Tannis: Journal of Levi Lathrop Smith

 

The Journal of Levi Lathrop Smith, 1847 – 1848
Edited by James Robert Tannis

[full text of the diary follows Tannis’ preface] [Transcribed 2003 by Roger Easton.  Note: Excerpted text from Smith’s Journal
entries contains all mispellings, errors, etc. as in the original]

 

May 17. the Eldest Sow was deliverd of Five Sow pigs.

Oct. 26, rainy this morning. Sylvester just started for the falls to commence
the mill. dug sum  potatoes to day.

Dec. 31. this is the last day of the year  O time how art thou flying. rainy
this morning  nothing a doing   rain continues all day   I have seen no person
today

Since 1868 when the existence of the diary of Levi Lathrop Smith was first
generally known, such brief excerpts as the above alone formed the picture of
Olympia’s first settler.  The native poetry of Smith’s writing and the hidden
historical allusions in his diary were never available to excite the caual
reader or the local historian. Ever since H. H. Bancroft noted the existence of
this diary in his History of Washington, every history of early Washington has
mentioned it, but, despite the positiveness with which these histories describe
it, a comparison of the diary with Bancroft, Snowden, and all the others reveals
that none of these historian saw or used the original manuscript.

Smith, with his partner Edmund Sylvester, arrived on Puget Sound in the fall of
1846, and, before the following summer, the former realized the great
potentialities of this newly viewed and yet unsettled wilderness. “…the
facility this part of the country possesses as a commertial nead not be
commented on”, he wrote. “every person who has any idear of the locality of the
country must be aware of its advantiges as a commertial country.  the exporting
of lumber from this part of the country at no subsequent period must form a very
extensive and profitable buisiness and were the country settled at the preasant
I have no [doubt] but what it would soon attract shipping to a larg extent.” 
These and other  chance jottings have now become significant clues in piecing
together the story of  the first days of the Americans in what is now the state
of Washington. Smith’s diary, much more adequately than latter-day descriptions,
gives the real flavor of solitary pioneer life.

American settlement north of the Columbia had scarcely begun when Smith arrived
there in 1846.  The first americans attempting reconnaissance of the Sount for
settlement started north in December of 1844, but they were successful only in
reaching the Cowlitz. The exporation was led by Michael T. Simmons, who with his
band of settlers had come across the great expanse of the West from Missouri to
Oregon.  In July of the following year Simmons, whit a party of seven others,
started again toward the Sound country, this time reaching it in the month of
August.  Soon after the arrival of this first group, the community was joined by
a small immigration including four families.  By the time of their arrival,
Simmons had already staked out his claim where the town of Tumwater now stands;
his claim he named New Market after a town he had left in Missouri.  All the
newcomers settled in the same general vicinity.  Small groups sometimes of only
two or three each, continued to migrate to the Sound during the months that
followed.  But during the first few years the region was never composed of more
than a few scattered claims.

In the meantime the Oregon government claimed the area north of the Columbia
River, and, on December 19, 1845, it established, as Lewis County, all the land
above the Columbia and west of the Cowlitz River.  The region soon became
important politically, for all Oregon awaited the decisive vote of Lewis County
in the extremely close gubernatorial election of the 1846 session of the
Provisional Government.

As to occupations, most of the settlers in the county busied themselves with
clearing their land claims and farming the prairie lands adjoining. In August,
1847, however, eight of these pioneers joined together to form the Puget Sound
Milling Company — the first corporate commercial venture in this new American
settlement.  The land selected for the mill was part of Simmons’ New Market
claim, and the following agreement was drawn up with him:

     Oregan Teritory      Lewis County      New Market.
 
 August 20th 1847. I, Michael T Simmons of said County do lease to the
 following persons Namely [M. T. Simmons, J. Ferguson, G. Jones, A. D.
 Carnefix, J. K. Kindred, B. F. Shaw, E. Sylvester, and A. B. Rabbeson] for
 the period of 5 years and ten if said Company shall think advisible the
 North-West part of my lower falls as a bilding spot for a sawmill for the
 said Company    reserving to myself during the period of 5 years liquise [
 i.e. likewise] extendingto 10 should said company desire  no right or
 authority whatever any more than each induvidual of said Company is
 possessed of in testamony whereof I have signed my Name this 20th day of
 August 1847 before the following Witness L. L. Smith

  -Michael T. Simmons

The company purchased the equipment for the mill from the Hudson’s Bay Company
for three hundred dollars in lumber which they delivered to the landing of Fort
Nisqually at the enviable rate of sixteen dollars per thousand.  As Smith notes
in his diary, on October  25 Simmons was “elected supertendant of affares”  of
the company; and, on the next day, the co-partners commenced building the mill
which they completed during that fall and winter.

A threefold combination of events in 1848–the Mexican war, the Whitman
massacre, and most important, the California gold discoveries–almost halted the
growth of settlement around the Sound. As Smith notes, however, on June 14 of
that year a small party of Oblate missionaries under Father Pascal Ricard
arrived on the Sound, established at New Market under the patronage of St.
Joseph, Ricard, assisted by Father Georges Blanchet and eight other Oblate
missionaries, founded the mission on the east side of Budd Inlet next Smith’s
claim–the old site is now Olympia’s Priest Point Park.

Smith won public office in 1848 when Lewis County elected him representative to
the Oregon Provisional Legislature.  Unfortunately he died before he could begin
his term of service; nor did he live to hear that on August 14 the United States
Congress established Oregon with full territorial status.

Of our diarist, almost nothing is known of his early life. He was born in New
York State; and, it was said, he had there studied for the Presbyterian
ministry–though, as will be seen, this is quite unlikely.  He emigrated early
to Wisconsin, where, so the story goes, he became attached to a half-breed girl
of Catholic faith.  Under opposition to this affair he moved to Oregon where, in
1845, he met Edmund Sylvester.  Sylvester, born in Maine in 1820, journeyed to
Oregon in 1843, and, after meeting Smith, came with him in October, 1846, to
Puget Sound.  They soon placed their land claims, establishing them in
partnership.  Under the law this meant that each owned half share in the other’s
claim, and, upon the death of either one, both claims were to pass to the
survivor.  Sylvester staked his claim on the edge of Chambers’ Prairie, while
Smith located his where Olympia now stands.  The latter moved on his claim on
October 20, 1846, and soon erected there his cabin about sixteen feet square,
two miles from the extreme head of Budd Inlet, near present Capitol way between
today’s State and Olympia Avenues.  The land along the shore, north of what is
now State Avenue, was then occupied during the winter months by between 250 and
300 Duwamish Indians–though they were usually not there at the same time.  The
Smith claim was in the midst of a heavily timbered coastal region with his
nearest American Neighbors at Tumwater, at that time still New Market.  Access
to these nearby settlers required tramping through the woods, for a trail was
not blazed to this New Market settlement until August 24,  1848–a few days
before Smith’s death.  In the summer of 1847 he wrote of his claim:

In it you will find one house built of split cedar, with a stone fire-place and
a stick chimney.  It is covered with four-foot shingles put on with weightpoles.
It has three lights and one door, with a rough puncheon floor, made of split
cedar, with a closet and a bed-room made of the same materials.  The furniture
consists of two tables, one bedstead, which is made by boring holes in the side
of the house and driving in sticks, three benches and two half-pint tin kettles,
one basin and a trencher.

The enclosure, two acres of land, with one and a half under cultivation, with
corn, beans, pumpkins, squashes, potatoes, peas, turnips, cabbages, melons,
cucumbers, beets, parsnips, carrots, onions, tomatoes, radishes, lettuce,
parsley, sweet fennel, peppergrass, summer savory and sunflowers.

The out-houses, one hog house and one hen-house, with five hogs, three pigs,
seven hens, a cock, cat and a dog, one yoke of oxen and two horses. [This
reading of the descripstion is taken from the Washington Standard (Olympia) of
February 1868.  It is there ascribed to Sylvester, but from its form and content
it is apparently one of the notes that Smith wrote to occupy his lonesome
hours.]

The claim he called Smith Field, and, as seen above, he had soon cleared it
sufficiently to farm.

This soil [he wrote] is admirable adapted for potatoes partickualy the prairie
soil garden vegitables thrive most luxuriously   this county taken generly
possesses one great advantage the power of retaining and exhaling during the dry
season a certin quantity of humidity which is emited in gread abdundance
[during] the warm season thereby enabling the vegatation to withstan the effects
of caloric which is so strongly intermixed with the atmosphere.    but the most
important part of the country for agriculture unquestionably is the timberland. 
this is composed of an a an adheasive and strong clay    the surface for sum
considerable distance is coverd with decayed vegatation and when mixed with the
clay is rich and productive.

The account of Smith in the Washington Centennial Booklet states that he was
cultured and solitary.  In conversation, in all likelihood, he appeared
cultured, for even his brief diary entries reveal a large vocabulary for a
Northwest frontiersman.  His spelling and grammar, however, as will be seen, are
quite another matter and betray the fact that his formal education was probably
quite brief.  In spite of his poor spelling, he managed, nevertheless, to
portray in writing the extreme state of his loneliness and the odd searchings of
his mind.  On one of the miscellaneous notes that accompany his diary he writes,
“Now as I sat alone viewing that Most Misterious form of Man, an intercourse
commensed between those light and airy formes which once had formed the thinking
part of Man    it seamed a thing so strange for that for sum time I could not
decide the reality” Though the precise meaning escapes the reader, the
fascination of the wording alone can scarcely help but charm.  If the diary is
perused slowly–and it can be meaningful only when read that way–many such
finely turned phrases will great and please the reader.

As has been noted, this lonely settler died before Smith Field grew to a
population larger than “two”. Bancroft says that Smith’s canoe overturned and he
drowned; Snowden writes that he was found dead in his boat.  In either case the
epilepsy which had so long harassed his life undoubtedly caused his death at the
end of August, 1848.  Though he entered in his diary that March 6 was his
birthday, no information previously noted agreement, passed to his partner
Sylvester.  Smith falling out on March 11.  In addition, on one of his doodle
sheets, Smith whets the reader’s appetite by commenting to [?] Sylvester,
“Edmund you are a fine fellow and that is not all. you are given to committing
that heinous act so expressly forbidden by sacred write of that lothsum practice
which I much fear will cut assunder the bond of friendship betwene you and all
virtous persons.” Beyond this brief fragment the reader is left to speculation.

On Smith’s death Sylvester abandoned his own prairie claim, took over Smith
Field, and two years later (1850) he platted the town of Olympia.  The name,
suggested by Hugh Allan Goldsborough who did the definitive survey of Olympia in
1850, was taken from the Olympic range of mountains, so beautifully visible from
the budding settlement.

The manuscript itself is written mostly on large sheets of paper, 16″ by 13″,
folded to half their size.  In spite of the difficulties afforded by an almost
total lack of punctuation and “unique” spelling, the diary is, with effort,
legible throughout.  In addition to his sparing use of punctuation, Smith uses
commas for apostrophes, and his 1/2 he very originally inverts. These
peculiarities have been retained as he wrote them, though, in this printing,
unpunctuated sentences have been set off from each other by generous spacing.  A
possibility of variant readings in some spots has made this difficult, but it is
hoped that what has been done will be an aid for the reader.  When Smith uses
superior letters in his date headings, they are usually illegible, and so where
he indicates he wants one, the correct form has been supposed.  The original
capitalizations and spelling have been carefully retained, and all emendations
in the text have been noted. With the exception of some completely insignificant
jottings–a few of wich interestingly enough are in Chinook–Smith’s writing are
here reproduced in toto.  There are no omissions whatever from the text of the
diary.  Snowden says of the diary that it includes details of the agreement with
Sylvester; if this is true, those sheets are now missing, and there is no way to
determine whether he actually wrote any entries covering this missing period. 
The whereabouts of the manuscript for the twenty years following Smith’s death
is not known.  That the previously quoted comment on Sylvester was not destroyed
would lead to the supposition that the papers had not come into Sylvester’s
possession.  The earliest knowlege of them are now extant is that Elwood Evans
obtained them during the latter part of February, 1868.  From whom he received
them, he leaves no information.  Evans compiled comments on the diary and
excerpts from it which appeared in the Washington Standard (Olympia) in 1868 All
references to it since that time appear to be based on the Evans article rather
than on an examination of the manuscript itself. (Such a description is found in
the Centennial Commemorative Booklet previously alluded to.)  Where Snowden got
his information, noted above, is not known, though perhaps it is from conjecture
rather than fact.  The manuscript remained in Evans’ keeping until his death, at
which time it was stored, with the rest of his invaluable historical collection,
on his daughter’s property. There the collection remained lost for all practical
purposes until brought to light by the late Winlock William Miller, Jr.,
grandson of William Winlock Miller of early territorial fame.  In accordence
with the wishes of Winlock, Jr., this outstanding collection was presented to
his alma mater, Yale University; and now, through the courtesy of the Yale
Library, this diary is printed for the historian’s information and the chance
reader’s enjoyment.

 

Journal of Levi L. Smith

1847

May 17,  the Eldest Sow was deliverd of Five Sow pigs.

Wenesday 19   sumwhat recoverd from my illness    sum prospect of regaining
helth.    this indisposition has prostrated Me more than any heartofore.

Sunday 23    quite indisposed as yet

[September]

Monday 27th  a betiful day.   seen one canoe going down.   nothing a sturing in
the least.   another canoe just gon down the bay.   just the old-woman cam with
Salmon   bought eleven.   just Mr Foards Son [1] came to see about Mr Handcocks
[2] canoe    returned again to the praire.

Tuesday 28th   a beautiful day.   quite unwell this morning   Mr Wanch [3]  
Jack and Mr Fords son came this Morning a going to the Fort. [Fort Nisqually,
the Hudson’s Bay Company post near Steilacoom is usually referred to in this
diary simply as “Nisqually” or “the Fort.]

Wednesday 29th  a fine day    very much indisposed in helth this morning    
very ill day.

Thirsday 30th   A beautiful day   Mr. Crocket [4]   was hear to day   staid till
after dinner.

[October]

Friday 1st  a fine day   Mr Wanch and Mr Foard Just started from here.   helth
sum what  better today    found one pig dead and kild one

Saturday 2nd   a rainy morning   helth gaining.   nothing sturing   one cano
with a sail going down  the bay and one a going up this afternoon    this is
melancholy.

Sunday 3rd   a rainy day    have seen one cano going down the Bay   helth
improving.   commensed  letting the Calf suck again last night to see the effect
on the Cow.   Much better in helth
 this is a steady rain.    the flowing of the tide is commensing.

Monday 4th   a rany day    one Cano going down early this Morning.   last night
the Cow  commenced giving thick and curdled Milk    gave only a few spunfuls   
the Calf is sucking    she dous not appear to have much Affection for it   
dous not lick it nor pay any attention  to it    neither dous she eat much   
I think she is unwell.    one Cano just a going up the  bay.    the rain
desends steady.

Tuesday 5th   the Rain desends regular    nothing a sturing.   left off Milking
the Cow last night
 the Milk is thick and curdled.   and she dous not give more than a pint
including what  the Calf sucks    gethering the Squashes this afternoon.   I
have seen one Cano going up  this afternoon.   found two dead Pigs to day.  
helth is improving   I am much better than I  was two days ago.    the rain
descends refreshing.   Another lodded Cano going down the  Bay    the Indians
are all buisy caching Salmon

Wednesday 6th   quit a fine day    three or four Canoes has been up and down the
bay this  forenoon.   this is pleasant.   last night the Cow remained out.  
the Wind is at the  Northend.   another Pig is just died   only two
remaining.

Thirsday 7th   Just been to dinner   quit a good day.   nothing as yet a sturing  
have not seen the  least thing passing   it is now 4 Oclock and their is a
Cano just a going up with three  Indians in it.   this is the first to day.
 
Friday 8th   A beautiful day.   Sylvester has just arived.  In good helth.   it
will not be  twenty-eight days until Monday next [that he has been away]. 
I had not the least  expation of seeing him before a week or fortnight at
least.   their has been two Canoes  down and three up this afternoon.   this is
a beautiful day. 

Saturday 9th  a beautiful day   Sylvester just started after the Cattle   
Canoes traveling up and  down the bay.

Sunday 10th   rather lowry all day.   rather indisposed all day.   this evening
Sylvester and an  Indian arrived with the Cows

Monday 11th   a fine day   nothing a sturing.   except bying cramberys of the
Squaws.  and cleaning  the things arived.

Tuesday 12th   a fine day   diging the sellar.  bought cramberys of the Indians. 
Iam banking up the  house

Wednesday 13th   Sylvester has just started for [Fort] Nesqualy.   nothing a
sturing.   finished  banking the house 3 Oclock 

Thirsday 14th   Rainy early in the Morning but cleard up and a find day.   have
seen one Cano    very still all day.

Friday 15th   Rather lowery in the Morning   sum indications of rain.  but a
fine day.    very dull all  day    nothing a moving.   it is now half past
four and not the least thing opperating.   the
 Cattle are in fine grasing    went over their on Wednesday

Saturday 16th   Nothing a doing    no travling of any consequence    Kimsey [5]
came after  Sylvester for to repay for work

Sunday 17th   Iill helth    partickilary in the Morning    dull and still all
day.

Monday 18th   compleated the Cellar.   all ready for potatoes.

Tuesday 19    to day Sylvester is gon to repay work for Kimsey.  to day
commensed diging the  potatoes    all of them as yet small

Wednesday 20th   A fine day   Mr Packwood  [6] an another yong Man just started
for Nisqualy     stopt here all night.    this is a beautiful day    nothing in
the least a doing.

Thirsday 21st   a fine day   diging potatoes   nothing a doing

Friday 22nd    a fine day   diging potatoes   Mr Handcock just arived.   
nothing a sturing

Saturday 23rd   commensed putting up the barn
Sunday 24th    Rather a lowry day    Mr Sheperd [7] has ben here to day   
yesterday several
  ware at the raising.  Mr Packwood, Simmons [8], Robertson [9], Ferguson
[10]  Crocket, Kendred [11], Sheperd.  Silvester has ben up on the prairie to Mr
Joneses       [12]     got a quantity of beef

Monday 25th    a fine day   Sylvester has gon up to the falls to organise and
choose a supertendant  or overseer for the company    Just returned    Mr
Simmons elected supertendant of the  affares.   Mr Packwood remained all
night.

Tuesday 26th   rainy this morning.   Sylvester just started for the falls to
commence the mill.    dug  sum potatoes to day.

Wednesday 27th   a beautiful Morning   commensed diging potatoes very erly   dug
until twelve  then commensed raining.   all alone.

Thirsday 28th   Rainy all day    diging potatoes.   very disagreeable   enough
as I have suffered the  consequences.

Friday 29   Rainy all day    cold and disagreeable

Saturday 30th   exceeding rainy    sylvester just arrived

Sunday 31st    Rainy and lowry all day    diging potatoes all day.   Sylvester
chinking up the Barn.  
 started for the falls in the evening with Cabbage.

Monday 1 of November.   diging potatoes    clear in the afternoon    the Boat
just started for the  fort    Mr Kendred is gone

Tuesday 2nd   rainy in the afterpart of the day    diging potatoes

Wednesday 3rd   a beautiful day   diging potatoes    strong breeze from the
North    a heavy frost in  the Morning

Thirsday 4    a fine day to day    at Noon finished the potatoes.

Friday 5.   Rainy nearly all the day    warking and mending.

Saturday 6    Rainy in the forepart of the day    Nothing a sturing.   
Sylvester arived in the  evening.    cold and winterish.

Sunday 7th    a cold day    Sylvester just started for the falls after killing
two ducks.    thought it  would be to cold in the morning    Mr Handcock
started for the prairie to borrow a saw. 

Monday 8    quite a pleasant day    gethering the Carrots and Beets    still an
gloomy    nothing a sturing    seen no living Mortal as yet.

Tuesday 9th    A beautiful day.    this Morning two Indians came here after Mr.
Handcock

Wednesday 10th    A beautiful day    quit indisposed. in helth to day and last
night.    the dog has  followed sum Indians to day.

Thursday 11th   A Clowdy day.   quite unwell to day    nothing a sturing    no
persons but Indians in  sight

Friday 12    a lowry Morning And a Rainy day    quite unwell

Saturday 13th   A Rainy day    sumwhat better    Sylvester arrived    Ratterson
and George [13] came likewise

Sunday 14th    A Rainy day    Making Sourcrout    quite indisposed in helth to
day    not able to set  up all day

Monday 15    A good deal improved in helth.    I Must have had A Very severe
time to have  prostrated Me so several [days] in succession    Mr Handcock
was here untill 6 in the  evening    Sylvester did not cum.    I do not feel
right to day although I am about.

Tuesday 16    helth sumwhat mended althoughg I am not exackly aright yet    My
head is still  confused and I sum of the time hardly know what I am doing   
it is just a week to night  since I was taken.    Mr Handcock has been here
and Milked and cut some wood    Sylvester  arived likewise.  and I think I
shall improve.

Wednesday 17th    Indications of a clear day    helth improving

Thirsday 18    A Rainy day    helth improving gradualy    No person has been
here this day     Sylvester has been here all day

Friday 19th   this Morning Sylvester has gon to the falls.  I feel Much better
and I think it will  gradualy leave me.  Mr Handcock was not up yesterday. 
Nor as yet [today].   I feel much  better  this afternoon.   this is A
beautiful day.

Saturday 20th   A Rainy Morning and indications of Rain.  commensed about three
in the  morning.  I feel much better both in Body and Mind.  and can I ever
render the   gratitude which is due to Nature,s Author for this.   No  
Involved I am but this  consolation     the Benefactor is Mercy and in the
harangue of the Poet to thee belongs all adoration for thy Vast form
embrases all that lives.   it is now Eleven and it still  continues [rainy]. 
Mr. Handcock has just started for the Cowlitz.   I am all alone and am  subject
to a curious sensation    at times lonsum    Tides very high.    nothing a
sturing I think my helth is improving all the time     things look more
rational.

Sunday 21.    A Rainy day    helth improving.   Nothing of interest a sturing   
contentment  prevailing.   Mr Handcock arived    not A going to the Cowlitz
 remained all Night.     still continues to rain. 

Monday 22nd   Raining.   Sylvester started this morning at half-past three.  
helth improving.     Handcock staid last Night

Tuesday 23    helth improving    A fine day    I have been butting up the loft
in the Barn     employment if not too hard has A tendancy I think to bennefit
the mind and to 
 proppegate strength to the Animal functions.   but great caution must be
avoided in too much excitement.

Wednesday 24    A Beautiful day.   helth still improving in Mind and body.    I
have been  gethering the Cabages this Morning.   nothing a sturing

Thirsday 25    Indication of rain.   Mr Foards two sons just started for
Nisqualy.   been very buisy to  day

Friday 26    A beautiful day    arose at three    A Most Heavnly Morning.   Mr.
McAlester [14] has been here and left me 1/4th of a Pig    gave him sum turnips and two
Squashes     Jack Steavens also    feel on the gain. 

Nov. Saturday 27th   Rain commensed this morning at 6 2/1    Indications of a
rainy day.    Mr  Foards Sons arived last Night a Seven from Nesqualy   
remained all night    started at  Six this morning.    feel remarkabley
brilliant in spirits [and] body liquise [i.e.,  likewise]. the influence which
the human bodys has on each other is demonstrative of  wisdom to  an
ulimitable extent. 
Sunday 28th  A lowrey day    indications of rain all day.    Sylvester came holm
last night.   helth  rather improving.   nothing of interest.

Monday 29th    A Rainy day.   Sylvester started this morning for the falls.   
Mr Handcock moved  down to his place

Tuesday 30th    this is the last fall day    rather lowrey    sum rain last
night.    this is A dull way of  spending wht few moments appertains to this
life    every day is one the less although little  is thought that wee are
one day nearer the fatal Gulf.    I have not seen but one person to  day and
that was an Indian    Mr Handcock came last night and remained untill twelve

Wednesday December 1st 1847
 This is the first day of Winter.    dense and lowrey    sum indications of
rain.   helth  improving.    the Boat just gone again to Nisqually.   still
continues clowdy    Mr came up  and returned again

Thirsday 2nd   A beautiful Morning.   nothing a sturing    helth improving.   
dull and  melancholy     nothing a sturing    solitude of death reigning.  
the effect on the Mind has an  unfavorable result and increasing    Just
seen two Canoes with three Indians.    this is A  Most delightful afternoon   
it is now 3 1/2

Friday 3rd    Rather thick over head.    not in very good health this Morning   
had A Slight Turn of  falling sickness between 9 and 9    not however very
severe    soon revived.   Another turn  which lasted a few minuits.   this
afternoon feel rather dull

Saturday 4th   feel Much better this Morning    Rather a dens day    nothing A
moving at all.

Sunday 5th   A Rainy day.   Sylvester came last night   helth on the gain

Monday 6th   had a fine starlight night and A beautiful day.   Sylvester started
this morning at six       my helth is on the gain considering.

Tuesday 7th   rather clowdy.   nothing A moving    helth about the same    no
material difference in  Mind. .

Wednesday 8    had a storrmy day    just came from the falls with Mr Handcock   
rather stormy   no difference in helth nor mind as I know.

Thirsday 9th   A Misty day.   Mr. Handcock just gone holm.   helth about the
same.   nothing a  sturing   about twelve th rain commenced

Friday 10th   Rainy in the morning.   helth rather improving   nothing a
sturing.   quit buisy.

Saturday 11th   A beautiful Morning.    had a cold Snowy Night untill about
twelve then cleard up  most Hevenly.    I arose at half-past two to contumplate
the Heavens    never did it appear  to me those shining orbs looked so
beautiful.   the reflections brought on an enthusiastick   feeling and sleep
departed from me and had it not been for one thing I should have  enjoyed the
Sight.  Mr Handcock came up in the evening to see me and remaind untill
 half past seven.   the wind blowing quit hard when he came up and after
being up a short  ime it increased.  he however thinking he could proceed safly
started holm.    the wind  blowing all the time but in the Morning not seeing
any smoke I began to think it might  have proved fatal to him and it was
not for sum time before I could purswade myself but  what I was subject to
Mental Hallucination.    this is A beautiful day    I feel much better to
 day than I have for a long time.    the Author of Nature is deserving of
all Admiration.

Sunday 12th   last night Sylvester came holm.    a fine day for winter    feel
quite well.   nothing  sturing

Monday 13th   A windy morning.    Sylvester just started for the falls.   feel
very well.   nothing  sturning

Tuesday 14th   A beautiful Morning    feel better all the time.   have seen one
Indian Cano this  Morning    Several this afternoon.   just finshed work.  
rather dull and disquieted    nothing  moving

Wednesday 15th   indications of rain    feel quite spirited.   one Canoe just
past.   Just found the  Calf dead    got cast in the creek and the tide arose
over it    several Indians sailing about  the bay

Thirsday 16th   hasthe appearance of a fine day.   feel uncommonly well both
in body and  spirits 

Friday 17th   Rainy this morning and the appearance of continuing   been buisy
in  strengthing the  jois in the Barn and in pulling the turnups.  Indians
have been here with ducks to day.

Saturday 18th    Indications of a fine day.   arose at three to bake.   been
very buisy this Morning in  looking after the cattle   non of them came holm
last night.    this morning went out and  [found] Muly and Piabald [two of
Smith’s cows]    neither did the Boar come last night.

Sunday 19th    Sylvester came last Night.   helth about the same.   very misty
all day    nothing a  moving

Monday 20th   this Morning the boat started for Nisqualy.    Sylvester with it.   
helth about the  same.    rather low in spirits.    Mr Handcock assisted me in
fixing the barn.    putting under  studs     this is a dull day

Tuesday 21st    A fine day    feel quite Well.    buisy in pulling Turnups all
day    nothing a  sturing. 

Wednesday 22nd    a beautiful day    Winter Solstice.    to day left of milking
Polly Deram.

Thursday 23    a thick day    I have got the Indians assisting me in pulling the
turnups.    Muly and Polly Deram did not cum holm last night    neither have
they came yet.   An  they have just came.

Fraday 24th   Misty this morning.   rather uwell this Morning.    quite
indesposed in the Night  though on the whol rather better.    nothing A
doing.    this is a glorious evening   the Sun  defuses his radiance in splender

Saturday 25th   this [is] Chrstmass.   rather thick over head    nothing as yet
a moving.    there has  been two Squwas here    Esther [15] has been here today.  
the Indians have been here all  day a trading. 

Sunday 26th   rather still.   Mr Rabberson came holm last night with Sylvester
who got holm from  the Fort last thursday morning quit early in the morning

Monday 27th   this morning Sylvester started for the falls    had a slight turn
of falling sickness in  bead    knew nothing of it untill Sylvester apprised me
of it this morning.   the Indians  came to pull the turnups this Morning.   it
is now twelve Oclock and they have just  finished.

Tuesday 28th   Rainy this morning.   the Cows have not came yet.f   been several
Indians here to  day diging potatoes    not much A moving except I had a little
dispute with an old Indian  this afternoon

Wednesday 29th    Snowy all day.    found the cows this morning    Nothing a
doing    no Indians  about to day    all silent

Thirsday 30th   Snowing the Morning.    all silent untill Mr Kinsey came and got
four bushels of  turneps this afternoon    Mr. Handcok came    quite lively

Friday 31st    this is the last day of the year    O time how art though flying.   
rainy this Morning     nothing a doing    rain continues all day    I have seen
no person to day
[1848]

Saturday 1st of Jan    this begins the year.    rainy all night    rather
indisposed last Night

Sunday 2nd   A beautiful day    Mr Carnefix  [16] and Johnathan Logan  [17] was
here.    Sylvester went up this evening

Monday 3rd    a fine day    nothing a Moving nowhare

Tuesday 4th   a fine clear day and very cold    have not seen a single person
through the day

Wednesday 5th   A beautiful day    Sylvester came this eveing and fetched the ax   
remained  only a few minutes    Mr Melvin [18] came also and pased over to Mr
Handcocks

Thirsday 6    A beautiful day    still and lonely    nothing A doing    Just
finished Bushes [19] Cap.     he Squaws have been a carring the turnips tops
into the Calf pasture this afternoon and I  ave paid them in poptatoes    
bought a basket of them

Friday   indications of rain    rather indsposed in helth.    verry still this
Morning     Indians just came     een trading with them.   Muly has just been
delivered of a bull Calf.    helth miserable all  day

Saturday 8th   helth much better    indications of Rain    Mulys Calf is in good
order this Morning.    the Indians have came this Morning to build a house just
above.    last night the Watch ran  down    just got it A going

Sunday 9th   Sylvester came this Morning.    A pleasant day.   the Boat just
past by.   trading with  the Indians

Monday 10th   rainy    commensed in the night.   Sylvester just gone to the
falls.    very still.    helth  quit good this Morning.

Tuesday 11th   rainy in the Morning    dul and still    nothing moving.   
making the hog-house in the  garden    Clear and sun shining sum of the time in
the after-part of the day and hevy  showers accompayned with hale    led the
Sows in the Garden this afternoon    Muly and  Piable also.   this is beautiful
weather

Wednesday 12th   rainy.   in good spirits    liquise helth of body.    very
still this Morning    no person  in sight    this afternoon several Squaws
have been skinning that dead Calf.   the speckled  sow brought forth 9 pigs   
I got up between 10 and 11 and took care of them    trove out the  white
Sow    the rain came down in torents    drove away the Bull in the calf pasture

Thirsday 13th   rainy    discoverd water in the cellar    the Sow has 6 pigs   
helth good.   nothing  moving as yet 

Friday 14th   began to snow in the night    continued untill 10 in the Morning
then began to rain.    the water in the cellar discontinued.    Rabberson and
Shaw [20] called going to the fort  for the powder bag    removed the hog pen.   
the rain descends in torrents.   all the bigs are  now dead but three   
kiled one to day

Saturday 15th   Rain still continues.   not in very good helth this Morning.   
still no one a sturing but  Indians

Sunday 16th   rainy    Indians came to traid.    not in good helth.    Sylvester
has not came yet this  Morning    the white Sow had 10 pigs about 5 in the
morning    all in good helth.    I gave  two of them to the spekled Sow   
Indians came this Morning to traid    had sum difficulty  with one of them   
he very sone came to termes

Monday 17th    A beautiful Morning.   in good helth.   nothing A sturing untill
Rabberson and Shaw  returned from Nisqualle.   A Beautiful afternoon.   the
Indians Doctrin the sick this  afternoon    Mr Handcock just returned from
working on the road     remained all night.

Tuesday 18th   a delightful Morning    rather coll and frosty.   in good helth   
nothing but Indians A  moving.   Handcock just gone holm.   been trading with
the Indians.   Indications of rain    clowdy

Wednesday 19th   A clowdy Morning   not in very good helth though not realy sick   
very still and  dul

Thirsday 20th   A beautiful Morning   Had a heavely night.   in very good helth
this morning     nothing a moving.   it has been a fine day    not seen A canoe
passing down the bay    hardly  an Indian untill about 6 in the evening when
a Squaw came in great fear of mind telling  me that the Snohomas indians
were a cumming to kill them    sum went of on the water  and sum in the woods
secreting themselves   sum took the musket.   the whol turned out an  Indian
fright

Friday 21st   in good helth and spirits    thank the auther of Nature   nothing
a moving yet

Saturday 22nd   Indications of a good day.   In good helth and spirits    thank
that Eternal cause of  all good that moving principle of Life

Sunday 23rd   a beautiful Morning and continued so nearly all day.   last night
Rabberson came  down with Sylvester to make a pare of shoes for Sylvester but
left is awl    he and sylvester  went back again in the afternoon.    nothing
a doing   still and lonsum.    this is A  disagreeable way of spending life.

Monday 24th   A pleasant morning    nothing A sturing    been buisy all the
morning.    began to  rain twards night 

Tuesday 25th   A fine warm Morning    been contemplating the heavens this
Morning    the Moon  and the shining Stars [also] the old Woman [at present
the Old Woman remains a  mystery] has just came bag and bagage to build the
house.   in good helth and spirits.

Wednesday 26th   rainy.   feel rather langued    weekness at the breast.  
nothing a sturing.   very  stormy

Thirsday 27th    stormy and windy    in good helth and spirits    thank the
bountiful giver of all  good and mercy

Friday 28th   rainy all the Morning    it is now twelve    in good helth and
spirits    nothing a sturing.       became quite clear at the going down of the
sun.   had considerable snow in the night     cold and clear

Saturday 29th   quite clear    sum snow on the ground    clold    the sun bids
fare to dispel the cold  and Snow    Melvin has just gone from here.   
quite pleasant.    Sylvester has just came with  the flower.

Sunday 30th   not in very good helth    nothing a doing.   commenced raining
this afternoon.

Monday 31st   rather rainy    Sylvester just gone to the falls     not in very
good helth.   nothing a  doing

Feb Tuesday 1st    quite a pleasant Morning    this is the first day of Feb   
in very good helth and  spirits    To day more Indians has moved here.   this is
a pleasant afternoon    ver still    nothing doing 

Wednesday 2nd   Misty    nothing as yet a doing.   very good helth.   been
trading sum.   turned out   beautiful day

Thirsday 3rd   A delightful Morning.   in good helth.   very silent.   Sylvester
just proceeded to the  fort    Mrs. Jones [21] and sum others in a Canoe.  
came misty this afternoon.   feel  dul and lonsum

Friday 4th   A fine day    not in very good helth    very still   nothing a
doing    Sylvester  has just came from the Fort.   went yesterday and
returned again to day

Saturday 5th    A beautiful morning    in very good helth    not much of
anything a sturing     Sylvester came holm rather late in the evening from the
Mill   nothing A moving

Sunday 6th   Quite a pleasant day   not much a doing   the day appeard very
short to Me.

Monday 7th   Sylvester just gone to the Mill   a beautiful day.   in good helth
and spirits

Tuesday 8th   Misty all day    the bull is dead    this morning the Indians are
skining him  for the body

Wednesday 9th   A very high tide this Morning    cleard off very pleasant    not
in very  good helth

Thursday 10th    quite A pleasant Morning    in much better helth this Morning.   
not  much A sturing

Friday 11th   Clowday all day    nothing A doing.   very buisy all day    Myself
feel  miserable to day

Saturday 12    A fine day.   bought A Cat to day    in better helth this Morning   
Sylvester came  holm this evening    Carnafix [and] Logan likewis remained all
night    went down the bay

Sunday 13th   a fine day.   Carnafix [and] just gone.   helth much beter.  
trading with Indians.

Monday 14th   Sylvester just gone to the falls.   rainy.   in good helth.   
Nothing a doing of  importance

Tuesday 15th    indications of a fine day.   in good helth and spirits.   Mr
Handcock just arived

Feb. Wednesday 16th    Sylvester just gone to the prairie to Sow the grain.  
quite warm and  pleasant.   in good helth to day    nothing as yet A sturing
of any consequence.   Mr  Handcock came this afternoon.

Thirsday 17th   rainy most of the time    Sylvester just started for the prairie
with grain.    black pig  dead.

Friday 18th   A delightful Morning    in good helth and spirits.   nothing of
importance operating

Saturday 19th   Rainy    very still   nothing a doing.   in good helth and
spirits.   been quite buisy all  day

Sunday 19th  indications of rain.   not in very good helth    had A slight turn
of falling sickness this  Morning    did not however continue long    feel
quite well at the preasant.

Monday 21st   quite a fine Morning    helth quite good    nothing as yet a doing   
had A beautiful  fine day

Tuesday 22    A delightful day.    had two slight turnes of falling sickness
last night in the bed    in  good helth and spirits to day     I was not aware
of having any untill told by Mr Handcock

Wednesday 23rd   A fine day    in good helth    been trading sum with the
Indians to day

Tursday 24th   A fine day    Shaw and Fergersun just started up the bay   
stayed all Night    news  from  Nisqualy relative to the Indians    sum
hostilities expected from sum of the upland  tribes

Friday 25th   A butiful day.   had A slight turn of falling sickness last night
in bead   feel well to  day

Saturday 26th   a butiful day    in good helth   nothing of importance a doing

Sunday 27th    indications of rain.   Sylvester did not com holm last night.  
considerable  excitement

Monday 28th A still misty morning    nothing a doing    sylvester has not yet
came.   just arived  this minuit

Tuesday 29   indications of a fine day    Sylvester just started for the falls   
in good helth.   nothing a  doing
March 1st

Wednesday 1st   A pleasant day.    helth as good as usual.    nothing of
importance transacting  untill the arival of Sylvester and Dow [22]    Sylvester
has came holm to live

Thirsday 2nd   indications of rain.   very buisy.   nothing of importance
transacting to day

Friday 3rd   indications of rain.   buisy in planting the gardin.   not in very
good helth.

Saturday 4   indications of rain    in hood helth    Dow and Handcock arived
last night in the  evening

Sunday 5    A delightful day    in good helth and spirits    trading with the
Indians considerable

Monday 6    indications of rain.   This is my birth day.   in good helth and
spirits    have been very  buisy all day

Tuesday 7    Misty.   in good helth and spirits    very still    nkothing of
importance occuring   Aapril  showers.

Wednesday 8    rainy    nothing of importance as yet occuring    in good helth.  
very still.   trading  sum little with the Indians

Thursday 9    rainy    not in extream good helth.    still nothing extreordinary
in operation     Sylvester did not cum holm last night

Friday 10    clowdy    Mr Handcock just started for the falls.    Sylvester did
not cum last night.     neither the cows    all came this morning.

Saturday 11    quite a fine day    Sylvester came last night    had a contest   
not however many  words.   still day

Sunday 12    a beautiful day   Sylvester came last night.  good helth and
spirits    nothing of  importance occuring

Monday 13    a beautiful day    fine helth    very still    Wing [23] and
Handcock just gone

Tuesday 14    A delightful day.    the Indians just returned the Canoe    boght
canoe of the Indians  to day for a Shirt sum peas [and] potatoes

Wednesday 15    indications of rain    been trading with the Indians this
Morning.  Oens Bush [24]  just gone to Handcock

Thirsday 16    A beautiful day    very still this Morning.    Mr Handcock left
for the Willamett.    nothing of importance

Friday 17    rather showrey.   in good helth.   nothing of importance occuring   
very still

Saturday 18    A fine day   nothing transacting.   to work in the gardin.    in
good helth and spirits.    very still

Sunday 19   A fine day    nothing of importance doing.   Simmons and King [25]
came this  afternoon

Monday 20    Sylvester and Simmons started for Nisqualy.   blustering sum of the
time.   nothing a  doing    last night Kimsey arived here.    commensed
planting the potatoes this morning.    very buisy today

Tuesday 21    rainy all the day    King just left for the falls.   in good
helth.   not much a doing

Wednesday 22    Snowy     Mr. Simmons just started for the falls.    very buisy
all day.   in good helth.    nothing doing.

Thirsday 23    A fine day   buisy in planting the gardin.    nothing a doing.  
in good helth and spirits  improving. 

Friday 24    a beautiful day.   planting.   very stil    the Indians are
remarkabley dormant.   in good  helth

Saturday 25    quite a pleasant day    buisy in planting    in good helth.   
the bay is very still.   no  Indians a sturing

Sunday 26    rather blustring.    enjoying good helth and spirits.   nothing of
importance transacting     Sylvester at holm

Monday 27    indications of a fine day.   potatoes taken to the falls    10 Bus
[i.e., bushels]    buisy in    planting and house hold affares

Tuesday 28    rainy    not much a doing    in good helth    bery vins in   
planting the potatoes

Wednesday 29    a fine day.   not in very good helth    had to of my turnes
lanst night in bedd   feel  rather dul

Thirsday 30    very still.   engaged in planting.    shwry all day.    not in
extream good helth.   had a  very melancholy day

Friday 31     rainy.   Sylvester did not cum holm last night.   not in good
helth.   everything is still    nothing opperating 

Saturday 1 of April    rainy and clowdy.   Sylvester came holm last night.  
every thing extreemly  still 

Sunday 2    A fine day    Mr Chambers [26] came here last night.    Sylvester
gone to the prairie     not in very good helth

Munday 3    a beautiful day    helth improving    very still    nothing a doing   
very buisy all day in  house-work

Tuesday 4    sum indications of rain    been to the prairie to day    been to
see the Judges [27]    had  quite an agreeable visit

Wednesday 5    appearance of rain.    in good helth    nothing a moving   
rather lonsum.    A  gardning sum litle

Thirsday 6th    very heavy rain in the Morning.    Sylvester did not go up
untill 9 this Morning.     quite buisy.    helth improving

Friday 7    rainy.   helth improving   remarkable still    making Sylvesters
vest.   just started.

Saturday 8    A beautiful day    making a vest.    nothing of importance
occuring    in good  helth.

Sunday 9    a delightful day.    My Man to holm all day    had a pleasant day   
in good helth  likewise

Monday 10    A fine day    commensed planting the potatoes on the south side of
the gardin.    in  good helth    nothing sturing

Tuesday 11    A fine day    buisy in planting potatoes.   nothing of importance
transacting.   in very  good helth

Wednesday 12    A delightful day.   in good helth    making the gardin.   
nothing a transacting     getting warm  

Thirsday 13    a fine day.   in good helth and spirits    the heavens are
profusious in effluvium

Friday 14    A fine day   in good hleth.   Simmons, Sylvester [and] Fergersun
just started for  Nisqually

Saturday 15    A beautiful day    fell rather dull.   very still   nothing
sturing untill Simons returned  from Nisqually 

Sunday 16    A beautiful day   in good helth.   going up to the falls    just
returned from the falls   fine  day

Monday 17     indications of rain.   not in very good helth   every thing
dormant.   helth improving  this evening

Tuesday 18    been writing all day.   not in extream good helth.

Wednesday 19    a beautiful day    helth improving    writing all day

Thursday 20   A fine day    good helth and spirits.   buisy in writing

Friday 21    buisy in writing and planning.   likewise in the gardin

Saturday 22    a fine day    very still    working the gardin 

Sunday [23]    been to the falls this morning    Sylvester planting the corn

Monday 23 [i.e., 24]      been to the falls to sign the contract with Simmons   
he refused to sign.     helth quite good    rainy by showrs

Tuesday 24 [i.e., 25]    clowdy.    nothing a sturing.   buisy all day in the
house

Wednesday 25 [i.e., 26]    a fine day    good helth    nothing of importance
doing

Thirsday 26 [i.e., 27]    A fine day    had a contest with the Indians    in
good helth.   nothing of  importance transacting 

Friday 27 [i.e., 28]    a fine day    had a Slight turn of falling sickness in
sleep    feel rather stiff this  morning    still and dull this afternoon   
had a contest with the [Indians]    Made them kill  three dogs for goring one
of my pigs and heave them into the bay.   went aginst there  grein

Saturday 28 [i.e., 29]     a fine day.   in good helth and spirits

Sunday 29 [i.e., 30]     a fine day     been on the Prairie to Mr. Chambers

Monday 30  [i.e., May 1]       indications of rain.    in good helth.    buisy
all day

Tuesday 1 [i.e., 2]  of May    indications of rain.   not in good helth   had a
turn of falling sickness  last night

Wednesday 2 [i.e., 3]    A fine day    had a slight turn last night    Sylvester
cutting timber.     nothing a doing of consequence 

Thirsday 3 [i.e., 4]    quite a pleasant day.    not in good helth to day.

Friday 4 [i.e., 5]    pleasant day    helth miserable all day.    still

Saturday 5 [i.e., 6]     helth improving.   nothing of importance

Sunday 6 [i.e., 7]    helth misearable    nothing of importance

Monday 7 [i.e., 8]     helth improving.   went to the prairie yesterday

Tuesday 8 [i.e., 9]    helth improving.   nothing of importance

Wednesday 10    been to the falls.   helth improving.    nothing doing

Thirsday 11     A fine day    Fergerson and rabberson just gone to Nisqually.  
had a trade with  Fergerson for the Milk

Friday 12 of May   a fine day.   helth improving

Saturday 13     A fine day    just arived from the falls    had a turn of
sickness.    not very heavy in the  Cano

Sunday 14    A beautiful day    in good helth and spirits

Monday 15    A fine day.   Still nothing a doing of consequence

Tuesday 16    A fine day    in good helth    nothing of consequence

Wednesday 17    A fine day    helth improving    all Still and dull

Thursday 18    A fine day    A little rain    helth imrpving still

Friday 19    Rainy and dull.    helth on the gain

Saturday 20    been to the falls.   not in good helth.    rainy

Sunday 21.     rainy.    been to the Prairie to day

Monday 22.    not in good helth.    dull and gloomy

Tuesday 23.    helth on the gain.   nothing A Moving.   clowdy

Wednesday 24      Rainy in the Morning.   not in good helth.    rainy

Thirsday 25    Rainy.    helth on the gain.    dull and gloomy

Friday 26    Rainy.    Sylvester started for the Fort on the Raft to day

Saturday 27    indications of a clear day.    helth about the same.    all alone

Sunday 28    Indians a Moving to Jims Illehe. [28]   helth about the same.

Monday 29.   helth about the same.   still and gloomy.    nothing doing

Tuesday 30   still.   helth on the gain.    nothing a doing    dull

Wednesday 31.   last Night Sylvester arived from the Fort.   came with nothing.   
King came last  night.   nothing of importance    this Morning the Cano past
up contending against the tide

June the 1st 1848    Thirsday   Rainy.   Sylvester gone to the Prairie.   helth
about the same    nothing  a doing in the least

Friday 2    on the hol a fine day.   helth improving.   nothing a doing

Saturday 3   a fine day.   helth the same.    been to the falls with the Cattle

Sunday 4    Just came from the falls.    in good helth

Monday 5    been to the Election [29] .       helth about the same

Tuesday 6    A fine day.   in good helth.    not much A doing

Wednesday 7    A fine day.    helth good.    business rather dull

Thirsday 8    indications of rain.    helth good    not Much A doing

Friday 9    indications of rain.    in good helth.    dull times.    doing
nothing

Saturday 10    had a turn of falling sickness    lasted only a few Minuits.   
in very good helth to day.    ot much a doing

Sunday 11th  June 12th   been to the Prairie to day

Monday 12th    a fine day    in good helthand spirits to day

Tuesday 13    a fine day    in good helth.   Nothing doing in the least

Wednesday 14    appearance of rain.   good helth.   been to the falls to day   
The Bishop [30] has  ust left    going to take a claim below this

Thirsday 15    rainy in the Morning.   helth about the saim.   the Rev  Father
in God was hear and  oncluded the price for the Church

Friday 16    been to the falls.    in good helth and Spirits

Saturday 17    rainy in the Morning.    helth good.    fixing for starting

Sunday 18.    Just leaving for the Donswamus [31].      in good helth  

Monday 19    on the Donswamus bay    the bay rather shallow

Tuesday 20    started for holm.    came up with Glasco [32]

Wednesday 21    A fine day.   helth improving.    Nothing a doing

Thirsday 22    A fine day    Nothing a Sturing.    helth on the gain

Friday 23    a warm day.   dull    nothing doing.   helth on the gain to day

Saturday 24    helth improving.   Esther removed to the falls

Sunday 25    been to the falls.   Simmons removed down the bay    fine warm
weather.     no Indians about

Monday 26    drove the Cows down this Morning.   helth very good   

Tuesday 27    A warm day.   Sylvester commensed work with Mr. Simmons    helth
about  the same.   Nothing of importance transacting

Wednesday 28    A fine day.    the Priest arived yesterday at the church

Thirsday 29    very warm    helth about the same.   

Friday 30    exceeding warm    helth better.   Not much a doing   all alone   
no Indians  about    this is rather A dull way of spending life

Saturday 1 of July    in good helth.   Not much a doing.   all alone

Sunday 2    appearance of rain.    helth about the same.   vishionary objects

Monday 3    A fine day.   helth good.   all alone    rather melacholy.   dull
enough

Tuesday 4    bought a Cano.   this is the forth of july    dull doings

Wednesday 5    A fine day    enjoying good helth.   not much a doing.   dulness

Thirsday 6    A fine day    just came from the falls.   in good helth

Friday 7    A worm day.   rather unwell.   noth much a sturing 

Saturday 8    benn to the Mill.   not in extream good helth to day

Sunday 9   a fine day.   helth improving.   nothing strange

Monday 10    fine day.   helth on the gain.    Sylvester been at holm to day   
found one of  the hogs dead on the beach this evening

Tuesday 11    a fine day    Frenshman came affter the Cano.   this is a dull day   
Mr  Chambers came here to day and remained all night    no news

Wednesday 12    a fine day    Mr Chambers just started.    dull and gloomy   
helth improving.   not the least A doing   no one sturing not [even] Indians

Thirsday 13    indications of rain.    helth good    nothing sturing       going
down bay

Friday 14    a warm day    in good helth.   not much a sturing to day

Saturday 15    been to the falls.   not in good helth    Not much doing

Sunday 16    helth better    nothing moving     Sylvester just arived

Monday 17    in good helth    buisy in addressing the Governer [33]

Tuesday 18   A fine day    in good helth    nothing doing

Wednesday 19    buisy in writing all day    Mr Crocket just arived

Thirsday 20    a fie day    nothing sturing    in good helth    benn to the
Priest

Friday 21    nothing doing.    buisy in writing.   not even a cano passing.

Saturday 22    fine    in the woods.   in good helth.   nothing doing

Sunday 23    a fine day    in good helth    meloncholy   

Monday 24    a fine day.   not in good helth.   not Much a doing     Such [entry
unfinished]

Tuesday 25    been to the falls.    raising the Priests house

Wednesday 26      not much a doing.    in good helth.   all alone

Thirsday 27    been sto the Priests.    in good helth    not much doing

Friday 28   in good helth    nothing a doing    all alone

Saturday 29    been to the falls to settle the companys conserns    helth good

Sunday 30   in good helth    nothing a doing  

Monday 31    been to the raisings on the Prairie    read the Message

Tuesday 1 of August    pulling the pees on the prairie    just got holm

Wednesday 2    all a  lone.   in good helth.   gethering the gardin seeds

Thirsday 3    been to the falls all day.   in good helth.   nothing new

Friday 4   all alone.   in good helth.   no persons a sturing.    Smokey

Saturday 5    the Rev Father in God just came and two other Fathers with him.  
in good helth.    nothing a sturing.   quite warm to day.

Sunday 6    removing the Shingles.   helth good, nothing Sturring

Monday 7    a fine day.   in good helth.   Sylvester gone to Eatons Prairie to
day

Tuesday 8    been to the Prairie to day.   in good helth and spirits

Wednesday 9    very smokey.   in good helth.   Indians been here with Salmon

Thursday 10    a fine day.   in good helth.   dull and gloomy    nothing doing

Friday 11   a fine day    in good helth.   nothiing a doing.   Smokey

Saturday 12    a fine day    nothing doing.    sum Indians passing.    Smokey

Sunday 13    a fine day.   not in good helth.    not much a doing

Monday 14    very smokey.   not in good helth.   been to the Priests to day

Tuesday 15   very Smokey.   in good helth.    Strong wind this afternoon

Wednesday 16    a fine day.   in good helth.   nothing doing    very dull

Thirsday 17    a fine day.   in good helth    Smokey.    very still to day

Friday 18   indications of rain.   in good helth.    nothing doing.

Saturday 19   small showers.   in good helth.   sum Indians passing Nisqually

Sunday 20   a fine day    been to the Prairie.   several people theare   not in
extream good helth     Sylvester gone to the Prairie to day to cut the Wheat

Monday 21    the Priest and Mr Bernie [34] just came with Paper    in good helth   
very still.     nothing a doing

Tuesday 22    a little rain during the night.    helth good    Started for
Eatons Prairie to see Sylvester     arived at  3 oclock

Wednesday 23    just arived from Eatons Prairie    in good helth

Thirsday 24    blasing out the trail up to the Falls    had a turn of falling
sickness going up    not in  good helth to day

Friday 25    a fine day    helth on the gain.    all alone

Saturday 26   a fine day    all alone.    helth quite good to day

Sunday 27    been up to the Prairie to day.   in good helth.   bought a hog of a
Indian Chief for A  Blanket in two Months

Monday 28    strong indications of Rain    all-alone    nothing doing as yet.   
helth quite good.     hard Rain this afternoon.

Tuesday 29    a fine day.    in good helth.    very dull    nothing sturing
—————————————————

1. The Ford family came from Missouri to Oregon in 1845 and moved north of
the Columbia to Puget Sound during the summer of 1846.  they settled on land
later taking their name —  Ford’s Prairie.  The father, Sidney Smith Ford
(1801-1866), farmed their claim, near the present site of Centralia.  His two
sons mentioned in the diary were Sidney Smith, Jr. (1829?1900), who was active
in the Yakima Indian War, and Thomas J. (1832?– ).  The father worked hard for
the separation of Washington from Oregon, and the entire family was active in
later territorial affairs.

2. Samuel Hancock (1824?-1883) came overland as a wagon-train commander in
1845 and in 1847 moved to Tumwater, where he first engaged in the lumber
business.  He also went to the California mines for a short time in 1849 but
returned to be a trader with the Indians living on the Sound.

3. George Wanch (1820?-1891?) was born in Germany but early moved to
Missouri, where he met Michael Simmons and friends who were planning an Oregon
trip.  He went West with them and settled on a donation land claim on the site
of the present town of Centralia.  He was a gunsmith by trade. (his name is
often incorrectly spelled both Wauch and Waunch)

4. Samuel B. Crocket (1824? – 1904?) came to the Sound with the Simmons party
in 1845.  In 1853 he moved to Whidbey Island, where his parents Colonel and Mrs.
Walter Crockett, had recently preceded him.

5. Daniel D. Kinsey (this possibly may have been a Kimsey, but most likely
Daniel Kinsey) came to the Sound in 1846.  In July, 1847, he and his fiancee’,
Ruth Brock,  became the first American couple married in the new settlement.

6.  William Packwood (1813-1897) came with his wife and four children to
Oregon in 1844, moving to Puget Sound in March, 1847. He first worked for the
Hudson’s Bay Company and in 1850 went to the California mines.  He returned two
years later, finally settling and farming the bottom land of the Nisqually
River.

7.  William Shepard, probably. He was an early settler in the Northwest.

8. Michael Troutman Simmons (1814-1867), mentioned at length in the preface,
was always at the vanguard of early territorial activities.

9. Antonio B. Rabbeson (1824-?) came across the plains from Illinois, first
to the Willamette Valley and then, in 1846, to Puget Sound, where he was one of
the founders of the Puget Sound Lumber Company, called “the lumber company ”
hereafter.  He fought in the Yakima Indian War, was for a time surveyor of
customs, and later engaged in contracting and shipping.  Smith first misspells
his name Robertson, then Ratterson, Rabberson, and finally realizes that it is
Rabbeson.

10. Jesse Ferguson (1824-?) came to the West from Ohio.  He went to the Sound
with Simmons and was also one of the founders of the Lumber Co.

11. John Karrich Kindred (probably). (1826-1900) who was one of the founders
of the Lumber Co., but it could also have been his father, David Kindred (1778-
?).   The family had come to the Sound in the original Simmons party.  They
settled on a farm on Bush Prairie, where they helped in erecting the first
school in the region.

12. Gabriel Jones (1802?-?) also came to the Soun in the Simmons party.  He
and his family then settled on Bush Prairie about two miles below Tumwater.

13. George — Probably George Wanch [3] but possibly George Bush [19].

14. James B. McAllister (1812-1855) came with his family in the Simmons party. 
He made a thwarted attempt to go to the California mines but returned and farmed
until the Yakima uprising.  A soldier in the Indian war, he was killed on
October 27, 1855.

15. Esther — Probably one of the neighboring squaws.

16. A. D. Carnefix was another of the partners in the Lumber Co., settling at
Tumwater in 1847.

17. Jonathan B. Logan came to the Sound with Carnefix and Kindred in 1847 and
settled near  Budd Inlet.

18. J. Melvin, possibly Josiah Melvin (  -1880) who came to Oregon in 1846.

19. George Washington Bush (1790-1863) and family came to the Northwest in
1844 with the Simmons party and to the Sound country with them in 1845.  He
located his claim south of Tumwater, the region around his farm taking the name
Bush Prairie.
20. William Shaw, possibly.  He came to the Sound with Simmons but most likely
his son,  Benjamin Franklin Shaw (1829-1908) who had come to Oregon in 1844 and
to the Sound in 1845.  He was a founder of the Lumber Co., was later an
important figure in the Yakima Indian War, also served in the territorial
government, and finally farmed near the present site of Vancouver, Washington.

21. Keziah Jones (1805?-1868), wife of Gabriel Jones [12]

22. (Dow remains unidentified)

23.  (Wing remains unidentified)

24. William Owen Bush (1832-1907) was the son of George Bush [19]. He farmed
on Bush Prairie all his life, winning medals at the World’s Fair in Chicago for
his wheat.  He died on the original family donation land claim.

25.     (King remains unidentified)

26. Thomas McLain Chambers (1791-1876) came to Oregon in 1845 and settled in
the autumn of 1847, next to Sylvester’s prairie claim, southeast of Olympia.  He
erected the first mill in Pierce County near Steilacoom.

27. Judges: S. B. Crockett [4] and John R. Jackson (1800-1873) were the Lewis
County Judges at the time.  The judge mentioned was probably Jackson whose home
near Cowlitz Landing in the southern part of the current Lewis County, was the
center of public transactions at the time.  Jackson was Washington’s first
reconnaissance in 1844 and the time of his settling in 1845.

28. Illehe is Chinook for “place,” but the location of Jims Illehe could not
be determined.

29. This election on June 5 was undoubtedly the one at which Smith was elected
Lewis County representative to the Legislature, though the manuscript of the
election return (in the Oregon Historical Society Collection) is dated June 25.

30. Reverend Pascal Ricard, the Bishop, or “Rev. Father in God”  as Smith
calls him, was mentioned in the preface.

31. Donswamus Bay remains unlocated.

32. Thomas W. Glasgow (1816?-?) arrived on Puget Sound in January, 1847.  In
1848 he staked a claim and built a cabin on Whidbey Island; later he abandoned
this claim and settled near Fort Nisqually.

33. George Abernethy (1808-1877) was governor of Oregon Territory from 1845-
49.

34.  James Birnie (1804-1864) was born in Scotland and came to the Northwest in
1818 to work for the North West Fur Company and later for the Hudson’s Bay
Company.  In 1845 he left the employ of the H.B.C. and settled and farmed at
Cathlamet.

END

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