Tumwater
by the Indians.

Colonel Michael T. Simmons was a Kentucky man who didn’t like to be crowded.
He had a taste for danger and a way with savages.  George Bush was a Negro – a very light
mulatto, but, by the harsh judgement of slave days, a free Negro. He was making the age-
old search of his race for tolerance and a place where he could be a free man… not a free


 James McAllister wanted a lot of land where he could raise big crops and a big
family in peace and security. With them came David Kindred and Gabriel Jones, with their
families, and two single men, Jesse Ferguson and Samuel Crockett.
 Peter Bercier had guided them from the last outpost of American civilization on the
Columbia. They were met on the way by a big Nisqually Indian, whose homely, kind face
smiled a great welcome to his people’s land. The Indian’s name was Leschi, and he gave
more than a welcome to the settlers. He had brought them pack-horse loads of badly
needed supplies.

Colonel Simmons stayed at Tumwater, staked a claim, and named his new town
New Market. He was letting the Hudson’s Bay men know that they had a new market to
contend with. It took a quarter of a century, but the new market finally triumphed over the
old one at Nisqually. This was the first American settlement in what is now Western

Using water power from the falls, he built a saw mill and grist mill – Washington’s
first industries used water power, as do her newest. It was Simmons, too, who founded the
state’s great oyster industry. The hills of Kentucky hadn’t given the Colonel much in the
way of an education and historians have called him illiterate.

He was actually a self-educated man of considerable intelligence. A natural
linguist, he became fluent in the Indian languages and was later of great assistance to
Governor Stevens in dealing with the Puget Sound tribes.


 Michael Simmons was first in many things, but like most of the true pioneers he
reaped little financial reward from the enterprises he started.

 Bush, too, was a man of intelligence and character and had done well in a world
where all the cards were stacked against him. When he unpacked his goods he removed a
false bottom from his wagon. The boards below were neatly covered with silver dollars,
laid edge to edge.

Because the Bush family were officially Negroes, one historian has facetiously, but
falsely, stated that the first white child born in Washington was a Negro.

Bush did not stay at New Market, but settled on a fertile little prairie nearby, which
is still called Bush Prairie. The later settlers had much reason to bless the name of George
Bush. By the fall of 1852, his farm was bursting with acres of wheat, corn, potatoes, beans,
pumpkins and livestock in abundance.

Then came the wagon-trains of that ill-fated year. Cholera had attacked them on the
broiling plains. Starvation had struck in the mountains and many of them had been forced
by hunger to eat the grain meant for seed in the new land. They arrived on Puget Sound in
pitiable condition.

Says Archie Binns, in his beautifully written historical novel of the Puget Sound
country, Mighty Mountain: “Watching those emigrants come in, I saw that flesh is a
luxury. It’s the bones that matter. When flesh gets to be too expensive a luxury, the skull
comes out in the face and takes charge. It’s the skull and some dream burning in it that
keeps the leg bones walking on, and the wrist bones cracking the whip on galled skeletons
of horses and cattle that must not be allowed to lie down because they would never get up

Most of these tattered men had a few dollars to start a new life in a now country,
but they would have given all they had to George Bush for a pittance from his plenty. He
could have made himself a fortune, but instead he gave his fortune away. He gave the
newcomers all they needed to start a new life and didn’t collect a dollar.

Later he almost lost his farm because Negroes weren’t allowed to own land in the
United States. But his neighbors rallied to his defense and carried their protest to the
national capitol, where Congress passed a special act allowing George Bush and his heirs
to hold land forever.


The settler’s good Indian friend, Leschi, sent a dozen of his braves to help harvest
Bush’s life-giving crop before the autumn rains fell, and the brown man and the red
deserve the credit for saving Olympia from death by starvation almost before it was born.
 There is little racial discrimination at the southern tip of Puget Sound. Here men are
not looked upon as less than men because their skins are dark. Here in a country that was
given life by two men whose skins were dark, they never should be.

The James McAllisters settled in the Nisqually Valley, in the midst of Leschi’s
people. Their first home was in two huge hollow cedar stumps until Leschi and his braves
helped them to build a log farm house. Leschi wanted his people to learn the farming
techniques of the Boston men, and McAllister was encouraged to take land among the

McAllister, as a lieutenant of territorial Rangers, was to die at the hands of an
Indian sharpshooter in 1856. The original McAllister homestead included McAllister
Springs, now the source of Olympia’s water supply.



 The present city of Olympia was really born in 1846, but under a temporary and
almost forgotten name. Edmund Sylvester and Levi Lathrop Smith staked a joint claim on
the present site of Washington’s capital city.

Edmund Sylvester was a Maine fisherman who wanted to forget the cold seas and
rocky soil of New England. Smith was an epileptic, cultured, solitary, with a call to the
ministry which had been frustrated by ill health.

Each filed on 320 acres under the homestead law of that time, which provided in its
partnership clause, sole ownership for the survivor in the event of death of either partner.
Sylvester, weary of the sea, settled on an inland section now known as Chambers Prairie.
 Smith chose for his claim the land at the southern tip of Budd’s Inlet, some two
miles north of the already settled town of New Market, or Tumwater.

Although most of the embryo townsite was covered by virgin timber and tangled
underbrush, the sandy point at the north end of Smith’s claim, now the foot of Capitol Way
in Olympia, was the northern tip of a two acre clearing which was above extreme high


A small bay, extensive at high tide, bounded the claim on the northeast and when
the tide was up, the bare land somewhat resembled the silhouette of a bear. The area was
called “Cheet-woot,” which in the Nisqually tongue, means “bear”. Here in the winter
months, the Suquamish and Duwamish tribes of Indians under Chief Sealth, or as the white
men called him, Seattle, were accustomed to camp for the rainy season.

The first building of the new city was built in this area – a log cabin about sixteen
feet square. It stood adjacent to and west of a point midway between the present State and
Olympia Avenues, and since the town had not yet been laid out, part of the cabin stood on
what is now Capitol Way.

 The tragic figure of Smith was soon to depart from the rude stage of pioneer
Olympia, or Smithfield, as he called his claim. He did not live to see any of the beginnings
beyond the first rude cabin.

At this time, Smithfield was in Lewis County, Oregon Territory, and at the first
county elections in 1848, Smith was elected representative to the Oregon Provisional
Legislature. He did not live to take office. As he was traveling to New Market by canoe, he
was gripped by an epileptic attack, fell into the Sound and was drowned. His was the first
American death in the Puget Sound country.

The life of Olympia’s co-founder was not a happy one. Sheets of a diary left by
Smith show that his fatal disease had long preyed upon his mind. He had renounced a half-
caste Catholic sweetheart in the east to become a Presbyterian minister, but his malady
made it impossible for him to continue his theological studies.

His life of aching loneliness in a wild, new land made him pitifully dependent upon
the hearty good cheer of his partner, Sylvester, the bluff New England sailor. It is part of
the dark tragedy of Levi Lathrop Smith that he did not live to glimpse even a hint of the
beautiful city which was to grow from his rough shack between the empty bay and the
primeval forests.

After Smith’s death, Sylvester gave up his Chambers Prairie claim and became the
permanent occupant of his dead partner’s claim.

The Washington Standard, published at Olympia, in 1867, reproduced an inventory
of Smith’s former holdings, made by Sylvester on a torn leaf from a ship’s log book. Editor
John Miller Murphy wrote:

“The following copy of an original document is pleasant as well as a curious reminiscence of those primitive times. The contrast between that cabin and its simple furniture and the present mansion (Sylvester’s) is not only marked, but affords a fair comparison between Olympia of 1848 and Olympia of 1867. It also serves to remind us how


the pioneers of the American settlements were obliged to live, and while they so willingly
submitted to privation in their great mission of making homes for American men and
women, yet they found time for jest in the very poverty that surrounded them, satisfied
because they had abundance to supply their passing wants.”

Smith Field
July 25, 1848.
 ” ‘N. B. New Market Precinct, Lewis County, on the shore of Puget’s Sound,
Simmon’s Inlet, one mile below the falls on the La Shutes River.
 ” ‘In it you will find one house built of split cedar with a stone fireplace and a stick
chimney. It is covered with four foot shingles, put on with weight poles. It has three lights
and one door, with a rough puncheon floor, made of split cedar, with a closet and a bed
room made of the same materials.
 ” ‘The furniture consists of two tables, one bedstead which is made by boring holes
in the side of the house and driving in sticks; three benches and two stools. The cooking
utensils consist of one frying pan and tin kettles, one 12-quart and one 6-quart and one 3-
quart, for boiling and one tea-kettle. The closet contains one tin pan, three tin cups, three
tin plates, three knives and forks, two half-pint kettles, one basin and one trencher.
 ” ‘The enclosure two acres of land, with one and a half under cultivation with corn,
beans, pumpkins, squashes, potatoes, peas, cabbage, melons, cucumbers, beets, parsnips,
carrots, onions, tomatoes, radishes, lettuce, parsley, sweet fennel, peppergrass, summer
savory and sunflowers.
” ‘The out house, one hog house and one hen house, with five hogs three pigs,
seven hens, and a cock, cat and dog, one yoke of oxen and two horses.
” ‘ Signed
” ‘Edmund Sylvester.
” ‘Attest:
Michael T. Simmons
Samuel B. Crockett
Daniel D. Kinsey.'”

 Such then, was Smithfield, or Smithter, in the year 1848. Destined to become the
capital city of a great state yet to be born, the table service for three in its one rude
dwelling was more than enough to serve its entire population.

It was not an impressive beginning, but 1847 and 1848 were years of destiny for
the city of the future. A trail was cleared between Smithfield and New Market in the late
summer of 1847, and the seeds of a complex transportation network were planted.


 By 1848, the population of the Smithfield-Newmarket area had increased. Early in
1847, a party consisting of Mr. Davis and family, Samuel Cool, A. J. Moore, Benjamin
Gordon, Thomas W. Glasgow, Samuel Hancock and Leander C. Wallace arrived at New

Later that year, Elisha and William Packwood arrived with their families, followed
by J. B. Logan, A. D. Carnefix and Frank Shaw.

Thomas Chambers and his sons, David, Andrew, Thomas J. and McLain, with
George Shazer and a Mr. Brail arrived during the winter.


 In 1848, too, the area became an educational center with the arrival of Father Pascal
Ricard and a little band of Oblat missionaries. The gentle fathers found a cathedral waiting
for them.

 On a long-ago June day, they stood on a jutting headland of the Sound and saw the
benediction of slanted sunlight streaming through the hushed nave of ancient fir trees, and
they knew that this was the place where they would bring the red men to a knowledge of
the white man’s God.

More than a century has fled since then and the good fathers are long gone to their
reward. The few descendants of their Indian friends live on a somber island reservation
down the Sound, and the only living memory of Father Ricard and his mission is the name
of the beautiful headland where he lived and worked – Priest’s Point.

After the Indian wars of the ’50s, the Squaxin tribe was moved to its reservation on
Squaxin Island, and the mission declined. Father Ricard left soon after to found other
frontier missions. With its passing, the first spark of Old World culture to reach Puget
Sound was extinguished.

 Priest Point is now an Olympia city park. Almost as hushed and lovely as it was
when the Mission of St. Joseph of New Market was founded there, it is rich in historic

To the imaginative visitor, there on a quiet day may come, as he strolls through
dark forests above the quiet ebb of Puget Sound, an echo soft as memory down the corridor
of years, echo of the chant of priest and mission Indian, and he may be reminded of the
ringing, tragic words of Old Seattle:

“And when the last red man shall have perished, and the memory of my tribe shall
have become a myth among the white man, these shores will swarm with the invisible dead
of my tribe, and when your children’s children think themselves alone in the field, the
store, upon


the highway, or in the silence of the pathless woods, they will not be alone. In all the earth
there is no place dedicated to solitude. At night when the streets of your cities and villages
are silent and you think them deserted, they will throng with the returning hosts that once
filled them and still love this beautiful land. The white man will never be alone. “

Some of the quaint old 16th century French text books used by the priests of
Priest’s Point are now kept at the State Library in Olympia.


The formal Territorial Government of Oregon was established on August 14, 1848.
It included all the Pacific possessions of the United States north of the 32nd parallel. The
Olympia of today was still officially known as Smithfield, Lewis County, Oregon.

The year 1849 was a dark one for the Puget Sound country as the bright flame of
California gold eclipsed the northern coast. Crops were left to rot and half-built cabins
were deserted, as all but a few devoted souls stampeded for the California gold fields.

With most of the able-bodied white men gone, Patkanim, chief of the Snoqualmie,
called together a great council of the Puget Sound Indians. Patkanim urged the canoe
Indians to join with the horse Indians from east of the great mountains, to drive the whites
from the land.

“Soon,” he said, “the white men will outnumber the Indians, and then we shall be
driven to a land where the sun never shines, and there we shall be left to sicken and die.”

The Puget Sound tribes refused to join with Patkanim in his proposed massacre.
The Hudson Bay men at Fort Nisqually had long treated the Indians kindly and fairly.
When the first Americans at Tumwater Falls felt the autumn chill of 1846, they delegated
Colonel Simmons and Jim McAllister to call upon Dr. Tolmie, the chief factor at Fort
Nisqually, for help.

Although it was contrary to the interests of the Hudson’s Bay Company and the
British government to encourage American settlers in this disputed territory, the kindly
factor agreed to furnish clothing, food and blankets to the people of New Market, and to
buy shingles from them. In return he demanded that they observe the company’s policy of
dealing with the Indians and to help in protecting the gentle Puget Sound Indians from the
brutal raids of the war-like Haidahs of British Columbia, who swept down periodically in
their 70-foot ocean- going war canoes to murder, pillage and take slaves and women.


The first American settlers observed this code scrupulously, and as a result the
Nisquallys, Squaxons [Squaxin] and other tribes of the upper Sound, looked upon the
white men as friends and protectors. Had later settlers been as wise, the Puget Sound
country might have gone down in history as the only section of America where red men
and white worked out their destiny without murder, bitterness or tragedy.

A war party of Patkanim’s braves did attack Fort Nisqually in 1849, and a white
man, Leander C. Wallace, was killed. Later Patkanim was bribed with 80 blankets to
deliver up six of the supposed murderers for trial and as a result of this sordid episode,
which reflects credit on neither Indians nor whites, two of the six Indians were found
guilty and hanged.

While this was transpiring, Leschi, son-in-law of the Chief of the Nisquallys, was
learning agriculture from his friend, Jim McAllister, and as the most influential of the
upper Sound Indians, he was building a firm foundation of peace and good will between
his people and the Americans.

So it was that the tiny settlements of Puget Sound escaped annihilation at the hands
of the Indians while their men were away in the gold rush of ’49.


 The treasure hunters began to drift back in a year or so. Some were broke, just as
they were when they started. Some, like Sylvester, brought back pokes of dust to buy land
and goods and ships to found new, solid fortunes in the northwest. Some brought new
settlers with them.

The year 1850 was another year of great beginnings. In the spring the Smith claim
was dedicated as a town. Edmund Sylvester still owned the whole town, and he decided to
launch it with a new name – Olympia.

The name Olympia appears to have been suggested by Colonel I. N. Ebey, who
joined the gold rush and was fairly successful, returning north in 1850 and settling on a
valuable claim on Whidby Island.

The Colonel was down for the dedication ceremony and added his oratory to the
occasion. He composed these lines for the little assemblage gathered at the city’s birth, and
they have become a part of the capital’s history:


“Afar their crystal summits rise
Like gems against the sunset skies,
While far below, the shadowy mist
In waves of pearl and amethyst,
‘Round somber fir and stately pine,
Its dewy, jeweled fingers twine;
Olympia’s gods might view with grace,
Nor scorn so fair a dwelling place.”

Historians disagree as to who should receive credit for suggesting the very fitting
name, Olympia, for Washington’s capital city. Some claim that it was actually the
suggestion of Charles Harte Smith, who was a partner of Simmons in an early Olympia
store located at First and Main.

Hubert Howe Bancroft quotes Elwood Evans (Washington’s first historian and
pioneer Olympian), backed by Sylvester, as crediting Ebey with the name. In later years,
Evans credited Smith. Still later, in a booklet edited by Evans for the State World’s Fair
Commission of 1893, Hugh Goldsborough is listed as suggesting the name.
 In this regard, it is interesting to note that the only two books mentioned in Ebey’s
journal are the Bible and a Life of Olympia Fluvius Morata (an Italian scholar of the 16th
century). This, coupled with the foregoing poem, indicate that the name Olympia was in
the Colonel’s mind at the time, and it is likely that the credit should go to him.

Colonel Ebey’s subsequent life was quite a saga in itself. In 1853 he was appointed
a Collector of Customs. He was a doughty champion of the rights of the American settlers
in conflicts with the British colonial government at Vancouver, and was the first to explore
inland in what is now King County.


In 1857 a band of raiding Northern Indians of the Haidah tribe fell into battle with
the U.S. Government steamers, Massachusetts and Traveler, and were given a sound
drubbing, losing 27 killed and 21 wounded. Instead of teaching the savages a lesson, it left
them burning for revenge, and they made a sneak attack on Ebey’s isolated homestead. His
official position and great popularity made him a white chief “Boston Tyee” – in their

Shortly after midnight, the Colonel’s dogs gave the alarm and he stepped to the
door to investigate the disturbance. Two shots flashed in the dark, wounding him. Two
more dropped him to the ground and as he fell, the Indians sprang upon him and
decapitated him.

Ebey’s wife and three children escaped to spread the alarm and the neighbors
gathered for defense, but in the morning it was found that the Haidahs had gone as silently
as they had come. Haidah revenge was complete with the death of the man who took a
lovely name from Greek mythology and gave it to Washington’s capital city.


 Olympia’s water-borne commerce began in 1850 when, on New Year’s Day, the
brig Orbit arrived in the harbor from California where she had been purchased by
Sylvester, Ebey and other Olympians with California gold.
 Olympia was the Orbit’s home port, and she was the first sea-going ship owned on
Puget Sound. On her first voyage, she loaded a cargo of piling for San Francisco. This
development was of interest to the federal government as well as the settlers of Olympia
and New Market, and, the following year, a customs house was established at Olympia.
 A customs house employee has left a journal which contains a vivid description of
the city at about the time of its first birthday in 1851:

 ” ‘The place is situated near the head of Budd’s Wet, on a low flat, and the tide
rushes in and falls nearly 24 feet. On the margin of the sound, clams and mussels abound
and ducks of diverse varieties are most numerous. The largest house by far in the place is
now occupied by the Customs House. It is a large two-story house, not far from the
extreme northermost point, and on paper is designed as being near First and Main streets,
though the streets, to a great extent, exist in the imagination.


 ” ‘It belongs to Colonel Simmons, the American settler on the Sound, who has a
little room parcelled off for a store, though the stock is slim, and a still smaller apartment
dedicated as a post office. As the Colonel repudiates being “book larnt”, the post office
runs itself, or rather some half a dozen or more, having been sworn in as deputies, help
themselves and the few who come to inquire for letters. The upper story has been fitted for
a customs house and residence for which Col. Simmons receives the snug little rent of $50
per month.
 ” ‘There are about a dozen one-story cabins of primitive architecture covered with
split cedar siding, well-ventilated but healthy. They answer the purpose well, for the
winters are mild though moist. Snow and ice are comparatively unknown, but it rains on
short notice and without difficulty. There are some 20 or more Indian huts at a short
distance from the Customs House.
 ” ‘The Indians are of the D’Wamish tribe, a filthy, fish-eating flat-headed lot, who
live without much effort and are content with such clothing and conveniences as they can
purchase or obtain with the little they earn by occasional labor for the whites and the trifle
they receive for fish, ducks, venison, oysters, berries, etc.
 ” ‘Old Seattle is their Chief, a venerable looking old personage who, by his stately
walk and dignified carriage, would remind you of Col. Benton. He is friendly to the whites,
claims to remember the voyage of the renowned Vancouver, and while he considers it
beneath his dignity to use the jargon of the country, he will show you by friendly shake of
the hand and a grunt that he expects to be noticed by the newcomer.
 ” ‘The hospitable people consist of immigrants from Missouri and Illinois, and a
goodly sprinkling from the state of Maine. Col. Isaac N. Ebey is perhaps the most
influential of the citizens, but Goldsborough, Simmons, Poe and the Custom House
officials are worthy of mention. Edmund Sylvester, the town proprietor and native of
Maine, has recently built a dwelling. Beside it stands the old log cabin – the first house
built on the townsite. Dr. Lansdale has a little shanty east of it on a back street where he
dispenses calomel and occasionally justice, for the worthy doctor has been selected by his
fellow citizens as justice of the peace.
 ” ‘I recently witnessed a trial before him in which Captain Crosby and Colonel
Michael T. Simmons were parties, growing out of a question of title to and possession of
the Tumwater claim. It originally was taken by Simmons in 1845, but purchased by Crosby
in 1849. J. B. Chapman, Esq., of Steilacoom, was attorney for Crosby, Col. Simmons being
represented by Daniel R. Bigelow, Esq., of Massachusetts, who crossed the plains this last
season and arrived in Olympia in the Schooner Exact from Portland on a voyage to Queen
Charlotte’s Island, where gold is supposed to exist in large quantities.


 ” ‘Mr. Bigelow is a retiring, modest man, but seems to understand his profession
well enough, and though his old and unscrupulous antagonist attempted to badger and
bully him, yet he held his own with imperturbable good temper. Bigelow had grammar and
good English on his side, anyway.
 ” ‘Quincy A. Brooks, Esq., now employed in the Customs House, is another
attorney just arrived. He has on several occasions helped us while away these dreadfully
long nights of this northern latitude, by his admirable playing on the violin of which he is a
master. It really seems to me that should he fail to convince a jury by his oratory, he might
by leave of the court, prove irresistible with his fiddle. Dr. D. S. Maynard, hailing from
Ohio, like his brother Lansdale, with the melancholy experience that there is no demand
for pills, has taken to store keeping about 100 yards south of the Customs House. He offers
great inducements to his very limited supply of purchasers.’ “

 Smith’s cabin had expanded into a crude hotel and store, but only the barest
essentials were to be bought in Olympia until 1852, when George Barnes opened a general
merchandise store at the west end of First Street. This opened a new era, with such luxuries
as soap, sperm candles, hoop skirts and patent medicines added to the pioneer necessities
of axes, powder, shot, whiskey and smoked fish.
 Before long, business houses were opened by A. J. Moses, J. G. Parker, Sam
Coulter, L. Bettman, Goldman and Rosenblatt, and Louison and Company.
 Another ship sailed out of Olympia harbor in 1851 when a schooner was chartered
by Samuel Williams, J. Colvig, William Billings, S. D. Howe, Charles Weed, S. S. Ford
and three Sargent brothers to explore the new-found gold fields on Queen Charlotte’s
 The schooner was wrecked on the east side of the island and the fierce Haidahs
stripped the ship, capturing the hopeful Olympians. After two months of captivity, they
were released by a revenue cutter and troops from Fort Steilacoom.
 The year 1852 found the little settlement fairly prosperous and its citizens with high
hopes for the future. Coal had been discovered nearby, several saw mills had been
established and these pioneer industries were the nucleus of a growing trade with booming
California. They felt, however, that their interests were jeopardized by their political
 The Sound country was then the northern part of the Territory of Oregon. Many of
the towns and settlements were 500 wilderness-miles from the seat of government, and the
settlers weren’t getting much attention or consideration from the Territorial Legislature. All
the territory north of Cowlitz County was a part of Lewis County and it contained
somewhat more than 300 white inhabitants.


 Pacific County was created in 1851, and, in 1852, another new county was
approved to include the land west of the Cascade Mountains and north of the Cowlitz
divide. The new county was named Thurston in honor of Oregon Territory’s delegate to
Congress, Samuel R. Thurston, who was pledged to defend the territorial rights of the
northern section against the claims of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
 Thurston had died at sea while returning home from the national capitol in 1851
and was buried at Acapulco. Years later his body was brought home and now lies in
Salem, Oregon, marked with a stone bearing this inscription:

 “Here rests Oregon’s delegate, a man of genius and learning, a lawyer and
statesman, his Christian virtues equalled by his wide philanthropy. His public acts were his
best eulogium.”

 With a new county on the map, an election was in order, so in June, 1852, the
citizens went to the polls and elected A. J. Simmons as Thurston County’s first sheriff; A.
M. Poe, county clerk; D. R. Bigelow treasurer; R. S. Bailey, assessor, and Edmund
Sylvester, coroner. A. A. Denny, S. S. Ford and David Shelton were the first Thurston
County commissioners.
 The records of the first session of the county commissioners show the following
business transacted:
 The tax levy was fixed at 4 mills for county purposes, 11/2 mills for schools, 11/2
mills territorial, and $1 poll tax.
 T. F. McElroy and George Barnes were appointed justices of the peace.
 Road districts were established and William Packwood was authorized to establish
a ferry across the Nisqually River.
 Precincts were established as follows: Skagit precinct, Whidby Island and all
islands north; Port Townsend precinct, territory north of Hood’s Canal on the west side of
the Sound; Duwamish (or Duwamps) precinct, east side of Sound north of Puyallup River
and all south of Hood’s Canal to the parallel of the north parallel of the Puyallup River on
the west side of the Sound; Steilacoom precinct, territory north of the Nisqually River to
the Puyallup River on the east side of the Sound and thence due west to the mouth of the
Nisqually River to the parallel of the mouth of the Puyallup River; Olympia precinct
included all territory south of Steilacoom precinct.
 Olympia precinct had two school districts, with one each in Duwamish, Skagit and
Port Townsend precincts. The first term of district court was convened at Olympia in 1852
and Elwood Evans, D. R. Bigelow, Quincy A. Brooks, and S. H. Moses were admitted to
practice law.



 This was truly a year of progress for Olympia and Thurston County, and not least
of the developments was the founding of the first newspaper in what is now the state of
Washington. Publishers Thornton F. McElroy and J. W. Wiley issued Volume 1, Number
1, of the weekly Columbian on September 11, 1852.
 The new paper vigorously advocated a new territory to be formed of the area north
of the Columbia. The editors chose their stand well, for their subscribers were all heartily
in favor of the idea.
 Continued agitation along this line resulted in the historic Monticello Convention
on the banks of the Cowlitz River on November 25, 1852. Thurston County’s delegates
were M. T. Simmons, S. D. Ruddle, S. P. Moses, Adam Whyte, Q. A. Brooks and C. H.
 As a result of the convention, Congress was memorialized to create the Territory of
Columbia out of that portion or Oregon lying north and west of the Columbia River. There
was no opposition from the other citizens of Oregon, and the new territory was created the
following year.
 Congress didn’t go along with the citizens in their choice of a name, however.
Richard H. Stanton of Kentucky suggested that a District of Columbia and a Territory of
Columbia would be confusing. He wanted to honor the Father of His Country – and the
Territory of Washington was the result.

 Olympia’s first public school was built at the corner of Sixth and Franklin, on the
present site of the building which houses the Olympia News 52, in the spring of 1852, but
the heavy snow of that winter caused it to collapse. It was soon replaced by a sturdier
 In February of that year, four men named Bell, Boren, David and Arthur Denny set
up claims in the wilderness on the east side of Elliott Bay. This hopeful young town, with a
population of four, was soon to be named after the friendly Duwamish Chief, Seattle.
Olympia was a lusty two-year-old, the metropolis of a new territory, and there was little
time, with all the new developments, to take note of the birth of another tiny settlement
along the great tidal forests.



 When the schooner Mary Lane dropped anchor in Olympia Harbor and the weekly
Columbian’s little Ramage hand press was hoisted from her hold, the printed word had
come to the new frontier to stay. The newspaper had come to the Northwest and the slow
stamping of the little Ramage was to swell into the clatter of a great network of news wires
and the thunder of the mighty power presses that now pour out more than 300 newspapers,
large and small, in 167 Washington cities and towns.
 Most important of all, to the historian, the coming of the press meant the coming of
detailed history, for from 1852 to the present day, the yellowed files of the Columbian and
the newspapers which followed it provide a detailed, day-by-day chronology of the great
and small events of a growing empire.
 The Columbian’s crude hand press had more than its share of glory. It was already
nearly a quarter of a century old when it arrived in Olympia, having been shipped around
the Horn from New York to Mexico City. By 1834, it was in Monterey, California, where
the Spanish governor used it to print the Alta California, the first newspaper on the Pacific
Coast. In 1836, it was in Upper California, stamping out San Francisco’s first newspaper,
the Star. Later it was moved north to print the famous Old Oregon Spectator, which was
Oregon’s first paper, later becoming the Portland Oregonian.


 In her long career, the little Ramage changed her language and her politics more
than once, but she was consistent in following the first waves of the pioneers and bringing
the printed word to the outposts of civilization. When her work at Olympia was done, she
served in Seattle, Steilacoom, Whatcom and Port Townsend, and is now at well earned rest
in the University of Washington Museum.
 The first issue of the Columbian carried considerable advertising. Edmund
Sylvester, father of Olympia and proprietor of the first “hall for travelers,” the Olympia
House, corner of Second and Main (now Olympia Avenue and Capitol Way), advertised
“an accomplished Chinese cook who comes highly recommended by the American Consul
at Canton” and also “commodious rooms without bath for those who furnish their own
 Michael Simmons, father of Washington industry, placed the first “help wanted”
advertisement, a call for “40 to 50 axmen and 8 sawyers to attend a shingle mill.”

 Publisher McElroy wrote back to his bride in Pittsfield, Illinois, on August 10,
1852, describing his trip by steamer, horseback and canoe to Olympia:
 “I left Portland on Monday the 3rd inst., and after a pleasant passage of about four
hours down the Columbia on the steamer Lot Whitcomb (the first Columbia River
steamboat), arrived at the mouth of the Cowlitz River. Here I left the steamer to go up the
Cowlitz River. I embarked in a canoe with two Indians on Tuesday morning for
Warbassport, a trading post at the head of canoe navigation on this river. The ascent is very
slow on ‘account of the many rapids. Despite the rapid current, we reached the forks of the
river, 18 miles from the mouth, before night. Next day at about 9 o’clock arrived at
 “From this place to Olympia, the conveyance is on horse back. I procured a horse
and rode 30 miles before night, over a fine farming and grazing country, very sparsely
settled. On my way, I met a gentleman and a lady on horseback. The lady was riding
astride and seemed to be as expert in managing her horse as her husband. I hear that all the
ladies in this part of Oregon have adopted this mode of riding. They follow the example of
the Indian women in this respect. The next day I arrived at Olympia.”
 McElroy and Wiley set up their crude press and took turns as editor, business
manager, circulation man and printer’s devil. By the following year, young McElroy was
beginning to feel the separation from his bride more and more, and on September 4, 1853,


 “Well, the first year of the Columbian has about closed. I am completely worn out
by constant attention to business. Many times I wish I had never left you and home. I am
glad you are willing to follow my fortunes wherever. I may go, and I do not doubt that you
would be perfectly happy with me here.”
 That month, the paper was sold to Matt Smith, who published it only a few months
when he sold it to Wiley. The single owner changed the name to the Washington Pioneer
and the paper’s politics from Whig (Republican) to Democratic.
 By 1853, the trickle of emigration had become a steady stream. In three years,
Olympia had sprung from a hopeful dream to a growing reality of a score or more of cedar-
shingled houses and two or three muddy streets. True, Main Street was lined with massive
stumps, the primal forest still pressed darkly upon the settler’s cabins and the Indians still
camped along the shore, but the solid kernel of a city was there.


 Lumber was in great demand as the town grew, and another mill was built to
harness the pulsing water of the falls at New Market. Ira Ward, N. Barnes and S. Hays
were the owners and the mill delivered 3,000 feet of lumber a day. Colonel Simmons no
longer owned the original mill at Tumwater. The Kentucky lumberman sold his mill to a
New England sailor and used the proceeds to buy the brig Orbit. The sailor-turned-
lumberman prospered. The lumberman-turned-sailor didn’t do so well.
 The Wiscatt, Maine, Crosbys owned The Mill now, and their story is one to be
remembered. Captain Nathaniel Crosby was the first of the clan to see the Sound country.
The United States government sent him out in command of the brig O. C. Raymond with
supplies for the first settlers on the Sound, who were seldom far from starvation in the
earliest days. Captain Nat liked the new frontier and he believed in direct action. He sent
word to his elder brother, Clanrick, back in Maine, to buy a ship and bring the family out.
 Clanrick bought the 270-ton brig Grecian, loaded her with the household
furnishings of the Crosbys, manned her with a crew of Crosbys and their kinfolk, and took
her around the Horn to Portland. That voyage brought famous pioneers to New Market,
whence they overflowed to Olympia.
 But people have to be careful about tracing their ancestry to the Grecian. Of the
whole ship’s company, passengers, officers and crew, all but four were members of the
Crosby family, and one of the non-Crosbys was the colored cook.


 A California vocalist, one Bing Crosby, is one who can legitimately claim descent
from the afterguard of the Grecian. The old Crosby House still stands at Tumwater and,
unlike most historic old land. marks in the Olympia area, is to be preserved as an historical


 Olympia now had industries to compete with the water-powered mills at Tumwater
Falls. In July of 1853, D. C. Beatty opened a furniture manufacturing shop, a brick yard
had been opened in May by Conrad Snyder, and a bed of small native oysters had been
discovered at South Bay and was being exploited.


 Large shipments of coal were being hauled from the Skookumchuck coal fields for
shipment to California, and little brigs and schooners, the James Marshall, Orbit, G. W.
Kendall, June, Kingsbury and the bark Sarah Warren were calling at Olympia for cargoes
of shingles, timber, pilings and coal for San Francisco.
 On January 8, 1853, the Sarah Warren dropped anchor with $15,000 worth of
merchandise for Olympia stores. She left two passengers, Captain and Mrs. S. W. Percival.
They were destined to live out their lives in Olympia and to leave their mark on the
community. The name is still well-known in and around the capital city.

 Captain Percival soon built and operated a saw mill at the mouth of what is now
Capitol Lake. He also built a dock for the accommodation of the first steamers running at
Olympia, and Percival’s Dock at the foot of Water Street was a center of community life
for more than half a century.
 Most of the famous old Puget Sound steamers rubbed their trim flanks against its
pilings in their day, and it is still used by unglamorous but efficient diesel freighters of the
Puget Sound Freight Lines. Percival also conducted one of the town’s leading mercantile
establishments at the corner of Main and Second Streets until 1876. Captain Percival’s son,
Samuel, operated the dock and steamship ticket office until shortly before the second
World War.


 The census of that year showed Thurston County with a population of 996, Pierce
513, the Territory 3,965.
 J. R. Johnson, M D., announced the opening of a hospital on his claim at Johnson’s
Point at the head of South Bay. The doctor was the first settler at South Bay and the name
of his point is famous in upper Sound steamboat lore. Like “old Bachus,” the naval surgeon
of H. M. & Bounty, Dr. Johnson’s favorite, and at times, only, medicine was a high-test
whiskey, for which his “hospital” was noted.


 All this the settlers noted with considerable satisfaction, but the really big news of
the year was the arrival of the territory’s first governor. Isaac Ingalls Stevens arrived at
Olympia on November 26, 1853. On November 28th, he proclaimed Olympia the Capital
of Washington Territory.
 The figure of Isaac Stevens, first governor of Washington, is a controversial one to
this day. Some historians paint him as a knight in shining armor, the champion of the new
frontier, a statesman without flaw or blemish.
 Others portray him as a hard-drinking, autocratic martinet, who brought the tragedy
of an unnecessary Indian war upon the territory.
 The truth probably lies somewhere between the two extremes. Here the facts shall
speak for themselves and the reader may form his own opinion.


 The arrival of Governor Stevens marked the first step in Olympia’s governmental
growth to become one of the nation’s most beautiful capital cities. Only eight months had
passed since the northwest pioneers had received separate recognition from Oregon.
 The weekly Columbian, now named the Washington Pioneer, which had done a lot
of heavy editorializing to help bring this about, was still happy about the achievement of
separate territorial status for Washington. Said the editor, “The recent enactment of the law
to establish a territory… has give a gallant, dashing, sparkling and ponderous momentum to
the march and swagger of progress. During our poor dependence upon the cold charity of
Oregon, we must as weak and puny infants, creep. But now… no longer in the hands of go-
betweens, we have become a people within ourselves. Progress is our watchword. Our
destiny is in the keeping of God, the national government and our own judgement.”
 The Pioneer did not fail to keep its readers posted on the matter of a governor for
the new territory. “Just as we are going to press, a gentleman who came passenger on the
steamer Columbia informs us that a Mr. Stevens of Massachusetts has been appointed
governor of Washington Territory.”
 By the following week, Olympia had learned this stranger from the States was
Brevet-Major Isaac I. Stevens, U. S. Engineers, and a month later the Pioneer’s editor had
received vastly cheering and important news by post from the governor himself. He passed
Steven’s message on to his readers.
 “I herewith enclose to you,” Stevens had written, “my private instructions from the
War Department regarding an exploration and survey of a railroad from the headwaters of
the upper Mississippi river to Puget Sound.”
 The governor assured that “While I am delayed by the charge of this work, there
will be no delay in the organization of the government as Col. Anderson, the marshal, will
at once take the census preliminary to a proclamation ordering an election of a Territorial
Legislature. . .”
 The citizens were greatly cheered as the published letter continued, “Twenty
thousand dollars have been appropriated and placed in my hands to construct a military
road from Fort Walla Walla to the Sound, early enough for this year’s immigration.”

 This was of particular importance to the Olympia area as more and more settlers
were reaching the area by way of Natchez Pass – an arduous and terribly dangerous route.
A wagon road to Eastern Washington would bring a golden harvest of wealth and new


 The governor’s dispatch continued, “I do feel no doubt but that I shall succeed this
year in piercing the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Ranges and in opening a direct
communication between the Mississippi and the Sound on the Pacific. As I must devote
myself thoroughly to the interests of the Territory, I shall consult freely and be advised by
my fellow citizens. I remain, Isaac I. Stevens.”
 Although the eager readers of the Washington Pioneer probably didn’t note it, the
governor’s letter gave an indication of what was to prove probably his greatest weakness.
Governor Stevens, to use an old American expression, had a tendency to “bite off more
than he could chew.”
 He had no apparent doubts as to his ability to survey a transcontinental railway,
build a trans-territorial highway, settle the Indian and Hudson’s Bay Company problems,
and establish a territorial government, all more or less at once. No man, however brilliant –
and Isaac Stevens was brilliant – could do all these things and do all of them well. His
greatest failure was to be in the field of Indian affairs, and it was to prove a tragic failure.
 But to the eager settlers, awaiting the coming of their new leader, no such doubts
obtruded. True, there was much to be done when the governmental wheels of the new
territory would finally be set into motion.
 The eastern Washington Indians were openly hostile. The Sound Indians, once
docile and friendly as children, were becoming sullen as they saw their tribal lands taken
over by new settlers, many of whom refused to follow the old code of fair play,
considering the Indians on a par with wild beasts which should be exterminated as soon as
Other troublesome problems pressed close upon the people as Hudson’s Bay Company
traps bit deep into the territory’s choicest sections, and British aggression was asserting
extensive rights.

 But a railroad route was being explored! A railroad that would some day creep
across a continent, a slender thread of iron linking fast two shores across a nation’s future!
The territory tempered its impatience and waited.
 Then.. . “Glorious news for Washington! Arrival of Governor Stevens! Complete
success of the Expedition! Entire practicability of the Northern Pacific Route,” the Pioneer
shouted, breathless, to its readers.
 Then, more coherently, “Governor Stevens arrived at this place on Saturday last,
November 25, 1853, through a drenching rain, having completed one of the most arduous
and triumphantly successful explorations ever performed since the organization of the
federal government.


 “Six months devoted to incessant toil, danger and the overcoming of insuperable
obstacles, has brought to our new territory a governor, and with him, as we believe, the
ground work of the Pacific railway… A new Territory, set apart and organized in one year,
and a favorable report for a railway from the Atlantic states to the Sound! Who can
anticipate our future Territory!”
 In spite of the advance notice, the governor’s arrival took the villagers by surprise.
They were preparing a big reception for him at the Washington Hotel at Second and Main,
once Sylvester’s Olympia House, now operated by a Mr. Stanley. When a swarthy, black-
bearded little stranger in shabby frontier garb dismounted stiffly from his horse in the chill
November rain, the citizens were too busy to notice him.
 The newcomer entered the hotel dining room, but was told to go to the kitchen for
food, as the dining room was reserved for a great welcoming banquet for the new governor
of the Territory, who was expected momentarily. When the travel-stained little stranger at
last convinced the proprietor that he was the long-awaited governor, the effect was electric.

 The astonished settlers thronged about, the Olympia Light Artillery fired a national
salute of 100 guns from the village’s small but enthusiastic cannon, flags fluttered in the
chill, wet wind, and the first governor of Washington was literally swept into the arms of a
welcoming people.
 All of the leading citizens of Olympia and New Market were at the hotel for the
official meeting. These included Colonel William Cock, Shirley Ensign, D. R. Bigelow,
George A. Barnes, H. A. Goldsborough, Jno. M. Swan, C. H. Hale, Judge B. F. Yantis,
Judge Gilmore Hays, Jno. G. Parker, Quincy A. Brooks, Dr. G. K. Willard, Colonel
Michael T. Simmons, Capt. Clanrick Crosby, Ira Ward, James Biles, Joseph Cushman, S.
W. Percival, Edwin Marsh, R. M. Walker, Levi and James Offut, J. C. Head, W. Dobbins,
Isaac Hawk, Rev. George F. Whitworth, Jared S. Hurd, H. R. Woodward, B. F. Brown, and
M. Hured.
 Publisher Wiley of the Washington Pioneer delivered the address of welcome, and
Governor Stevens responded with a talk on the results of his explorations for a northern
transcontinental rail route and his plans for the future government of the territory.


 Never a man to waste time, Stevens immediately issued a proclamation establishing
election districts, and naming January 30, 1854, as the time for holding an election for
delegate to Congress and members of the first Territorial Legislature, which was to
convene at Olympia, February 28.
 The governor appointed Colonel Simmons Indian Agent for the Puget Sound
Indians and sent him to visit the various tribes, “bearing a message of friendship from the
White Father.” The baby-faced Kentuckian was apparently a sort of pioneer Dale Carnegie,
with a gift for making friends and influencing Indians.
 His persuasive powers were instrumental in coaxing all the chiefs and leaders of the
Puget Sound tribes, except Leschi, to give up their people’s birth-right for a mess of
pottage in the form of cheap gifts and hazy promises.
 Charles H. Mason, the first secretary of state, had arrived before Governor Stevens.
The first treasurer was Colonel William Cock. Daniel Bigelow was the first auditor. Judge
Edward Lander was first chief justice of the Territorial Supreme Court, and Columbia
Lancaster was elected delegate to Congress.
 The first political campaign in Thurston County was a spirited one. Elected were
Councilmen (Senators) B. F. Yantis, Whig and D. R. Bigelow, Democrat. Representatives
were L. D. Durgin and David Shelton, Democrats, and Ira Ward and C. H. Hale, Whigs.
The Whigs, forerunners of the present Republicans, were elected without much help from
the very Democratic Washington Pioneer. The Union party failed to place any of its


 The first legislature met in a little two-story frame building on Main, between
Second and Third Streets. The Gold Bar Store and Restaurant occupied the street floor, the
law-makers the upper story. There Stevens predicted a brilliant future for the Territory,
urged county and school organization, and the establishment of a state militia.
 He dwelt upon the importance of extinguishing the Indian land titles and the claims
of the Hudson’s Bay Company and its subsidiary Puget Sound Agricultural Company, and
settling of the British boundary line. Most of his measures were promptly adopted by the
legislature. The militia bill was not passed, however, and the legislators had cause to regret
their oversight before two years were past.
 Several acts of the first Territorial Legislature had considerable effect on Thurston
County. Chehalis (later Grays Harbor) County was created from the southwest part of
Thurston County. Sawamish County was made from the northwest section.


 This name was later changed to Mason County, in honor of the first secretary of
state, or territorial secretary, as he was then called. Secretary Mason died of a fever in
1856. He was then 29 years old. Mason’s fatal fever, like that of other pioneers, was
probably brought on by overdoses of the kind of medicine prescribed by Dr. Johnson of
Johnson’s Point.
 The Oregon Territorial Legislature has already carved the counties of Pierce, King,
Island, and Jefferson from Thurston during the previous year, and the Washington
legislature of 1854 left Thurston County with substantially its present boundaries, except
for a section at the south, which later went back to Lewis County.
 Roads were authorized between Olympia and Shoalwater Bay (Willapa Harbor);
from Cathlamet to S. S. Ford’s place in Thurston County (now Fords Prairie, Lewis
County); Olympia to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Olympia to Monticello
 County officers were appointed by the legislature, with the following for Thurston
County: Commissioners, S. E. Ford, David J. Chambers, and James McAllister; Auditor,
V. E. Hicks; Sheriff, Frank Kennedy; Assessor, Whitfield Kertly; Probate Judge, Stephen
D. Ruddle; Treasurer, D. R. Bigelow; School Superintendent, Elwood Evans; and Justices
of Peace, William (Squire) Plumb, Nathan Eaton and Joseph Broshears. Ruddle declined
the judgeship and Judge Joseph Cushman was appointed in his place.


 While the political structure of the Territory was being formed, material progress
continued in the capital city, still a tiny settlement of scarce 100 folk huddled in a clearing
between the salt water of its inlet and the dark wilderness of its forests.
 The Washington Pioneer, ex-Columbian, became the Pioneer and Democrat, but
its little hand press on the edge of the tideflats continued to thump out the events of the
tiny community it served.
 The first seal of the Territory was designated by a member of Steven’s Northern
Railway Exploring party. The seal, representing a sheet of water being traversed by a
steamer and sailing vessel, with a Goddess of Hope with an anchor, pointing to the
Chinook word “Alki” (By and by), was adopted and used until the Territory became a state
in 1889.
 The present state seal was designed at that time by the Talcott brothers of the
pioneer Olympia jewelry firm. The Talcott brothers also drilled the first of the famous
Olympia artesian wells.


 The Rev. J. F. DeVore completed construction of the Methodist Church and it was
dedicated March 19, 1854. This pioneer minister approached doughty Captain Clanrick
Crosby at his Tumwater mill with a request that he donate some lumber for the erection of
the new church.
 The New Englander regarded the scholarly looking clergyman with no great favor,
and replied that he could have as much lumber as he could carry away by himself in one
DeVore showed up at dawn the next day, carried from the mill enough lumber to build his
church, and rafted it down the DesChutes waterway to his building site. History does not
record Captain Crosby’s reaction to the Methodist minister’s unexpected vigor, and perhaps
it is just as well.
 At any event the building, constructed in the ’50s with lumber rafted by an intrepid
clergyman from Washington’s first mill, served for many years as a church, as Epworth
Hall, and later as a lodging house. It was destroyed by fire in 1949 – just short of its 100th
 April 8, 1854, saw the first of a long series of Legislative Balls. It was held at the
new Pacific Hotel under the supervision of the busy Colonel William Cock, and in the
same month A. J. and N. P. Miller began to build a steam saw mill at North Olympia, two
miles below town, “the largest lumbering establishment on the Sound.”


 A Mr. Henry Yesler had a steam saw mill operating at the upstart village of Seattle
by this time, too. In May, Bishop Scott and the Rev. D. McCarthy announced a meeting to
form an Episcopal Church, which was built on the present site of the Governor Hotel, and
in July, Olympia’s first Sunday school was opened.
 In August, a pile driver began work on the waterfront, constructing a dock from the
foot of Main Street to deeper water. Until the harbor was dredged in later years, deep water
was a long way from town at low tide.
 The original dock, known as Giddings Wharf, extended only 300 feet and was high
and dry at low tide. By 1888, the dock extended a mile into the bay and was known far and
wide as Olympia’s “Mile Wharf.”
 Its term of usefulness extended into the early 20th century, although wharves north
of town on deeper water were used by most of the sea-going ships which called at Olympia
for lumber cargoes in the early days.


 This year Governor Stevens purchased property in Olympia for his future home.
Deeply disappointed at Secretary of War Jefferson Davis’ orders to discontinue his railway
survey, Stevens returned East, spent some time at the national capital, and began the return
trip with his family from New York City on September 20.
 They arrived at their new home in December. The city’s most ardent boosters of
today will seldom claim that Olympia is at its best in December, and in 1854 it was
definitely on the bleak side.
 The Governor’s family was less than enthusiastic, this being the pen picture left in
the family archives: “It was a dreary, dark December day. It had rained considerably. The
road from Tumwater to Olympia was ankle deep in mud and thrided a dense forest with a
narrow track. With expectations raised at the idea of seeing the Capital and chief town of
the Territory, the weary travelers toiled up a small hill in the edge of the timber, reached
the summit and eagerly looked to see the new metropolis.
 “Their hearts sank with bitter disappointment as they surveyed the dismal and
forlorn scene before them. A low, flat neck of land, running into the bay, down it stretched
the narrow, muddy track, winding among the stumps, which stood thickly on either side.
 “Twenty small wooden houses bordered the road, while back of them on the left
and next to the shore were a number of Indian lodges, with canoes drawn up on the beach,
and Indians and dogs lounging about.”


 (The little hill mentioned is where the Masonic Temple now stands, opposite the
Federal building. The site of the Indian camp is now Columbia Street, between Third and
 “There were only one or two buildings above, or south of Sixth Street. The public
square was a tangle of fallen timber. Main Street terminated in Giddings’ wharf, which was
left high and dry at low tides. ”
 Kate Stevens Bates, one of the children who made this journey to Olympia in the
early 1850s, lived her whole life in the city her father had made the capital of Washington.
She died at Olympia in the late 1940s.

 William Winlock Miller built a sawmill on the east side of Budd’s Inlet a short
distance north of town, late in the year, and the original Masonic Temple was built on the
site of the present lodge building.
 The town’s first fraternal order, Olympia Lodge 5, Free and Accepted Masons, had
received its chapter that year.
 The second legislature moved from the Gold Bar Store and Restaurant to this new
structure in 1855. In December, W. B. Goodell established a stage line between Olympia
and Cowlitz Landing (Toledo). The stage left the Capitol on Tuesdays and Fridays, and
connected with steamers for Monticello and Portland at Cowlitz Landing.
 The fare was $3.50 to Grand Mound, $10 to Cowlitz. The lumbering coaches and
lathered horses pulled up at a stage house where the [old] Olympia City Hall now stands.
 Also on the high side were commodity prices in Olympia stores. Potatoes, $3 a
bushel; flour, $10 for 100 pounds; butter, $1 a pound; onions, $4 a bushel; eggs $1 a
dozen; tea, $1 a pound.
 Pork at 20 cents a pound and coffee at 18 cents were reasonable as compared to
present prices, but high when paid for in 1854 dollars. A mess of clams could be had for
the digging and a big salmon could be purchased by non-anglers from an Indian for a bit
(10 cents)
 Sawed lumber was going at $20 per thousand; cedar, $30; shingles, $4.50; piles,
per foot, 5 to 8 cents; and square timber, per foot, 12 to 15 cents.
 In 1855, the legislature officially located the capital at Olympia (but the fight had
really only begun), the city got regular steamer service to the still inferior but rapidly
growing village of Seattle, and the Sound Indians were finally goaded into action – the
Territory had a full- fledged Indian War on its hands.
 The steamer Traveler was placed on a regular mail, passenger and freight run to
Seattle by John G. Parker. This advertisement was inserted in the Pioneer & Democrat:


 W. N. Horton, Master
 For freight or passage apply on board

 The steamer, Fairy, was on the Steilacoom run, and the fabulous Puget Sound
mosquito fleet was on its way. A later chapter will deal more fully with the history of the
steamboat days on Puget Sound.


 To contemporary citizens the Indian troubles overshadowed all other developments
and the history of 1855-56 is largely a bloody and shameful one.
 For several years, as some adventurers of limited vision and flexible conscience
followed the tide of migration to the Sound country, renegade whites had been abusing and
murdering Indians, and renegade Indians had been terrorizing isolated cabins and
murdering an occasional white settler.
 In 1854, a northern Indian of the Kake tribe was working at H. L. Butler’s sawmill
at Butler’s Cove – the present site of the Olympia Golf and Country Club. A dispute arose
over wages, and as a result of the controversy, he was shot and killed by one Burke, a
white employee of the mill.


 Butler and Burke were arrested for the murder, but to many of the settlers a “good
Indian was a dead Indian,” and the presiding judge, Squire Plumb (for whom Plumb
Station was named) moved for the discharge of the accused white men “because Thurston
County has no jail and it will be an expense to the county to retain them in custody”!
 About the time of the murder, the northern tribes were en route home from their
annual trip to the Sound, and the killing served as a pretext for widespread depredations on
the settlements they passed.
 Commander Swartout, in command of the U.S.S. Massachusetts, decided to teach
them another lesson and raided their camp at Port Gamble, leaving blazing huts, smashed
canoes and twenty-seven corpses on the beach. So far most of the killing had been done by
the superior race, but they were soon to answer grievously for it.
 By 1855, tension was gripping the whole Sound country. Secretary Mason was
acting as governor during one of Stevens’ many absences from the Territory – he was
making treaties with the Nebraska Indians – and in October, Mason issued a proclamation
calling for two companies of volunteers to consist of 86 officers and men. Olympia and
Vancouver were designated as places of enrollment.
 At that time, an inlet of the bay extended well into the present business district of
the city, a southerly extension of the present east


waterway. The town of 1855 was well inside the limits of this bay and that formed by the
west waterway or main harbor.
 The jittery citizens decided to fortify the town, and soon a 12-foot log stockade was
extended along both sides of Fourth Street from bay to bay. A block house was built at the
corner of Fourth and Main (Capitol Way) with the town’s trusty cannon mounted on it.
 The first militia company enrolled at Olympia was designated as the Puget Sound
Mounted Volunteers. Captain George Goudy commanded it; W. B. Affleck was first
lieutenant and J. K. Hurd, second lieutenant.
 A little later, Nathan Eaton, a pioneer of 1842, was authorized to form a company
of Rangers; Jim McAllister was chosen first lieutenant, James Tullis, second lieutenant and
A. M. Poe, third lieutenant.
 McAllister didn’t think the Nisquallys would fight. “They’re so gentle I could drive
the whole tribe before me like sheep,” he said.
 So confident was he of their friendship that he left his wife and five little girls, with
three boys, the oldest 12, to guard them in the midst of the Nisqually camp when he went
to join the Rangers. The McAllisters stayed in the farm house that was the gift of Leschi
and his braves.

 But Leschi had reached his decision. Governor Stevens was turning out treaties
much as Detroit now turns out automobiles, and a lemon was bound to creep in now and
then. The Medicine Creek Treaty, held on the Nisqually Flats east of Olympia, was one of
the little governor’s tragic mistakes.
 He settled the destiny of the Nisqually Tribe by moving them from the lush bottom
lands of the Nisqually to a rocky table-land. Crops could not be raised there, and there was
no water for fishing.
 Leschi, like Seattle, was noted for his friendship with the whites, but his first
loyalty was to his tribe. He was convinced that to comply with the treaty meant a slow
death by starvation for him and his people.
 The opinion of historians differs as to whether Leschi signed the Medicine Creek
Treaty. Mrs. George Blankenship says, in her history of Thurston County, “Sixty-two
Indians signed. Leschi, an intelligent and designing Indian, who since has been
immortalized by having a Seattle park named after him, being third. The first signer was
Qui-ee-muth, Leschi’s brother. Both these Indians met death as a reward for their
 Clarence B. Bagley, in his history of King County, indicates doubt as to whether
Leschi actually signed. The Indians’ signatures were simply X’s after their names, and
could easily have been forged. Ezra Meeker is emphatic in denying that Leschi signed the
treaty. Archie Binns gives this interpretation of the scene at Medicine Creek:


 ” ‘Leschi, sub-chief of the Nisquallys and Puyallups!’
 “The name was always like a great cry . . . and by the gathering silence, you would
think it some special meaning of hope or fear. In the silence, you became aware of the still
treaty ground in the falling rain, and the great fir trees on a strange planet whirling through

 “Under those mysterious trees, people clustered together to decide how things
should be. And they tried to decide what was right or profitable by the color of each others’
faces. But none of them knew what was right or what would be profitable. And they did
not know what they were doing or how it would end…
 “Looking at Leschi, you did not think about his race or yours. He was like a wise
and homely friend you had always known and would trust in anything. He was standing
beside the unpainted wooden table, and Colonel Shaw was holding out the ready-dipped
 “Leschi’s arms were folded under the tawny Hudson’s Bay blanket. He did not seem
to notice the pen. In the stillness, you could hear the failing rain. Then Leschi spoke in
 ” ‘I will not put my name on that paper. My people need land they can plough, and
prairie land for their herds. They need the creek for their canoes. I have told Governor
Stevens these things. Even if my heart had changed, the need of my people has not
 Binns writes that, “Colonel Simmons was beside Leschi again, with a colicky smile
on his baby face, while he talked Soothingly in Nisqually. When that brought no result, he
started to pat the chief’s arm. His hand touched once, and then it was flung aside as Leschi
whirled on him so swiftly that he blurred.
” ‘ Klatawa!’
 “Simmonds recoiled with a singed look, from the great explosion of a word. Leschi
turned back to the angry little governor, and looked down at him with blazing eyes. ‘We
ask for farms, so we can live, and you give us gravel for a burial ground! We ask for bread
and you give us a stone!’
 ” ‘Aie lah, Leschi!’ The name had become a great cry in more than the…
 “Jim McAllister was on his feet, looking from Leschi, to whom he owed his farm
and wealth and a thousand kindnesses, to the governor, to whom he owed his allegiance as
a citizen. He looked irresolutely from one to the other. Then he sat down heavily.
 “At the treaty table, they were trying to shout Leschi down. The furious little
governor was shouting, ‘Tell him he is a Klickitat! Tell him he has nothing to do with this
treaty!’ And Shaw repeated it in jargon.


 “In answer, the Nisqually drew a folded paper from inside his blanket. The others
quieted as he held it up. ‘If I am a Klickitat,’ he said mildly, ‘why did Governor Stevens
give me this paper which makes me a little chief of the Nisquallys? That was yesterday.’
 ” ‘Today I am a Klickitat with no business here. But if I had put mark on that paper,
Governor Stevens would not remember my Klickitat mother. I would be a great Nisqually
today. Governor Stevens made me a little chief so I would do my people a big wrong. This
is my answer.’ He held up the folded paper so every one could see, and tore it into long
strips, which he dropped on the muddy ground.
 ” ‘Aie Iah!”
 “‘Go away! The treaty makers were shouting. ‘We don’t want you here!’. . .
 “Leschi raised his powerful voice. ‘I am going, but hear one thing: burn that paper
or it will burn you! That evil paper means war!’
 “Settlers who had not been at the treaty believed Leschi had signed. The governor’s
friends who had been there told people who had not that Leschi had stepped up to the table
and signed without protest, like all the others.
 “In proof, there was a mark after Leschi’s name on the treaty. The treaty was
witnessed by some of the settlers and members of the Governor’s party, including the
Governor’s 12-year-old son who had sat under a tree with the Indian boys, eating
blackstrap and playing a jews-harp.”

 For a time nothing happened on the upper Sound. The treaty was not enforced and
Leschi began his fall plowing. The governor, having stirred up a hornet’s nest at his capital,
had dashed back across the Rockies to make more rapid-fire treaties, driven on by war
department demands.
 Acting-governor Mason sent Puget Sound Volunteers to take Leschi into
“protective custody.” Leschi fled to the hostile camp in the White River area of King
County and the die was cast.
 Late in October, both Olympia volunteer companies left for the White River. Four
more companies were mustered in as a reserve force, and stockades were built on
Chambers Prairie and at Grand Mound. At Puyallup Crossing, Lieutenant McAllister, still
counting on the gentleness of the Nisquallys, rode toward the hostile camp.
 He and his companion, Connell, were fired on from ambush and killed.
McAllister’s faithful Indian farm hand, Chipwalen, escaped and returned to Nisqually in
time to warn Mrs. McAllister and conduct her, with the eight children, to the stockade on
Chambers Prairie. A. B. Moses and Col. Joseph Miles were killed a few days later.


 In Olympia, word of the deaths cast a pall of gloom over the little settlement. The
bodies of the three volunteers were brought in, and under a dismal fall of autumn rain, the
settlers bowed their heads in grief over their first war dead. The three young men were
buried on Chambers Prairie.

 Only two other Thurston County settlers, William Northcraft and William White,
were to be killed in the Indian war. A savage massacre of settlers occurred in the White
River Valley, but the Nisquallys had no part in this. Most of the actual fighting took place
there, in the Puyallup Valley and at Seattle.
 There is a little doubt that Leschi, disgusted with his Klickitat and Duwamish allies’
wanton butchery on the White River, stopped a planned campaign of extermination as far
south as Olympia.

 By December, 1855, most of the hostile Indians were scattered and hungry and
Governor Stevens, back from his treaty making, decided the war was over. He disbanded
the militia companies that month, and on January 24, 1856, sailed into Elliott Bay aboard
the U.S.S. Active.
 The citizens of Seattle were still expecting an Indian attack, but the fast-moving
governor scoffed at their fears, stating in a speech, “I ton you there are not 50 hostile
Indians in the territory, and I believe the citizens of New York and San Francisco will as
soon be attacked by Indians as the town of Seattle!”
 He urged the commander of the U.&& Decatur, which was moored in the harbor, to
go on about his business. Fortunately for Seattle, Captain Gransvoort stayed where he was.
Before dawn on January 26, Seattle was attacked without warning by a large and
determined band of hostile Indians.
 Had it not been for the naval cannon and shore parties of sailors and marines from
the Decatur, the little town would probably have been annihilated. As it was, the fate of
Washington’s future metropolis hung by a thread until the Indians were finally beaten off.
 When the Indians were repulsed at Seattle, the Indian War was really over. The
chiefs had counted on the loot of Seattle to carry on their campaign, more regular army
troops were coming into the territory, and the Indian’s cause was lost.



 Leschi led a little band of starving Indians over Natchez Pass to sanctuary with his
mother’s people, the Klickitats, but he was unable to resist the call of his beloved salt-
chuck, and he soon returned to Puget Sound.
 Here he was betrayed by his nephew, Slugia, for a reward of 50 blankets, and was
imprisoned at Fort Steilacoom in the custody of Colonel Casey of the U.S. Army.
 The military authorities considered Leschi a prisoner of war and refused to treat
him as a criminal. The little governor had been flouted by the big red man, and he pressed
murder charges based on the death of Moses.
 The jury disagreed at Leschi’s first trial… and this is a telling point when it is
considered that it was an all-white jury made up of settlers who had suffered bitterly in a
long and vicious war, in an age when the life of a red man was of little importance at best.
 The Pioneer and Democrat had this to say in its November 28, 1856, issue: “The
failure of the jury to agree upon a verdict with the character of the evidence before them,
we are informed, created general surprise.
 “The attorneys for the prisoner expressed no doubt but that he would be convicted,
and merely labored to discharge a duty imposed upon them professionally; and Judge
Chenoweth is said to have been astonished when, on concluding his charge, he was
informed that it was necessary to clear the courtroom, expecting that a verdict of guilty
would be pronounced from the jury box.”
 Ezra Meeker was one of the four jurors who believed Leschi innocent.
 At a second trial, the sub-chief of the Nisquallys was sentenced to hang on January
22, 1858, at Fort Steilacoom. The Pierce County sheriff wasn’t anxious to carry out the
vindictive legal murder and the army refused to surrender Leschi to the hangman, anyway.
 Finally, the Supreme Court met. They listened to an impassioned plea for mercy
from old Doctor Tolmie of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who had known Leschi longer
than any white man. They heard the statements of army officers that they considered
Leschi innocent. Then the Supreme Court resentenced Leschi. This time the Thurston
County sheriff was charged with the execution, which was to take place on February 19.


 An intimation of the strong feeling against Leschi in pioneer Olympia which
extended its bitterness to those who defended him, may be gathered from this account of
Leschi’s final defense in the Pioneer and Democrat, a staunch partisan of Governor
 “Dr. William F. Tolmie, the chief factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company at Nisqually
in Pierce County, addressed the governor an elaborate and powerful appeal in Leschi’s
behalf, in which he exhibits an artful cunning, ingenious special pleading, worthy the
representative of an unlawful illegitimate foreign corporation.
 Lieutenant Kautz, the erstwhile 4th of July speaker, surveyed the area where Moses
was killed and, according to the Pioneer and Democrat, “made a cautious and cunning
affidavit that it was impossible for Leschi to have been present when the murder was
 Sheriff Hays wasn’t around on execution day, so Deputy Mitchell went to
Steilacoom with a posse of 12 men. Colonel Casey still felt he was turning an innocent
man over to be hanged, and he was fighting mad. The execution took place well out on the
prairie. The Colonel said they couldn’t commit murder on army ground.

 Leschi died without a struggle. It was, said witnesses, like hanging a statue.
 “I felt that I was hanging an innocent man, and I believe it yet,” said Charles
Granger, the executioner, when he discussed the death of Leschi with Ezra Meeker in later
 In his history of King County, Clarence Bagley says, “He (Leschi) was promised
protection for himself and followers, in good faith so far as the army was concerned. His
after-fate is too well known to be reviewed in this history; nor is it germane thereto. King
County had no part in this wretched business.”
 Ironically, Governor Stevens revoked the Medicine Creek Treaty before Leschi’s
death, and the great Nisqually saw his people given the very land he had requested for
them before the war.
 The Nisquallys still live there, and Leschi, who had really won his fight, although it
cost him his life, is buried in the heart of the great reservation he gave his people.
 Qui-ee-muth, Leschi’s brother, and chief of the Nisquallys, was captured near Yelm
and taken to the governor’s office at Olympia. There, late at night, he was murdered.
 No one was arrested, but it appeared to be common knowledge among the settlers
that Joseph Bunting, son-in-law of Jim McAllister, had shot and stabbed the chief to death
with the connivance of his guards.
 Many brutal and wanton murders of Indians were committed by white men,
including a horrible slaughter of helpless women and children by Maxon’s Volunteers, but
none of the white murderers were brought to trial.



 By the time the war was really over, the governor, dead wrong in declaring peace to
the citizens of Seattle on the eve of their greatest battle, refused to admit that peace was
really here.
 Settlers persisted in returning to their homesteads for the spring planting, and a
group of settlers, removed from their claims near Steilacoom by the governor, had the
temerity to apply for a writ of habeas corpus.
 Judge Lander was so disrespectful as to hold court against the governor’s wishes to
hear their case. Stevens declared marital law in April, 1856, and the territory was treated to
the spectacle of militia kicking in the doors of a judicial chamber, of a Supreme Court
Justice harried from town to town, and of a U.S. Marshal, trying to serve a contempt of
court order on the governor, being ejected from the executive chambers by a group of
militia officers, territorial officials and citizens.
 Martial law was ended May 24, 1856, and Governor Stevens paid Judge Lander a
$50 fine for contempt of court.
 In October, 1856, the following advertisement appeared in the Pioneer and


Head Quarters, W.T. Volunteers
Olympia, Oct. 30, 1856
1st The Volunteers of Washington Territory of both staff and line, are hereby disbanded.

 The Indian War ended as it had begun, on a note of tragic blundering and pathetic


 The war left the Territory decimated and shaky. Barns and cabins were burned,
stock slaughtered and land untitled while the men were off with the volunteers. Olympia
suffered less than many of the settlements, however, and the Pioneer and Democrat
sounded a note of optimism in the autumn of 1856.
 Said the editor on November 14: “Four years ago, where stood but a few solitary
buildings, OLYMPIA may be found, with its numerous stores, workshops and scores of
neat, substantial dwellings.
 “In its vicinity, Swanville (now a part of the city east of East Bay Drive) had sprung
from chaos, New Market has become a place of considerable business, and the once dense
forests of fir lining the bay on either side are fast being supplanted by cultivated farms.”
 The harbor was doing well, too, as this November 28 news item attests: HARBOR
OF OLYMPIA – During the past week, four vessels have been lying at anchor in the harbor
of Olympia.
 “Three of them belong to ‘Kendall Co’s line, viz: the clipper barks Live Yankee and
Samuel Merritt, the bark Sarah Warren, and the schooner Rob Roy, McLane, master.
 “The first three named were freighted with merchandise for the different parts of
the Sound, and will clear with lumber, timbers & etc. for San Francisco.
 “This is the first time for the last year that four merchant vessels of large
dimensions have been anchored in our harbor at one time, and would seem to augur that a
revival of business is at hand.”
 A little later, foreign trade had started, the paper reporting: “The Prussian bark Ica,
Schwencke, master, is now loading with lumber at North Olympia. She is a vessel of 500
tons burthen. The cargo is destined for the South American market.


 Olympia entered its 10th year, as an incorporated town. Articles of incorporation
were filed on January 29, 1859, but the entire county had a population of less than 1,000
by 1860. It was another decade – 1870 – before Olympia could boast a population of more
than 1,000.

 The census figures of that year showed the capital city with 1,203 inhabitants.
Thurston County had 2,246. The second city of the territory in 1870 was Seattle, with a
population of 1,142. King County had 2,164.
 The Indian War seriously retarded the territory’s development and the outbreak of
the Civil War in 1861 almost halted the westward flood of immigration.


 The growth of Olympia and Thurston County was gradual but continuous during
the decade 1860 to 1870. The fight for the capital was waged almost continuously.
Portland interests wanted the capitol at Vancouver.
 At one time, it was announced that the legislature had actually moved the
headquarters of government, but a legal technicality saved the day. Again the capitol was
retained in Olympia by one vote.
 In 1860, the town’s first hook-and-ladder company was formed, and Mt. Baker was
reported in eruption, “throwing off clouds of smoke and steam. ”
 The famous Washington Standard, Olympia’s second newspaper, was founded by
John Miller Murphy, who was to become one of the state’s great newsmen, and the Pioneer
and Democrat was sold to Jaxnes Lodge.
 Bridges were built connecting Swantown on the east and the west side district with
the original site of Smithfield. The Swantown Bridge, extending from the present Jefferson
Street to East Bay, later collapsed, depositing a herd of cattle in the mud flats.
 In 1861 the people of Tumwater gave their Olympia neighbors a bad time, trying to
annex the county seat for their community. Olympia, goaded by capitol-grabbers, offered
the town’s public square to the county if it would build a courthouse there, and so kept the
seat of county government.


 Later, it was discovered that this deal was illegal, Edmund Sylvester having
donated the square to the town for park purposes only. Eventually the courthouse was built
elsewhere, and the old town square is now beautiful little Sylvester Park in the heart of the
city’s business district.
 News of the death of General Isaac Ingalls Stevens reached Olympia on October
18, 1862. The little governor had died a hero’s death at the Battle of Chantilly.
 The Pioneer and Democrat was now being published as the Overland Press by a
combative journalist named B. F. Kendal. An angry reader attempted to whip Editor
Kendall on the street and was shot, but not killed, in self-defense. The editor’s version of
the affair, as printed in his paper, apparently prompted the choleric subscriber’s son to enter
the newspaper office and murder Kendall.
 The gun used in the crime was traced to a prominent territorial official. It was
believed at the time that the newsman, too outspoken for his own good, was the victim of a
plot among political enemies. Olympia had its first “big murder story” and “political
scandal” in one package.


 On Sunday evening, September 4, 1864, the telegraph was completed to Olympia.
 Territorial Governor Pickering dispatched a congratulatory message to President
 The next day the marvelous brass key in the Olympia telegraph office chattered and
this message was copied in the operator’s fluent copperplate script:

 “Washington, D. C.
 Sept. 6, 1864

 “Gov. Pickering, Olympia, W. T.:
 “Your patriotic dispatch of yesterday received and will be published.
 A. Lincoln”

 Olympia was strongly pro-union in its Civil War sympathies. John Miller Murphy,
though a Democrat, favored the preservation of the Union at any cost and reflected that
attitude in his Washington Standard. The town was almost wrecked in the victory
celebration when the war ended.
 There were still lusty pioneers around in 1865, and two of them, James Pray, saloon
owner and veteran of the California Vigilantes, and Benjamin Cleal, an ancient mariner,
decided to fire victory salutes with the town’s fabled Indian War cannon, which still
reposed on the waterfront at the foot of Main Street.
 They used large quantities of powder, and as the ancient cannon warmed up it
began bounding backward in great leaps as it recoiled.
 It progressed up Main Street backward, knocking out windows at every blast, until
it arrived at Pray’s saloon, near Fourth, where the victory celebration was continued. Mr.
Pray paid for his hearty patriotism by having all his glasses and windows and most of his
furniture broken.
 In 1865, the long-awaited wagon road across the Cascades was finished; the
pioneer town pump at Fourth and Main, where the Chambers Building now stands, gave
way to a cistern and water mains; and, by 1866, newspapers were coming to the little
community in a flurry of newsprint.


 The 1868 legislature was “a most acrimonious one,” with brawls and fisticuffs
frequent in the halls of state, the local saloons and on the streets. The first Olympia city
library and the first city hall were built in 1869.


 A wooden water pipe company, which was to develop into one of Olympia’s major
industries for many years was established in Tumwater in 1868.

 By 1871 Governor Stevens’ vision of a northern transcontinental railway was
nearing reality. The Northern Pacific Railroad was approaching Puget Sound and the
location of its western terminus was the burning question of the day.
 It was taken for granted that the railway terminus would become the greatest city of
the territory. Seattle and Olympia were making frantic efforts to get the steel rails, and in
November, 1871, the road was within 15 miles of Olympia, with the location of the
terminus still undecided.
 The company asked a right-of-way to Budd’s Inlet, and the town went on an
optimism jag. Property values sky-rocketed.
 The Puget Sound Land Company, a subsidiary of the Northern Pacific and bought
up large tracts of land on Budd’s Inlet in the name of one Ira Bradley Thomas. Before the
rails reached Olympia, Thomas died.
 Rather than face the legal delays of probating his estate, the company quickly
bought up new land near Old Tacoma and told the Northern Pacific to change its terminus
to that location.


 Had an obscure business man, Ira Thomas, lived just a little longer, Olympia would
undoubtedly have become the western terminus of the first northern transcontinental
railway and the site of the present city of Tacoma might still be a comparative wilderness.

 The year 1872 saw the end of Olympia’s dream of becoming the great city of
Washington. The failure of the railway to end its line on Budd’s Inlet blasted that hope.
That year ended the city’s pioneer era, too, and it was ushered out with a severe earthquake
in November – the worst in the city’s history to that time.
 The Society of Thurston Pioneers long ago made residence in the county before
1872 a requirement for membership. The true pioneers of the ’40s and ’50s would never
concede that those who came in the ’60s and ’70s were more than “early settlers,” and those
who came after 1872 were forever doomed to remain “Che Chacos.”
 Of late years, however, it has become common to confer pioneer rank upon those
who lived in the area before the territory achieved statehood in 1889.
 The year 1872 also saw the end of the last phases of the ancient boundary disputes
between England and the United States, with the northern boundary finally located as it
stand today.
 From 1873 to 1889, the period during which Washington remained a territory,
Olympia and Thurston County made slow progress. The location of the railway at Tacoma
took much trade and industry from the head of the Sound, and Seattle’s amazing
development was drawing a large segment of the territory’s population to that booming
 Seattle’s “skid-road” was wide open. Olympia was respectable and sedate. The lusty
workingmen of the territory preferred to spend their money in Seattle.
 The Northern Pacific, which dealt a death blow to Olympia’s dreams of easy
commercial greatness did, however, bring a measure of prosperity to other Thurston
County communitites.

 In 1852 Stephen Hodgson took a donation claim on the prairie some 15 miles south
of Olympia. It gradually developed into a small settlement, and in 1872 the Northern
Pacific Railroad established a station there.
 Several myths are prevalent as to how Tenino got its name . . . that it was from the
number 10-9-0 on a railway surveyor’s stake or on an early locomotive.
 The fact is that the railway used the Chinook word meaning “junction” in naming
the station Tenino. It referred to the junction of the old military roads from Vancouver to
Steilacoom and Olympia, which branched at that point.


 Tenino achieved commercial importance in 1888 when its magnificent sandstone
quarries were discovered. Tenino sandstone was the approved building material for most of
the state’s greatest buildings, until the use of structural steel and concrete supplanted it.
 Although the quarries are no longer in regular operation, Tenino has enjoyed a
modest but consistent growth throughout the years.

 The first settler on a small prairie south of Tenino was Aaron Webster, who came
to the Sound country in 1854. In the Chinook language, the stream crossing the Webster
claim was Skookum Chuck – strong water.
 In 1857, Webster harnessed the strong water to a mill wheel and turned out lumber
for the neighboring settlers. When the mill went into operation, he sold his farm to Oliver
Shead, who named the place Seatco – a Chinook word meaning ghost, or devil.
 As early as 1852, large coal deposits had been found in the area, and later the coal
fields were purchased by J. B. David of Portland and Samuel Coulter.
 When Coulter and David met with William Buckley of the railway company to
decide on a name for the new station there, the picturesque Seatco was abandoned and they
coined a new word by taking the two first letters of each of their own names. Bu-Co-Da
was the result.
 Mr. Shead preferred his Indian word and continued to call his townsite by that
name. Seatco remained a town with a railroad station named Bucoda until 1890, when the
legislature made it officially Bucoda.
 Bucoda, or Seatco, was the site of the first penitentiary in Washington. At the
legislature of 1874, Sheriff Billings of Thurston County and Sheriff Smith of Pierce
County got a bill passed turning the territorial prisoners over to them for contract labor.

 Shead put up the money to finance them and a timber prison with well-spiked, 12-
inch walls was built at Seatco to house the convicts.  This continued as the territorial prison
until 1888, when a new one was built at Walla Walla.
 Samuel James had staked a claim at Grand Mound Prairie in 1852, and the James
name is still a prominent one in the Rochester community. George Edwards and John
Edgon had settled on Yelm Prairie in 1850, and they were joined by James Longmire and
James Burns.
 William McLane settled at the head of Eld Inlet in 1852, and that rural community
still bears his name.



 When the people of Olympia had somewhat recovered from the stunning failure of
the Northern Pacific to touch their city, they took matters into their own hands.
 The county commissioners floated a $75,000 bond issue and a new narrow gauge
railway was built to connect Olympia with the main line at Tenino. The first little train
clattered into Tenino carrying a fun load of happy Olympia excursionists in 1878.
 The little road was operated as a local project until 1890, when it was purchased by
the Port Townsend Southern Railway. The same year, the Northern Pacific relented
somewhat, and built a branch line from Tacoma to Grays Harbor by way of Olympia.
 In 1903, the N. P. bought the 15-mile Port Townsend Southern, and the historic
little railway soon passed into oblivion. The long rail way trestles on the west side of
Budd’s Inlet are the only present-day reminders of the old Port Townsend Southern.
 The little trains used to enter town from the south by way of a trestle west of the
present capitol group, pass under the West Side Bridge and terminate their run at a depot
alongside the trestle on West Bay Drive.



 Washington became a state in 1889, and to the people of the territorial capital, it
meant another fight to get their city named state capital. This involved undergoing the new
ordeal of a state-wide vote on the location.
 Although various other cities put up a strong campaign, Olympia managed to get
the most votes, 25,490, but Ellensburg got 14,711, Centralia 607, Yakima 314, Pasco 130,
and scattered locations, 1,088.
 Since the law required a majority of all votes cast, jittery Olympians faced another
vote in 1890. The great Seattle fire intervened, and the Olympia city fathers dispatched the
town’s fine new steam pumper to the stricken city by fast steamer. Then they gave $500 of
the taxpayers’ money to Seattle as a relief donation.


 There was some grumbling about this, of course, but it proved a wise investment.
Grateful and growing Seattle threw its support behind Olympia in the capital fight and next
year Olympia got 37,413 votes, Ellensburg only 7,722.
 The capital stayed in Olympia, but at that time the state capitol consisted of one
frame building, which was located on the present site of the Insurance Building.

 Bills authorizing completion of a new capitol building were vetoed by the governor
in 1897 and 1899. Finally, in 1901, the Thurston County Court House was purchased by
the state and enlarged for a capitol building. Tacoma interests made a final attempt to grab
the capitol for the City of Destiny, but their measure was defeated.
 Olympians breathed somewhat easier when the big stone building with its tall,
eight-sided clock tower was acquired by the state, but the more pessimistic citizens,
plagued for decades by the attempts of other


cities to take over the headquarters of state government, never really relaxed until the
present magnificently Roman-Doric capitol group was completed in 1935.
 Then they felt that the capitol was firmly attached to Olympia with a $15 million
 Although the buildings were paid for from state timber grants and used up no tax
money, the group was completed in a state-wide rumble of disapproval.
 These were depression times, and Washington was still only one life-time away
from the puncheon-floored settler’s cabin on the beach. Imported marbles, bronzes and
seamless carpets were viewed by many as a bit “highfalutin.”


 But the buildings crown their hilltop in undeniable grandeur, ruled over by the
great dome of the Legislative Building – one of the highest in the world – and with the
completion of Capitol Lake, citizens get more than $15 million worth of reflected beauty.
 The Old Capitol in downtown Olympia still serves as a state office building, having
survived a great fire, which destroyed its old-world clock tower, and a recent earthquake
that nearly wrecked the new buildings on the hill.


 The first years of statehood were boom times for Olympia and by 1890, it had
grown to a town of 4,698 inhabitants, but the great depression of 1893, coupled with the
emergence of Seattle and Tacoma as the “big cities” of the Puget Sound country, hit the
capital hard.
 Times were bad, and it is said of that period that many of the citizens consumed
clams until the town’s stomachs rose and fell with the tide. Still the ’90s were years of
progress – Olympia’s franchise years.
 The Sunset Telephone and Telegraph Company put in the first telephone lines in
1889. Street railway franchises were granted, E. T. Young was given permission to erect
electric light poles along the city streets, Western Union was allowed to put in telegraph
poles, and the Olympia Water Company laid plans for the modern water system which met
the city’s needs until the great McAllister Springs development was completed in 1948.
 In 1894, the federal government began the harbor dredging, with silt confined
behind bulkheads, which resulted in Olympia’s modern port and industrial districts.
 The fabled Olympia Hotel was built in 1890 at Eighth and Main. A gigantic
gingerbread edifice, it was the city’s pride, but didn’t fare well financially. It was later
destroyed in a 1904 by fire.
 The 1900 census showed a population loss – a drop to 3,863. This was the first time
this had happened since the California gold rush days. By 1910, the city had come back
with a vengeance, almost doubling its population to 6,000.
 Even during the depression days of falling population figures, things had been
accomplished. The street railway system was built in 1890.
 The rolling stock consisted of two horse-cars, and the line extended from Puget
Street west to Main Street and south to Maple Park. In 1892, the franchise and equipment
were sold to the Olympia Light & Power Company and an electric line was projected.


 Of the street cars, a March 4, 1892 newspaper boasted, in anticipation, that they
“are to be the best in all respects and will be finished in white, with gold trimmings.” The
gold-trimmed cars began operating in July and were declared an immediate success.
 Said the press of July 22, 1892, “The inauguration of the electric street car system
in Olympia marks another epoch in the progress of the capital city. The first street car
passed over the track of the Olympia Light & Power Company yesterday at 4:30, with
Superintendent Shock at the electric lever.
 “The passengers on the memorable occasion, besides the news correspondent, were
George D. Shannon, Robert Frost, George L. Sickles, Thomas Henderson Boyd, C. T.
Whitney, A. S. Gills and L. B. Faulkner.” Mr. Faulkner, who later became president of the
Olympia Light and Power Company and superintendent of the street railway system, still
resides in Olympia (1950).
 The news story continued, “The car, as soon as the current was turned on, moved
like a thing of life, smoothly and without friction, and responded steadily to the will of its
master as if endowed with reason.
 “People appeared on the street and at doors and windows all along the route and
waved hats and handkerchiefs in greeting this new and tangible evidence of progress.”
 The electric line was extended to the West Side and to Tumwater on the south, with
five cars in operation – three closed and two open. They were advertised as running to
Tumwater every hour and giving seven-minute service within the city.


 Fall rains brought problems to Superintendent Shock of the street railway. On
September 23, the morning paper reported, “The open street cars have been doing a
shocking business this week.
 “When the interior woodwork became wet, the electric current played like the
aurora borealis among the passengers and converted the whole vehicle into immense
Leyden jars, ready to discharge a current whenever a proper connection was made. They
were, of necessity, promptly withdrawn from service.”
 Olympia was learning that progress is not without its painful side.
 The street railways system remained in operation until 1933, when the present
[1950] bus transportation system was installed.
 The second decade of the 20th century saw a modest advance in population to
7,795 by 1920. By 1930, the census figures showed 11,733 and those of 1940, 13,254. The
1949 estimated population was between 16 and 18 thousand, with approximately 50
thousand in the immediate trading area.



 The journalistic history of Olympia is a long and complicated one, and deserves a
short chapter of its own.
 As has been stated, the territory’s first newspaper, the Columbian, changed hands
and names frequently. Established in 1852, it became the Pioneer in 1853. A new paper,
the Northwest Democrat appeared on the scene in 1855, but since its politics agreed with
those of the Pioneer, the two papers merged to form the Pioneer and Democrat.
 In 1860, the historic Washington Standard was established by John Miller Murphy,
who had come to Olympia as a small boy in the early ’50s. Murphy was to become a dean
of Washington journalists and a real civic leader.
 He brought the first steam powered press to the territory and later built the
magnificent Olympia Theater on Fourth Avenue. Although Murphy was a Democrat,
Republican forces induced him to establish a paper in Olympia to promote the Republican
policy of national unity, which was to result in the Civil War.
 The citizens of Olympia were to fete Murphy at a great banquet in 1910
commemorating the Standard’s first half-century of publication without missing an issue.


 The Pioneer and Democrat expired in 1861 and was revived as the Overland Press
the same year. When its publisher was shot, the Overland Press became the Pacific
Tribune in 1864, and the little Ramage hand press was sold and moved to Seattle.
 The Washington Democrat was established in 1864 and lasted until 1865. The
Territorial Republican, founded in 1867, was just as short- lived.
 The first attempt at daily publication was made by the Tribune in 1867. This was
too much for its resources and the plant and subscription lists were put up at sheriff’s sale.
 John Miller Murphy, rival publisher, bought much of the essential equipment,
including the Tribune’s subscription lists – and gave ot [sic] back to the Tribune’s
 Perhaps the end of our pioneer era won’t really have come until there are no more
George Bushes and John Miller Murphys left in the land.

 The Tribune moved to Seattle and then to Tacoma, where it prospered, and the
name is still in use there. A radical Republican paper, the Transcript, was founded in the
post-civil war period and lasted until 1885, and in 1867, a temperance paper, the Echo,
began publication.


 The Puget Sound Courier was moved from Port Townsend to Olympia in 1871,
and its publisher, Clarence Bagley, joined forces with Murphy of the Standard to run the
Temperance Echo out of business. Apparently the pioneer newsmen, like many of their
present-day brethren, were not in favor of militant teetotalism.
 Bagley was an ardent Republican and Murphy was a Democrat. They named their
combined Standard-Courier the Daily Olympian and agreed that each would edit the paper
on alternate days, keeping it strictly neutral in politics.
 During Murphy’s absence from town, Bagley’s father, the Rev. Daniel Bagley,
slipped a great deal of strong Republican propaganda in the paper’s forms. When Murphy
returned, he said nothing, but when his day as editor came up he issued an extremely
Democratic Daily Olympian.


 This so enraged Bagley that he moved his equipment from the printing shop, but
the hated Echo was still in business, so he returned, a truce was declared, and in 1874, the
Olympian succeeded in forcing the Echo out of business.
 Then they went their separate ways and the Olympian was no more until 1889
when Murphy published it as a daily for about a year, with Olympia real estate men
underwriting it. The theory was that a daily would add prestige for real estate boom and
capital-securing purposes.

 The Courier combined with the Daily Critic as the Daily Critic and Weekly
Courier in 1884. These were extremely Republican papers and in 1885 they emerged into
one paper, the Republican Partisan.
 The Partisan, in turn, became the Olympia Tribune in 1890 and published as a
daily until 1893, when it combined with a new Daily Olympian as the Olympian-Tribune.
In 1903, this became the Olympia Daily Recorder.


 Then the Olympian and Recorder published as separate dailies until 1927, the
Recorder being purchased by the Olympian and issued as an evening paper, while the
Olympian remained a morning edition.
 In 1927, the morning and evening editions became the morning and evening
Olympian, while the Evening Recorder discontinued. The morning edition of the Olympian
has also since been discontinued.
 The Weekly Capital was printed from 1897 to 1901, the Olympia Chronicle from
1899 to 1927, the Washington Saturday Review from 1909 to 1910, and the Anti-
Imperialist in 1900.
 In 1913, six papers were printed in Olympia: the Chronicle, the Independent,
Olympian, Recorder, Washington Standard and State Capitol Record (a legislative digest).
 The first paper was printed in Tenino in 1880. The Tenino Herald’s life was a short
one, but it was the forerunner of the present Thurston County Independent.
 The Olympia High School News, predecessor of the present Olympus, began
publication in 1893.
 At the present time, Olympia’s newspaper needs are met by one evening daily and
one weekly newspaper. The Olympia News was founded in 1922.



 The period from 1872, the end of the pioneer era, to 1920, the beginning of the
gasoline era, was the golden age of steamboating on Puget Sound. The little sailing vessels
of the ’40s and ’50s scattered settlements about the Sound. The steamboats drew them
together into a civilization.
 Steamboats were the only means of comfortable travel on the new frontier, and they
were more than that to the people they served. When there was a fair or a picnic or a
potlatch, the little steamers and the big were there.
 Citizens from the smallest and farthest settlement chartered their local steamer and
traveled to the scene of glamour, like owners of a private yacht. The steamboats were
personal and friendly, and they had a lovely steamboat smell of steam and hot paint and
salt water.
 They stopped to pick up the families of isolated settlers in rowboats, and take them
to town, and they stopped to unload a few sacks of feed for them on the way back.


 They were slow, the slim white steamers with their tall, black smokestacks and
beating paddle wheels, but they seldom dropped a passenger onto a mountain top or
swerved over a cliff at 60 miles an hour. The people had an affection for the steamboats
that has no counterpart in this age of high speed, streamlined, impersonal transportation.
 The Hudson’s Bay steamer Beaver, built in England in the 1830s and navigated to
the Columbia River under sail, was the first steamer to beat the waters of the Sound with
its paddle wheels, plying between the company posts at Vancouver and Nisqually.
 The first American steamboat was the little side-wheeler, Fairy, brought to Puget
Sound on the deck of the bark, Sarah Warren, in 1853. She plied intermittently between
Seattle and Olympia, and was later put on the Olympia-Steilacoom run.
 In 1857, her boiler exploded near the Steilacoom dock, and she sank while
operating on this route. The pioneer steamer, Traveler, was also brought up from
California on the deck of a sailing ship and assembled on the beach a mile north of Priest
Point in 1855.
 She made regular trips between Olympia and Seattle for some time and eventually
sank off Port Townsend. The iron propellor steamer, Major Tompkins, began the Olympia-
Victoria run in 1854, but was wrecked outside Victoria Harbor in 1855. The wooden
propellor steamer, Constitution, replaced her.

 In 1859, the fabulous old side-wheeler, Eliza Anderson, began plying between
Olympia and Vancouver, B.C., on a weekly mail schedule. The run was a highly profitable
one and many other steamers – Enterprise, Alexandria, Josie McNear, New World, Alida
and Wilson G. Hunt made a losing fight for lucrative business, but were either beaten off
with a rate war or bought off with hard cash by the Anderson’s owners. The Eliza Anderson
was tied up to her wharf in 1870, and her owners put the beautiful new steamer, Olympia,
on her run.


 The Anderson was wrecked while on her way to join the Alaska gold rush in 1897,
but legend has it that she “earned her weight in gold” for her owners during her long
 An old schedule at the State Library indicates that in 1870, the Anderson and Alida
were plying between Olympia and Victoria, and the Varuna and Chehalis from Olympia to
Seattle. The Chehalis, a stern- wheeler, was built at Tumwater; the Alida at Olympia.
 During most of those years, the Anderson’s owners had the mail contract, but in
1872, a Portland firm, the Starrs, underbid them and put another historic boat on the run –
the North Pacific.
 The Olympia and the North Pacific made an epic race from Victoria to Olympia in
June, the North Pacific winning the money bets on the short dash to Port Townsend, but
the Olympia winning the long pull, up-Sound, to the capital city.
 Early in September, 1871, the new, 100-foot stern-wheeler, Zephyr, was launched
at Seattle and placed on the Olympia-Seattle run, which she maintained for many years.
 By the early 1900s, the Greyhound, a speed queen of the Sound in her day, was
plying between Olympia and Tacoma, and the big Multonomah was running from Olympia
to Seattle. The Greyhound connected with the Flyer for Seattle.


 In 1911, the beautiful propellor-steamer, Nisqually, steamed into Olympia harbor
on her maiden trip and was placed on the Tacoma- Olympia route. She was slim and fleet –
140 feet long and 23 feet wide – and she could slash her way from Olympia to Tacoma
against the tide in two hours.
 But the day of the steamboat was almost over, and the Nisqually didn’t last long. By
1917, the little 112-foot propellor Magnolia could handle all the business there was, and
when she made her last trip, trundling north down Budd Inlet, the era had ended.
 Other little steamers served Olympia and the bays and inlets of the upper Sound.
The Sol G. Simpson and City of Shelton were the last and best-known of the Shelton boats,
although the little stern-wheeler, Willie, which preceded them, was well-known in her day.
In the early 1900s, the tiny steamer, Mizpah, plied between Olympia, Oyster Bay and
 The Mizpah sank once and burned to the water’s edge, but she is still in service
(1950) in Olympia harbor as a diesel tug, owned by her first skipper, Captain Volney C. P.
Young of the Capitol City Tug Company.


 In 1911, when the Nisqually was the pride of Olympia, everyone thought the Sound
would go on building bigger and faster steamers forever.
 Ten years later, the mosquito fleet was almost gone, swept from the bays and inlets
on a cloud of carbon-monoxide and the stench of gasoline. The deep-sea trade had long
since departed for the lower Sound ports, and Olympia turned her back on the water.
 The city’s interest didn’t focus on the waterfront again until 1925 when, with the
mud flats which had choked the harbor dredged away and confined behind bulkheads to
form a deep-water harbor, the Japanese steamer, Milan Maru, entered the new Port of
Olympia and began loading a big lumber cargo for the Orient.
 From then on, deep sea ships began calling regularly again at the only capital port
in America, and Olympia has regained her place among the ocean terminals of Puget
 The present harbor is a much different place from the waterfront of pioneer days,
where Duwamish squaws dug clams on the mudflats and the flat-bottomed paddle-wheel
steamers grounded at their moorings out at the end of the long wharf when the tide was



 Olympia has many ties with the past, among them pioneer business firms that have
grown from small beginnings with the city. Bettman’s Clothing Store is the oldest of these.
 Louis Bettman came to Olympia in 1853 and opened a general merchandise store in
the tiny hamlet. He prospered with the city in which he had faith and died at his adopted
home in 1904. The business has continued under the same name for almost a century.
 Millard Lemon was born while his parents’ covered wagon creaked toward the
promised land of Puget Sound, and he, too, devoted his life to the development of
Olympia, building up the present Casco Company, which is now managed by his son, Gary
 Gustave Rosenthal arrived in Olympia in 1863 and opened a general store at
Second and Main. That firm is still in business under the ownership of M. M. Morris.


 I. Harris arrived in Oregon Territory by ship in 1853 and entered the general
merchandise business in what is now Eastern Washington. In 1870, he opened the dry
goods store in Olympia which in 1949 became the big Miller’s Department Store.
 Two years later, in 1872, the Talcott Brothers established their jewelry firm, which
in 1949 was operated by three generations of the family, including one of the founders.
 The Olympia Oyster Company was established in 1878.
 the Mottman Mercantile Company began in 1880 as Toklas end Kaufman, the
present building [NW corner Capitol and Fourth] being completed in 1891. In the 1850s,
C. E. Williams conducted a store there, and his house, which now stands between the
YMCA and Sunset Building, was moved from Fourth and Capitol Way to make way for
the Mottman Building.


 The Olympia Brewing Company, the oldest of the city’s larger industries, was
established in 1896 at Tumwater where, fittingly enough, the first Washington industry had
been begun 50 years before by Michael Simmons. The Olympia Brewing Company
brought not only a payroll, but valuable civic leadership to the city.
 Leopold Schmidt, its founder, worked always for the welfare of Olympia, and he it
is, with P. M. Troy, pioneer lawyer and father of the present State Attorney General, Smith
Troy, to whom the people of Olympia owe their beautiful civic playground, Priest Point
 Troy, as city attorney, saved the land from speculators, and Leopold Schmidt
provided most of the equipment and the Swiss chalet which have been used and enjoyed by
thousands of Olympians for many years.



 Olympia has matured gracefully in the century just gone by, and it has mellowed
more than most western cities in the changing.
 The muddy, stump-lined streets of 1850 thunder now with motor traffic, and where
at night the somber firs were once reflected in a qui- et bay, with only the stars and the dim
light from settlers’ cabins to hold back the darkness, neon and mercury vapor flare in the
 The log trading post of Edmund Sylvester has expanded into hundreds of retail
stores. Five theaters and a radio station have sup- planted General Rag and his pioneer
vaudeville of a century ago.
 Trains and huge buses and space-eating airliners now serve the city whose fathers
hacked their way over the Cowlitz Trail, and great ocean ships are moored in the waters
once ploughed by the little paddle steamers.


 A hundred service stations dispense the magic liquid that brought these changes,
and to the casual observer, Olympia is a pulsing, noisy, modern city.
 But in the quiet residential streets, where old houses built of timbers hewed by
Clanrick Crosby still stand, and on the still shores of Puget Sound, where Seattle and
Leschi once walked with loving feet, and in the marble halls of state where Isaac Stevens’
picture hangs, you may feel the quiet calm of a city which has lived a century with a
remarkable tolerance and calm and lack of violence.
 Olympia escaped the worst hatreds of the Indian War and of the Chinese troubles,
the great fires which ushered in statehood year to many Washington cities, and the I.W.W.
troubles and the other upheavals that wracked the new frontier around her.
 Basically, Olympia is serene and calm. It is a lovely little city which is sure of its
place in a green and lovely land. It is a good place to live. Perhaps the pioneer colonel had
a vision of this future city when a century ago he said:

 “Olympia’s gods might view with grace
 Nor scorn so fair a dwelling place.”



 Language differences have many times caused misunderstandings leading to woe
and misery and war among humans since the beginning of history.
 Just as now, since 1945, at least part of our troubles with the Soviets has been due
to language misinterpretations leading to dangerous misunderstandings, so were the Indian
uprisings of 100 years ago caused by misinterpretations and lack of understanding because
of the limited facility of the Chinook jargon or language that had to be used in negotiations
with the Indians. The Chinook language was the only common medium for the exchange
of ideas between various tribes of Indians and the American, English and French of the
 When Washington’s first territorial governor, Isaac I. Stevens, attempted to control
the activities of the Indians in western and eastern Washington, he failed to secure their
compliance with his treaties largely because, as it soon became apparent, the Indians
simply had not understood what their leaders had agreed they were to do, or why.
Naturally, they resented being pushed around.
 Soon after arriving at Olympia, Governor Stevens delegated Col. M. T. Simmons to
represent him in Puget Sound Indian affairs largely because Simmons was one of the few
American white leaders able to speak and understand the Chinook jargon sufficiently to get
along well with a majority of the Indians.
 No doubt during the treaty-making, both sides took advantage of the possibilities
for misconceptions. Historical records make frequent references to wrong interpretations
being blamed for acts of violence by both whites and Indians. But the fact remains that the
Chinook language they were able to use as a common means of intercourse was the best in

Composite Jargon

 Explaining the origins of the jargon, George C. Shaw, in his book The Chinook
Jargon and How to Use It, published as late as 1909, states that, “The origin of this Jargon,
a conventional language similar to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro-
English- Dutch of the Surinam, the Pigeon English of China, dates back to the explorers
and traders of the 18th century.”
 These were the Spanish, English and American mariners and French Canadian fur
traders who came to the Pacific Northwest before the Lewis and Clark expedition’s arrival
in 1806. When Lewis and Clark arrived on the north bank at the Columbia River’s mouth,
they found that the Chinook Indians there already understood English and French words as
well as the language of the Nootka tribes on Vancouver Island in what is now British


 For many generations before, the various tribes of the North Pacific region,
especially along the coast, had practiced a common, though limited, manner of speech
understandable between tribes. George Vancouver’s men found the Indians in Grays
Harbor able to understand Chinook and Nootka.
 But with the arrival of the Astor party, the Chinook language became enlarged and
more common in use among the Indian tribes and whites, and by the time the Hudson’s
Bay Company settled at Vancouver on the Columbia, French words were added to the
American and English idioms commonly used by the Indians.
 As movement started up the Columbia, on the Fraser River, and over the eastern
plains to the Rockies, the Chinook jargon became more and more common in use between
Indians and whites in their trade and government transactions.
 Author Shaw says that words adopted from the several languages were naturally
those most easily uttered by all, but that when objects new to the Indians were introduced,
they would use the English, American or French names, if at all pronounceable.
 The various tribes were accustomed to different sound tones and in Chinook, the
gutturals of the Indian were softened or dropped; and the “f ” and “r” of the English and
French were modified into “p ” and “l”.  Expressions were simplified, and mood and tense
conveyed only by adverbs of the context.
 Eventually Chinook became used widely, even Americans and English using it
when speaking to non-English speaking French and the kanakas of the South Sea Islands
who more and more frequently came to the territory in ships’ crews. The language was
comparatively easy to learn, because of its small number of words.
 Known as “The Trade Language”, the Chinook jargon ultimately comprised around
500 words, according to George Gibbs, one-time assistant to Governor Stevens, his first
adjutant general, who for 14 years studied the development of the lingo. There were,
according to Gibbs, 221 Indian words, 94 French words, 67 English words and 29 Flathead
(eastern Indians) words. The balance was a conglomeration of idioms developed in local
 Of the Chinook language, Gibbs wrote later: “There can be no doubt that it will
remain a living and useful language so long as the native tribes continue to speak their own
 “Rude and formless as it is, the spontaneous product of the commercial needs of
mingled races, it has been the source of great and varied benefits. It may well serve, if not
as a model, at least as a finger post to direct us to some higher invention for advancing
civilization through better understanding.”


Pronunciation different

 Wrote Myron Eells, D. D., another authority of the Chinook language: “With the
spelling… I have learned that it is useless for any person who has not heard a Chinook
word used to try to give its pronunciation. The accented syllable is marked but it must not
be supposed that any one pronunciation is the only correct one. There are often many
different ways of pronouncing the same word in different localities. ”
 Perhaps a short demonstration of the use of the Chinook jargon is the best
explanation of it. From the autobiography of John Roger James of Thurston county comes
this interesting extract:
 “There was no racking of brains to acquire grammatical expressions in Chinook. At
the same time, a proficient would pride himself in knowing when to use ‘Claxto’ (who)
instead of ‘Icta” for what.
 “Common expressions used among the early settlers and the Indians included
‘Cumtux’ (understand); ‘tickey mucka muck’ (I want something to eat); ‘Ca mika clatawa’
(where are you going?); ‘leta mike tickey’ (what do you want?).
 ” ‘Clahoua, six?’ (How do you do, sir?)
 “While in Victoria in 1870, an Indian there said to me, ‘I mika clauk nesika salon’
which meant, ‘You, opened your ears’.”



 In the area bounded by the then waterfront, Second Street and Third Street (now
State), and Fourth Street and Columbia and Washington, was most of Olympia 100 years
ago. Crowded in these few blocks were all of the buildings of the Town of Olympia, laid
out by Sylvester in 1850 and incorporated as a town in 1859.
 Here was the home of Levi Lathrop Smith, first owner of the townsite of Olympia;
he lived in a log cabin which was shared by Edmund Sylvester, his partner. A building
which Sylvester built later contained the famous Gold Bar Restaurant.  Upstairs, the first
legislature of the Territory was held in 1854. Facing Second Street was the first Masonic
Temple. On one corner was Bettman’s Store; on the other were the buildings of Governor
Stevens surveying party. Percivals and Munsons lived down there, and on the corner where
the City Hall is, stood the stable of Rice Tilley, owner of the first Overland Stages. Across
the street was the New England Hotel and the Pacific House – two early hotels of Olympia.
Here Stevens stopped after his long overland journey.


 On the corner of Second and Washington stood the building which housed the
Washington Standard for over half a century. Next door, the home of John Miller Murphy,
proprietor and editor of the Washington Standard. Murphy was a brother-in-law of George
A. Barnes who had a general merchandise store in the next block. Barnes also started the
first bank in the Territory which still stands just south of the Daily Olympian building. The
site of the Daily Olympian once was a two-story brick building built by Charles
Burmeister, a saloon keeper. Becky Howard, a negro woman, ran the Pacific House, owned
and built by Colonel Cock.
 Over on Columbia Street were John Clark and family who ran the Columbia Hotel.
On the corner of Columbia and Third (now State) was a wagon shop. The top floor, or
story, of the wagon shop was Olympia’s first theater. A furniture store across the street
became the scene of an early school conducted by Annie Stevens. Around the block on
Main Street was the Woodruff Building; one of the first music stores was below, and one
of the first post offices.
 On the northwest corner of Main and Fourth stood the residence of Sam Williams,
the hardware man. This house is still here, having been moved to a location just south of
the Y.M.C.A. North of Williams’ house stood his hardware store. After the house was
moved away, Toklas and Kauffman had a drygoods store on the corner, where Mottman’s
Store is now. On the southwest corner was the scene of the first circus.
 On the northeast corner was the first water system in Olympia – a town pump where
Indians and whites came to draw water and exchange gossip. Maybe this was the reason
the newspapers have remained on the block so long. Afterwards, the Chambers Building
was erected on this corner and still stands there.
 On the southeast corner of Main and Fourth was the Turner Block, built by Dr.
George Turner, the first licensed pharmacist in the Territory. Many governors had offices
in this block, upstairs and handy to the “Capitol”, just across the street. In the Chambers
Block, in an early day, Julian Guyot, formerly of Switzerland, became the first jeweler in
the Territory of Washington. Talcotts came later, in 1873, but have continued in business
all the years. George and Grant Talcott were the makers of the State Seal.
 Continuing on around the block on Fourth Street and Washington stood the home
of Thos. Prather, early Indian fighter, who lived to be nearly 90 years old. Across the
street, on the northeast corner of Washington and Fourth, was the home of Burmeister, also
his saloon. On the southeast corner of Fourth and Washington, where the Security Building
stands, was Mann’s Drug Store. Across the alley, on Washington, was the old Odd Fellow’s
Hall, where one of the early schools was conducted by Mary O’Neill. Across Washington
street on


the other corner by the alley was the home of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Ott, also from
Switzerland – with them were their sons, Walter and Henry, and daughter, Gertrude, now
Gertrude Ott Martin. Then on the northwest corner of Fifth and Washington stood the
Tilley home; across on the southwest corner of Fifth and Washington, Doane’s Restaurant,
home of the Oyster Pan Roast, and rendezvous, of Captain Woodbury Doane, a retired sea
 On the southeast corner of Fifth and Washington, about midway of the block, was
the home of Thomas Milburn Reed, Territorial Auditor. The Olympic Theater stands about
where the Reed home stood. Reed built the block on the northeast corner of Washington
and Sixth (now Legion Way). Where the Olympian Hotel stands, stood the home of
Tarbells; north of them were Hamer’s, the first undertaker, and west of them, Carroll’s,
parents of Mrs. Walter Beals. South of Carroll’s, on the southeast [northeast] corner of
Capitol Way and Legion Way where the new building for Miller Brothers is, was the home
of Governor Stevens.
 Where the Harris’ Store was, stood Grainger’s Livery Stable, operated by Wm.
Littlejohn. Grainger’s house was across on the other side of Main Street. On the northeast
corner of Main and Sixth, [Capitol and Legion] where


Penney’s Store is now, was the home of Peterfield Turpin. On the southwest corner of
Main and Sixth stood the Charles Talcott residence.
 Next, going south, was the Ike Ellis house where the Elks’ building stands; then the
Episcopal Church where the Hotel Governor stands. Next was the Unitarian Church in the
middle of Seventh, and then the T. I. McKenney House. Then in succession, a block-
house, burned up; U.S. Land Office, burned down; Olympia Hotel Building, which burned
in 1904 – all where the Post Office is now.  On the southeast corner of Main and Sixth, at
the corner of Sylvester Park, was a block-house used in Indian War days. After the war, it
was used as a jail. Speaking of jails – one of the earliest was the large brick jail, two stories
high, which stood about where the flats are in back of the First Presbyterian Church on
Legion Way. The jail was there long after the turn of the century, until it was torn down.
Why a jail in a place like that? Well, the courthouse from an early day was only a block
away on the southeast corner of Legion Way and Washington; afterwards the courthouse
was on the northwest corner of Legion Way and Franklin. Then, in 1890, the large stone
courthouse was built which is now a part of the old downtown Capitol, facing Sylvester
 Edmund Sylvester’s house was erected in 1857 on Eighth Street, between
Washington and the present Capitol Way. He donated the land for Sylvester Park, and land
for the Masonic Temple, and 10 acres for the Capitol grounds.
 Across the street is the Thornton McElroy house, another old land- mark. Where
the bus station is, was the Harris house, still standing on another location at 7th and
Adams. At Seventh and Adams are the old Harris house, the Alexander Farquhar house
and the T.M. Reed house, all made over into apartment houses. On Eighth and Jefferson
still stands the remains of the old Jefferson Hotel constructed by Farquhar. It was once
known as the Capitol Hotel – now is the Baird.
 Farquhar once built and owned a huge barn down on the waterfront on Seventh and
Jefferson, which fell down in a snowstorm, killing his stock. The hardware store he had on
the southeast corner of Seventh and Adams was later used as a legislative building, was the
scene of a Governor’s Ball, was used as the State Printing Office, and last, as the State
Armory, harboring the supplies of the Adjutant General’s office. On the southwest corner
of Eighth and Adams, is the old Territorial manse of the First Presbyterian Church. Next
door is the old home of Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander, a pioneer physician, who was a member
of the Cowlitz Convention at Monticello which sent the Memorial to Congress to create
the Territory of Washington. This house was built about 1875. He also built around the
block, which he owned, houses for his daughters as they married; the Walter Crosby house,
the Fanny Moore house, the Mike O’Connor house, are all in the block. (The O’Connor
house has been torn down.)


 Further south on Adams Street are the McFadden house; the William Billings
house, home of the pioneer sheriff; the old school house; the Howard flat, built by a son of
Becky Howard; the old Ben John’s house, built by a pioneer schoolteacher who held the
first kindergarten in her living room (Mrs. Houghton). The Fidelia Boyd house on 11th and
Adams has been torn down, but her first home is still standing on Franklin Street. She was
the first Mrs. Baker, then Mrs. George Turner, then Mrs. Boyd. Bush Baker is her son.
 There are an endless number of old houses all over Olympia: the Chambers house,
on Water Street; the Anders house, on 19th and Capitol Way; somne old houses on Maple
Park; the William Sternberg house and old waterwheel was on East Union Street; Ike Ellis
logging camp in that vicinity.
 I am returning now to East Bay Drive in order to get in a school building. I almost
overlooked the Olympia Collegiate Institute at Second and Pear. It was organized in 1875
and operated until the early ’90s as a school for the whole northwest. This school is
deserving of a marker.
 The old Bigelow home is on Glass Street. The first water system in Olympia was
on East Bay Drive, built by Wm. Horton, and the second brewery in Olympia was East
Bay Drive; the Robert Frost home was there; the Sally Eaton home; the Pattison home was
on Second Street; the Galliher’s donation claim was down toward the park. The
Whitworth’s was in back of the park, the St. Joseph’s Mission just outside the entrance of
the park. The land was acquired for this mission in 1848. An Indian graveyard just south of
the Mission.


 Starting at Fourth Avenue, going south, the Olympic Hotel is on the site of an early
theater in Olympia, at Fourth and Franklin on the southeast corner. On the southeast corner
of the next block was the C. B. Mann house where Mann’s Seed Store is now. Next was the
J. J. Gilbert house (house torn down). He was head man of the U. S. Geodetic Coast
Survey. Next stands the Chas. Williams house. This once stood where Mottman’s Store is
now at Fourth and Main. On the southwest corner of Franklin and Fifth Street stood the
first real telephone building in Olympia. They had a telephone company before that, but
they were always in rented buildings. The home of Williamson, the logger, was next, high
on the hill. Next south of that, on the hillside, was the first American schoolhouse, north of
Columbia River and west of the Rocky Mountains, on the northeast corner of Franklin and
Sixth Street (Legion Way). Later in this building were the Courthouse and the Daily
Olympian Building.


 On the opposite corner, on the southeast corner of Legion Way, and Franklin
Street, was the First Presbyterian Church, erected in 1862.  Olympia had the first church of
this denomination organized north of the Columbia River on the shores of Puget Sound.
The church itself was organized in 1854 in a cooper shop on Fifth and Columbia, but held
Sunday School and church for eight or ten years in the old schoolhouse on the opposite
corner of Legion and Franklin. This church building is still standing and is used by Gloria
Dei Lutheran Church (on Adams between Legion Way and 5th).
 On the west side of the next block stands the old Thurston County Courthouse,
built in 1892 and added onto about 1905 for a Capitol. Next to the Presbyterian Church and
across the alley was a low piece of ground where stood the home of Jack Baldwin, pioneer
logger. This house was afterwards occupied by Captain Hatch of Steamboat fame. The
house stood there until the present public [Carnegie] library was built on the spot. The lot
was filled in. As evidence that the lot was low, notice the holes in the sidewalk on the
Seventh Avenue side for a fence which was there once. Across the way on the opposite
side is the old Kauffman house, owned by the man who had the Kauffman store. The
Kauffman house is an ancient edifice with a square roof and a small balcony on the upper
story. South of the Kauffman home is the John Scott and Mary Jane Scott house. He was
an early saloon keeper. She had lived here nearly all of her 82 years, having come from
Liverpool, England at the age of two. Next south of that on the northeast corner of Franklin
and Eighth Street was the house of Sam Willey, a pioneer logger. This home was
afterwards occupied by some people who were related to the Willeys and the house was
known as the Leighton house.
 On the southwest corner of Eighth and Franklin were the five houses built by
Lafayette Willey, and occupied for most of his life by Sam. Willey II, his son, who lived in
the corner house and rented the others. They are still standing there. The elder Willey
logged with ox teams, then was the owner of the Willey Navigation Company which
operated steamboats on Puget Sound. Sam Willey II was born here and lived here all his
 On the northeast corner of Eighth and Franklin is the site of the old First Christian
Church, organized in 1890; this building was torn down. It occupied most of the corner.
South of the Willey houses and on the northwest corner of Ninth and Franklin is the old
Bettman house. He was a pioneer merchant, having one of the first stores in town at the
corner of Second and Main Street. (The old Bettman store near Fourth and Capitol Way is
still there, but was recently sold to a new concern after nearly 100 years in business in
Olympia.) West of the Bettman house is the Oppenheimer house, belonging to a son-in-
law of Bettman.
 The block bounded by Eighth and Ninth, and Adams and Franklin, was known as
the Ostrander Block, so called for Dr. Nathaniel Ostrander, pioneer physician, who arrived
in Olympia about 1875 and thereafter built most of the old houses in the block. Besides the
Ostrander house, facing Eighth Street, are the Fanny Moore house


still standing, and the Michael O’Connor house which stood on the northeast corner of
Ninth and Franklin, and which was torn down in 1948.
 Next east of that was the Walter Crosby house and next the Pixler house which
formerly was the Ostrander barn. East of that, on the corner, was the large house known as
the Billings house, occupied by Janette Billings, the widow of William Billings, pioneer
sheriff. Just south of that, on the next corner, is the little old house where the Billings lived
in the early ’70s; here Frederick Billings was born. Billings, about 1874, built a brick
house, one of the first in the Territory, on the lot where now stands the Mottman house at
9th and Washington. The next block, bounded by Ninth and Tenth streets, and Adams and
Franklin, was known as the Brown Block. Mrs. Brown was a sister of Edmund Sylvester.
Their house stood on the northwest corner of Tenth and Adams. There were several Mrs.
Browns in those days, and to distinguish them, they were known as: Cold-Water Brown or
Presbyterian Brown.
 On the block bounded by Ninth and Tenth, and Franklin and Washington, were two
of the early pioneer churches of Olympia. On the southwest corner of Ninth and Franklin
was the Unitarian Church, built by that denomination, and also the flats facing Tenth
Street; these flats were known as the Unitarian flats. This church was bought years later by
the Baptist denomination. On the opposite side of the block, facing Washington, is the old
Episcopal Church, built about 1890 and still in use. The old Episcopal manse, or Parish
House, which stood for many years on the southeast corner of Ninth and Washington
streets, was torn down years ago to make room for the new Parish House. Down in back of
the Parish House stood the old Holman house, one of the oldest houses in town. (Mrs. Fred
Sylvester is a grand-daughter of Holman; Arno Glidden is a grandson). Where the Baptist
Church stands, once stood a sawmill in the early days, a log pond was in the block, and the
bay was not far away to the east.
 On the southeast corner of Tenth and Franklin is the palatial residence, on a hill, of
Sam Williams, the pioneer hardware man. This is the second house he built. (He was a
brother of Mrs. Harry McElroy.) West of that is the Addie Wood house, and next the
Woman’s Clubhouse. On that corner once stood the home of Judge Sparks. This home was
used for years as a Woman’s Clubhouse until the present clubhouse was built in 1908.
Then the Sparks house was moved over to Adams in the middle of the block between
Ninth and Tenth streets. Here the first Christian Science Church was organized and used
the building as a church until they built the present Christian Science Church building on
the southeast corner of Eighth and Washington. Here once stood the home of G. Rosenthal,
pioneer merchant.
 Going south from the Woman’s Clubhouse is the home of Helen Cowles and J.
Todd Cowles; her brother and Annie Cowles Claypool, born in Olympia. On the northeast
corner of Washington and Union, where the home of Mrs. J. W. Mowell now stands, once
stood one of the most historic school buildings in Olympia. This was first built for the


Puget Sound Wesleyan Institute, then bought for a courthouse, then leased for a young
ladies seminary, and last was the old Central School. It was moved to the southwest corner
of Union and Adams in two pieces and still stands there – the main part facing Union and
the other part facing Adams. To this school from the earliest days trooped the children of
the pioneers. Among these pupils of Old Central School was Harry Crosby, the father of
Bing Crosby. John Miller Murphy, pioneer newspaperman, attended the old institute.
 On the southwest corner of Tenth and Adams is the old Kearney house, on the hill.
On the northwest corner of Union and Franklin stands the G. F. Kearney house recently
sold for a Y.W.C.A. Across the street, on the northeast corner of Union and Franklin, is the
old Woodard house, and north of that the old Dr. J. M. Steele house – over 85 years old.
Next west of the old schoolhouse, on the corner of Union and Adams, is the old home of
Mrs. Raggermeyer, a German woman, who ran a private school in her home. She taught
German, French and music.
 On the southeast corner of Washington and Union, on a high point of ground, is the
old Rose [Ross?] O’Brien house, occupied so many years by the daughter, Hazel Aetzel –
now her daughter, Virginia and husband live there (Mr. and Mrs. Robert Schmidt). So this
makes about the fifth generation of that family to live in Olympia; on that same property is
a little old house where once lived John B. Allen, a United States Senator, the first librarian
in the Territory.
 On the southwest corner of Twelfth and Adams is the William Campbell house. He
was an old pioneer who became blind crossing the plains. The house is very old and of a
type commonly built in pioneer days – large fireplace, a large pantry, big hall, etc. On the
northeast corner of Adams and Twelfth stand the Howard Flats, part of which are occupied
by a grocery store. These flats were built by the son of Becky Howard, a Negro woman,
who ran the Pacific House. The son was a mixture of Negro, Chinese and Indian [sic].
 On the southeast corner of Twelfth and Adams is the old B. F. Johns property, but
he didn’t build it. It was built by a family by the name of Houghton. Mrs. Houghton taught
the first kindergarten in town. Two of her star pupils were Carrie Williams, afterwards
Carrie McElroy, and George Tarbell. She taught them their French and Latin. George
Tarbell lived in this same house when he was 85 years old, when the house was sold. Mrs.